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When the pain is extreme, and the stomach rejects both food and medicine, the bowels being obstinately costive, there is considerable danger in giving very active purgatives, as they frequently increase the symptoms they are intended to relieve. By taking away as much blood as the patient can bear, using the warm bath, and combining opium with the catharties, we sometimes succeed, where, with different treatment, the case would be lost. The opium, according to the ingenious, and I believe true, theory of Darwin, restores the bowel to its natural irritability, and then assists the action of the cathartic; the bleeding reduces inflammation, and materially allays the sickness of the stomach. This symptom, however, is very frequently occasioned by the presence of bile in the stomach; it was evidently the case in the instance just alluded ta ; we rnay therefore infer that the liver also is acted upon by the lead, and chat bleeding has a beneficial effect in subduing the undue action of tbat organ. Leicester Square, July 22, 1612.


MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. A Ta meeting of the planters and merchants interested in the sugar manufactory and trade, A at Mason's-hall, Barbadoes, on Tuesday, Aug. 20, the following resolutions were passed among others :-That the distresses of the West-India planters have increased to an extent hitherto unexampled. That adinitting the abolicion of the slave trade to be a measure founded on the general principles of humanity, and cherefore not to be shaken by considera, tions of lesser importance; this fact is certain, that the present population of the negroes can only be kept up by an unremitting care and liberal attention to their comfort.-That the use of sugar in the distilleries produced considerable relief to the planter, by giving a vent co 770,000 cuts. of an inferior and middling quality, which now is only vendible at the most ruinous prices.-That a partial export of sugar from the West Indies was formerly allowed in American bottoms, the prohibition of which has proved extremely injurious to the planters, who receive those stores so essential to the existence of their plantations from the United States, to pay for which money is now drained from the colonies. That another mode of relief, at once obvious and just, is the reduction of the duties under a regulation proportioning them to the average price of sugar;since it was proved before the committee of the House of Commons, that the expence we pay on every cwt. of sugar which we produce, is sos. 6d. sterling, from our stores from Europe, Island taxes (exclusive of the four and half per cent. duty) and salaries, and 165. per cwi, for freight, insurance, and mercantile charges, with the addition of 27s. per cwt. duty, making the total of our charges, without any nett profit to us, amount to 63s. 6a. sterling per cwt. of sugar; it is therefore clear, that wben the average price of sugar, exclusive of duty, is 36s. 61. per cwt, we actually derive no redt for our lands and perishable capital, nor any compensation for our personal labours.

During the month another great banking house stoped payment in London, ruining hundreds of families, and scattering dismay through the Commercial world. This is the sixth or seventh failure of the kind within the space of three or four years. Is it not time then that some strong legislature measures should be adopted to punish such capital social delinquencies? Ought not some effective plan to be adopted also for the purpose of preventing the manulacturing of Bills of Exchange, which are not founded un real transactions, and which are the source of these evils ? Ought not the Bank of England to withdraw their confidence from all such bills? In a word, ought not industry and plain dealing to be made to triumph over speculation or fraud ? The aphorisms, signed Common Sense, in the present Number, may perhaps have the effect of giving a betier direction to our paper system.

The following is an official statement of goods, wares, and merchandizes, exported from the United States during one year prior to the 1st day of October, 1811, amounting to 61,316,833 dollars.

The goods, wares, and merchandizes, of domestic growth or manufacture, in- Dollars. ciuded in this statement, estimated at ....

......... 45,294,043 Those of foreign growth ...os...-.


61,316,833 The articles of domestic growth or manufacture may be arranged under the following beads, viz. i Produce of the Sea........

1,413,000 Forest........

5,286,000 Agriculture.............

35,556,000 Manufacture ..........

2,576,000 Uncertain...........




And there were exported to the following countries:-
To the dominions of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark..
Great Britain....
Spain and Portugal .......
Frane and Italy...............,
To all other countries ........

dollars. 3,055,833 20,308,914 18,966,466 1,194,275 2,469,255

1809 ........................

















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45,294,043 The goods, wares, and merchandizes, of foreign growth or manufacture, were exported to the following countries, viz. To the dominions of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Denmark. .......

5,340,117 Great Britain ...

1,573,344 Spain and Portugal.....

5,772,579 France and Italy .......

..... 1,712,537 To all other countries

................................. 1,624,220 The following is an account of Copper imported into and exported from Great Britain, in obe Years 1809, 1810, and 1811:


Cwr. gr. lb.

49,99; 0 15 1810..

50,695 1 17

....... 20,517 3 21

Cel. gr. lb.
Foreign ........

1,243 ( 94 ) Total.
1809.) British

69,265 1 20 )
(Foreign ........

696 1 11)

814 1
British .............
28103 Bm

2 58,877 1 16
British .......

..... 57,366 2 13)
Foreign ......

..... 804 3 02
181 ) British ............

...... 000 Loe

$49,167 0 1 l British .......

..... 18,368 1 10 ) The 3 per cent. consols on the 28th were 561, the 5 per cents. 881, and the omnium at

premium. At Messrs. Wolfe and Co.'s, Canal Ofice, No. 9, Change Alley, Cornhill.-Grand Junction Canal shares fetch 2251. per share. -Kennet and Avon, 451, ditto.-East India Dock, 1131, per cent.-London dock stock, 1111. dito.--West India dito, 1421. Jicto.

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MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE latter have harvest is scarcely yet finished in many parts; the quantity as great as ever

known, but most of it damaged, and of inferior condition. The turnip lands have Worked well, but sowing is not yet completed; the forward turnips and cabbages appear healthy. The fallows in a mellow and friable state. All lands throughout the island, capa. ble of growing a crop of corn, have been applied to that purpose.

"The stoutest wheats have been a good deal bearen down by the rains and thunder storms, whilst the light crops upon poor lands have been apparently improved. Mildew and smus have been discovered within the last fortnight, with a coosiderable quantity of brands or burnt cars. The mildew or blue mould has been early and universal upon the corn this year, although unnoticed cill of late ; but, as far as the limited personal inspection of the present reporter has extended, corp has never been more clean and free from vermin and impurities, under such circumstances, than in the present season. This is probably to be attributed to the unusual mildness of the N.E. winds, and to their short intervals of duration, although so frea quent, a circumstance most favorable and preservative of the crop of wheat. In various parta the crops in general are most luxuriant and bulky, and a friend fron the coast of Sussex, boasts of long and large ears of wheat, with great plenty of them. Throughout the country the ears of wheat are said to be of moderate size, and the promise for both corn and straw to be considerable. Chilling N.E. winds, the bane of vegetation, have detracted much from the present, which might otherwise have been the largeat crop of corn ever grown in this coun. "ty. These frequent and unavoidable accidents add unspeakable force to the thousand argu. Hicata in favor of a bill of general enclosure, an advantage which Scotland has enjoyed for

morc more than a century, and to which so much of its prosperity is to be attributet. Rye among the best of the crops, and harvest expected within a furcnight in the forwardest countics Accounts of harvest in foreign parts thus far satisfactory.

Heavy complaints from too many quarters of tenancy-at-will and short leases, those la mentable preventions of improvement, and poisoners at the very source of public and private interest. Rent as tigh as be times will bear, but long leases, the power of transfer, no obligation to summer fallow, and no absurd pettifouger's restrictions. The above complaints are mixed with high encomiums upon certain landlords, most particularly of Norfolk and Scotland.

Of potatoes the report generally satisfactory. The fruits much blighted, and the same ma. lady must necessarily have extended to che hops The wool trade at a stund, nothing having transpired at any of the marts as a sufficient guide. The oak-bark harvest was successtully finished. Rape a great crop.

Smithfield: Beef 55, 9d. to 6s. 2d. --Mutton 5s. 28. to 69.4d.--Veal 53. 64. to7s. 68.-Lamb 63. to 8s.-Pork 5s, 4d. to 6s. 101.-Bacun 65. 88,- Irish ditto os. od. to us. -Skins 20s. to 60s.--Fat 4s 83.-Oil Cake 171. 17s. per thousand.

Corn Exchange: Wheat 80s. to 100,- Barley 60s. to 60s Oats 58s, to 639. The quartern loaf 200.- Hay 41. to ol. 15s. per load, -Clover 71. to 81. 10s.--Straw 21. 138. to 31. 12s.

Middlesex, July 27. "

Observations on the State of the Weather, from the 24th of June, 1812, to the

24th of July, 1812, inclusive; Four Diiles N. N. 1. Sl. Paul's.

Highest, 300.05 July 10. Wind East. Highest, 75o. July 7. Wind East.
Lowest, 29.15. 2. ------ West. | Lowest, 40°. June 27. - N.W.

This variation ec( This variation,

(curred between the mid

dle of the days of the which is not Greatest si hun

25th and 26th of the great, has occur. I Greatest variation indredths of

last month.

100, red several times variation in

On the 24 hours. an inch. in the course of 24 lipurs.

former the mercury was

at 64o. and on the latter (the month,

it was no Ligher that

510. The quantity of rain fallen since the last report, is equal to 4.67 inches in depth: a large proportion of which fell on the 25th and 26th of June : on the 26th there was, in this place, a very heavy storm, with the loudest thunder we ever remember to have heard : the rain came down for a considerable time in torrents.

The quantity of rain, the number of wet days, and the coldness of the temperature, hare been subjects of general observation and regret. During the whole month the thermometer has not been once as high as summer heat. The average temperature for the month is 59 666, which is six degrees lower than it was for the same period last year. The mean height of the barometer is equal to 29.681 : the wind has blown mostly from the westerly points, though we have had sorc days of severe tasteriy blasts : a white frost has covered the verdure of the low lands twice in the course of the last week.

Highgaie, July 25, 1812. ERRATUM in Mr. Gardner's Paper on Music in our last : at the top of the second column for « common cut of all chords" read is communest of all chords"

Since the ingenious Article relative to the Exiraction of Roots was printed at pp. 32 and 33, we have received from Mr. Evans the following ERRATA IT ADDENDA." In p. 39, in title, instead of “ly inspection'' " cuitbout inspeciiun;" in rule 1, line 2, iostead of " this is done by simple inspection" read “this is very simple;" in page 33, before rule 3, insert the following paragraph: Where the “unies figure" in cube is 1,5, 7, or 9, if on subtracting, as in rule %, the remainder should be 0, then you are not to borrow tens to enable you to divide, but the "tens figure" in root is o; in cubes, whose 6 units figure" is 2, 4, 6, or 8, if on substracting, as above, the reminder is (), then the "teps figure" in root is either o or 5; and for ascertaining whether () ou, is the "tens figure” in root see additional remark made beiow; in col. 2, p. 33, line 15, instead of "is an even number! read " is ), ar an even rambir;" in line 17, instead of " 4 results" read " 5 results;" in line 19 and 20, in. stead of “ numely, 2, 4, 6, or 8," read " namely, 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8;" in 1, 27, insert a comma under ;" in 1 47, omit "g9ne;" additional observation, The rationals of these rules is so very simple, as hardly to require explanation, severtheless I will exhibit them in my next Communication."


No. 231.7

. SEPTEMBER 1, 1812.

[2 of Vol. 34.

As long as those who write are ambitious of making converts, and of giving their opinions a Maximum of

lafuence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greatest Effect the Curiosity of thuse who read, whether it be for Amusement or for Instruction, JOHNSON

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS... To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, by which no qualified person could be SIR,

omitted in the discretion of any one; or JF there is one social institution dear taken, except in exact rotation; which 1. above every other to freemen, it is rotation will usually be determnined by that of JURIES, by sbich are to be decided their residence. all litigated questions, whether between There is likewise another imperfec. povernment and subject, or between tion in the constitution of our Juries, sobject and subject.

which, if not guarded against, would be '. The value, however, of this institution increased by the mode of summoning entirely depends on the mode by which above indicated. If Juries were taken the Jury are brought into the Box. If in exact rotation, as they stand in the they are packed, picked, or selected, freeholder's book, the entire Jury would by an interested or partial officer; or if come from one neighbourhood, and una. they are in any manner unduly influenced, nimity in the Jury could not be oba they serve only to give colour to injus- tained; because it usually bappens that, of tice, and become a nuisance to society and any twelve housekeepers, in the same the greatest of social curses, instead of street or vicinity, one or two acquire or being the first of social blessings.

possess an influence, either of inind or Yet it so happens that the public have purse, over the others, and the decision in at present very slender security, that Ju. such case is not made by twelve, but by one jies are at any time judiciously or impar- or two only, who lead or direct the others. tially returned ; and there exist at present Every man who has been on a Jury so no effective laws to restrain those whose convened must have been sensible of the do!y it is to return them. In sheriff,' weight of such undue mfluence, and that offices the freeholder's book is at best generally one of the Jury leads the opi. opened at random; but it lies entirely in nion of half the others in every verdict. the option of the sheriff, of his deputy, or They either surrender their opinions to of his deputy's deputy, co select, pick, anal one whon they cousider superior in powchoose, or to reject, pass over, and omit, ers of judging to themselves; or they do whomsoever they please. No check exnot choose to hazard a quarrel by contend. ists in this respect, nor is any imposed ing with an obstinate or over-bearing by law. It may not happen that Juries neighbour. It is therefore of the deepest are unfairly returned, yet it is a fact, consequence in suminoning a Jury to call that the public have no security, except them from different hundreds or districts, in the honour of the officer or clerk, thereby securing their mutual indepen. who strikes the Jury.

dence, occasioning them to be of difa In regard to special Juries, which are ferent occupations and habits of life, chiefly employed to try causes between and qualifying them by various local the crown and the subject, it is well knowledge, to try causes which relate known that they are chosen or picked to all parts of their jurisdiction. from the freeholder's book by an officer To combine therefore the two requisites of the court, who is in truth an officer of of regular rotation, and of unconnected the government. Nothing need be said persons from three districts, I have beat this time on so lax and dangerous a veath sketched the form of an Act of Parmode of proceeding; it has already been liament which, if passed, and duly enoften discussed, and never has been forced, would secure to the people of the alluded to but to be reprobated.. British empire all the advantages that

Juries, like Cæsar's wife, ought not can belong to Trial by Jury. only to be jonucent, but to be unsus.

PROPOSED ACT. pected; yet how can they be without sus Whereas, the discretion at present erer. picion if they are not called together in cised by Sheriffs and other persons autho. some regular and predetermined order, rised by law to nominate Juries is consi MONTHLY MAG, No. 231,



dered as endangering the due succession That the like forfeiture or imprison. and impartial return of persons to serve ment shall be inflicted on the headban on Juries, it is enacted, that the numes rough, for any wilful alteration or devia. of all Jurors, ercept those summoned to tion made by him. kerde on Inquests, shall be extracted from Thut, should the clerk of the peace omit the freeholder's or other lists, authorized to return the said lists in due time, as di. by law, in the exact rotation in which rected by the 3d and 4th of Anne, cap. they were last returned in such lists, 18, sec. 5, he shall forfeit one hundred

«grecably to their respective qualifica- pounds; or, should he make wilful aliera· tions, for particular Juries, according tions or omissions in the same, he shall

to ihe 4th and 5th of W. and M. forfeit one hundred pounds for every suck cap. 24; und that one third of the offence. persons so qualified to serve on edery "That, in order to secure the due sure Jury shall be nominated out of three moning of Jurors after they have been noseveral hundreds or districts of the juris- minated by the sheriff, it is further eitdiction of the court, to which such Jury acted, that, for every omission, the officer are summoned, such three hundreds or dis. appointed to serve the regular summonses tricts being also taken in rotation, and shall forfeit twenty pounds,, or suffer three es distant from each other as conveniently months' imprisonment, in the pleasure of may be, till all the hundreds and districts, the court to which the Jury are sum. and all the persons respeclively qualified, moned. have been taken as aforesaid; to ike intent That, to secure the attendance of Jurore, that no person shull be nominated and it is further enacted, that grand or special sunmoned to serve on any kind of Jury a Jururs failing to attend, without sufficient second time till all the persons of similar excuse made in open court upon the oath qualificulions within the jurisdiction hude of one or more witnesses, shall forfeit not served, have paid the usual fine, or have less than twenty pounds, nor more than been excused by the court for good and fifty pounds, in the pleasure of the court; lateful cause, and that all Juries when and petit Jurors omilling to attend, except sworn shall consist of an equal number of as aforesaid, shall forfeit not less than fire, persons from three remote hundreds or dis. Nor more than twenty pounds, one half 18 tricks of the jurisdiction.

the sheriff, and one half to the poor of the That for every offence against the said parish in which the suid several Jurymetz provisions, the sheriff, bailiff, or person reside. Laufully empowered io nominate and con. An Act of Parliainent containing the nene such Juries, shall forfeit one hundred provisions above specified, would lay at pounds, one half to the informer, and one rest all anxiety about Juries for several half to the poor of the parish in which such centuries; but, until something of thie sheriff, &c. resides.

kind is enacted, the public will lose That sheriffs, bailiffs, and others, may , half the security, and half of all the be. de provided with correct lists of persons Defits to be derived from the inestima qualified to serve, according to the intent ble system of Trial by Jury. and meaning of the 3d of Geo. II. cap. It has grieved me to see a question 95, it is enacted, that, for omissions of lately agitated in regard to the onani. names, or for deviations from the lists mity required in the decision of Juries, put on the church doors, and as amended Some foreigners, who could not have un. by the parishioners with the privity of derstood or duly considered the nature of the constable, the said constable shall for our Jury-system, have treated the una. very such omission and deviation in the nimity required of Juries as a blemishi, list relurned by him to the headborough, and even as an impracticable and up. forfeit the sum of five pounds for the first reasonable demand; and some Eng ishoffence, and ion pounds for every second men have hastily conceded this point, and following offence, or in such latter and have been industriously engaged in case suffer not less than one, nor more, propagating this error through the me. than three months' imprisonment.

dium of our press. Thut, should the constable omit to return A very sliglit consideration will, hot. the lists to the hendborough, or to offir ever, prove the infinite worth and singu. them on the church door, as directed by lar propriety of the practice as it stands. the aforesaid Act, he shall forfeit fifty The decision of a Jury is intended to be a pounds for every such offence, or suffer not TEST OF TRUTI: not an approximation to less than three, nor more than six months' wards truth, or a declaration of mere pro• imprisonment,

bability. Certainty, not probability, in

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