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Bramins refused to eat with him; and When the sticks are cut, the bark is at Nassuck, a place of pilgrimage near taken off with a little instrument, which the source of the Godavery, the Peishwa peels the whole at once; it is then laid was not allowed to descend into the in the sun to dry, when it rolls of itself water by the same light of steps used in the manner in which we see it in the by the holy priests. We returned from shops. Great nicetv is required in layParbutty through the town. I saw no. ing together a sufficient number of pieces thing to distinguish the bazar of the ca- for one roll, and in sorting the different pital from those of the villages, excepto qualities, the finest spice heing always at ing a greater number of female orna. the extremity of the branch. The soil ments. The houses are very mean, only in the gardens is fine white sand. Bethe hetter ones are painted as in Bombay. sides the cinnamon, I saw there the caAs we went along, I saw a number of shew-nut, two kinds of datura, the ixora, women pouring jugs of water before a and a variety of plants, with the names door, and was told it was the custom to and properties of which I am not acdo so when a child (I think only the quainted. first) is born, ns an emblem of fertility.
TAKING ELEPHANTS, The ancient palace, or rather castle, of When we reached the craal it was Poovab, is surrounded by high thick near ten o'clock, and we found the col. walls, with four large towers, and has lector and Mr. Daniel awaiting us in the only one entrance, through a highly pointe breakfast bungalo, where the attention ed arch; bere the Peishwa's brother and of the former had literally spread a feast other members of his family reside ; but in the wilderness. The craal is in the he has built a modern house for himself shape of a funnel, the wide part of which in another part of the town. It is square, extends several hundred feet into the with four turrets, and is painted all over forest, leaving the trees within standing. with pale green leaves.
It is composed of strong posts made of The present Peishwa is the son of whole trunks of trees driven well into the Raghabhoy, whoni the victories and in ground, and lashed to others, placed botrigues of the English have placed on the rizontally, with strong coier ropes. To Musnud, and have reduced to a state defend this wall from the fury of the elce little more enviable than that of the pri- phants, sinall fires are lighted near it on soner Rajalı at Sitarrah, who is the grand- The outside, which intimidate the avimals, son of Sevajee. The Peishwa still keeps so that they do not approach it, The up the farce of going to Sitarrah to re- trap is divided into three parts, the outer ceive the insignia of his office from the one of which is only inclosed on three hand of the Rajah, but is bimself so sides, and communicates with the next completely under our dominion, that he by a gate made of strong poles, fastened pays a subsidy to maintain the three together by ropes so as lo permit it to thousand croops which surround his ca. roll up, When the elephants are once pital and keep him a prisoner.
driven into the outer chamber, they are COLOMBO,
prevented from recreating by men sta. We have now been at Columbo some iioned at the entrance with different kinds days; and I am so delighted with the of. weapons, but chiefly sticks, on the place, and with the English society here, ends of which are bundles of lighted straw. ihat, if I could choose my place of resi: When a sufficient number are thus cola dence for the rest of the time of my lected in the outer inclosure, the hunters absence from England, it should be co close in upon them, and drive them by Jumbo. We generally drive out before their shouts and weapons into the second breakfast in a bandy, and go sometimes chamber, the gate of which is inmedithrough the fort, which is extremely ately let down), and they are there con. pretty. It is immediately between the fined till it is convenient to take them sex and the lake, and only joined to the out. When every thing is prepared for inain land by a causeway on each side of that purpose, the animals are driven into the water ; and sometimes we go through the third and last inclusure, which is also the cinnamon gardens, which lie at ibe the smallest, One end of it terminales opposite end of the lake. The cinna. in a long passage, just wide enough for mon is naturally tall shrub, or rather a single beast; and, the moment one of tree, but it is kept low in the gardens for them enters it, the hunters thrunt strong the sake of the young bark, which is poles through the interstices in tbe walls gathered at two diferent seasons, though of the craal, and close him in so that he the same plants are not cut every season. GoMnot move backwards or forwards.
Two tame elephants are then stationed putting his trunk to the wheel, raised it. one at each side of the outlet, and putting so as to prevent its crushing the man, in their trunks they hold that of their and then lifted him out of the water wild brother till the hunters have passed unhurt. several bands of rope round his neck,
THE CINGALESE. and fastened nooses to each of his feet. The Cingalese are ingenious workmen A rope is then passed through his neck in gold aud silver: their more useful bands and those of the came aninials; manufactures are, hemp and coier rape, the stakes in front arc gradually remored; coarse collon cluths for domestic con. the ropes are drawn tighter; and the sumption, ratan inats and baskets, and prisoner is led out between his two cane-work of all kinds. The products of guards, who press bin with their whole the island, besides timber, elephants, weight, and thus lead hiin to the tree or and cinnamon, are hemp, coier, cocoathe stake where he is to be fastened. If nuts, arrack, precious stones, pearls, and he'be refractory, they beat him with their drugs; among which are, Colunibo-rout, trunks till he submits; he is sometimes gamboge, and the Datura fastuosa, which tied by one leg, sometimes by two; if he ihe natives use as a cure for the spasmobe very strong and furious, he is fastened dic asthina, by cutting the root in small by the neck and by all his limbs. I never pieces, and smoking it like tobacco; the saw grief and indignation so passionately Datura metel, which is niost plenciful expressed as by one of these creatures; about Columbo, is said to possess the he groaned, tried to tear his legs from same qualities. their fetters, buried his trunk in the
TRINCOMALE. earth, and threw dust into the air. Not The scenery of Trincomale is the most even the choicest food, the plantain tree, beautiful I ever saw ; I can compare it or the leaf of the young palm, could to nothing but Loch Catrine on a gigantic tempt hiin to eat or to forget his captie scale. The ships are now lying in Backa vilu for several hours. It sometimes bay, but the inner harbor is safe at all happens that they starve themselves to seasons; it is so land-locked, that it apo death; but a few days generally suffices pears like a lake. Yesterday we rode to cahn their fury, and their education before breakfast to fort Osnaburg, on a as immediately begun,
bigh point of land, commanding both diThe elephants here are used for drawe visions of the inner harbour. The bay, ing timber out of the jungle, and for gleaming with the rising sun, seened like other public works; but the greater nunie a sheet of liquid goirl, broken into creeks her of those caught in Ceylon are sold and bays, studded with verdant isles, and to che continent of India. The elephantinclosed by mountains feathered with keepers teach their beasts a number of wood to the summit; wivile from the tricks, such as walking upon two legs, nearer crags the purple convolvulus, the taking up people with their trunks, tear white moou-fower, and the scarlet and ing up trees, and picking pins or small yellow gloriosa, tloated like banners in coins out of the sand. Yet, tame as they the wind. are, they are extremely sensible to inju. The outer bay is formed by a bold prories. One of those we saw, though ha. jecting rock, at the extremny of which bitually gentle and obedient, fornierly are the remains of a Hindoo temple. killed a keeper who had been cruel to Six pillars, beautifully carved and suphim. The number and variety of stories porting a cornice and roof, now for the concerning the sagacity of the elephant, portico of a British artillery tiospital; and told by the most in the habit of seeing a seventh pillar is placed on the summit and observing that animal, if they do not of a rock opposite. We rere told that prove the truth of each anecdote, are yet some caves exist in the neighbourhood, strongly presumptive of his wisdom and but whether natural or artificial we coald docility. I was told by a gentleman, net ascertain, neither cuuld we procure that, not long ago, a considerable body a guide to them. of troops had in criss the Kisina, then Trincomale was formerly considered much suelo by the ruins, in doing which, very unhealthy, but there does not apOne of the artilery-men who was mounted pear to be any local circumstance to on a gun full off n the middle of the render it so, and the complaints of it stream, immediately before the wheel of du that head are daily decreasing. Like alle gun-carriage; his comrades gave him the rest ofilie coast of Ceylon, the soil bad uptior frost; but an elephant attending been found uutit lor raising vegetables; on the artistory liad scen bin ladi, and, lui, by the exertions o: Admiral Drury,
colony of Chinese, similar to that at The houses are usually surrounded by a Pointe de Galle, has established a large field or compound, with a few trees and garden, whose products are already such shrubs, but it is with incredible pains às to promise ihe fairest success. The that flowers or fruits are raised. During admiral lias also been at paios to import the hot winds, tats (a kind of mat), made cattle and poultry, and to distribute them of the root of the koosa grass, which among the patives, so as, if possible, to has an agreeable smell, are placed against secure a supply for the fleet. Timber the doors and windows, and constantly is in great plonty, and easy of access, and watered, so that, as the air blows through there are many coves where ships gayiheni, it spreads an agreeable scent and be bove down with the greatest safety it freshness through the house, all seasons; so that repairs can be per- I went the other day to see the naral fornied here at less cost than at any other hospital bere, a large handsome building, place in Iudia, though the rise of ide with an excellent garden, and very well is not sufficient at any season for the appointed. On the cop is a large platbuilding of docks.
form, where the convalescents take exMADRAS.
ercise and enjoy fresh air, with the views I do not know any thiog more striking over all Madras, iis petab or Black-towel, than the first approach to Madras. The and garden-louses to the shipping in the low flat sandy shore extending for miles roads. There is a rope-walk attached to to the north and south, for the few bills the hospital, but it wants air and is rás there are appear far inland, seems to ther short; it however furnishes employpromise nothing bul barren nakedness, ment for the invalids. Froin the bos. when, on arriving in the roads, the town pitai I went to see the garden which the and, fort are like a vision of enchant. late Dr. Anderson had planted as a boment. The beach is crowded with peo. tanical garden, at a vast expense, but it ple of all colours, whose busy motions at is now in a sad state of ruin." Greinarked that distance make the earth itself seem there the Saguerus Rumphii, a kind of alive. The public offices and store- palm, from which an excellent kind of houses, which line the beach, are five sago is made. It is also valuable on acbuildings, with colonnades to the upper count of the black fibres surrounding the stories, supported hy rustic bases arched, trunk at the insertion of the leaves, . all of the fine Madras chunain, smoothi, which afford a cordage for ships, said to hard, and polished as marble. At a short be stronger and more durable than that distance, Fort-George, with its lines and made from any other vegetable substance. bastions, the goveroment-house and gar. I saw also the Nopaul, a kind of prickly dens, backed by St. Thomas's Mount, pear, on a species of which the cochifor an interesting part of the picture, neal insect lives, and which is now cultiwhile here and there, in the distance, vated in Madras as an esculent vegetable. minarets and pagodas are seen rising It was brought here merely as a curious froin among the gardens
exour, but was discovered by Dr. AnWe were hardlya-shore when we were derson to be a valuable autiscorbutic, surrounded by above a hundred dubashis and has since been used in all men-ofa and servants of all kinds, pushing for em. war on the Indian station, wliich are ployment. The dubashis undertake to row alınost free from that dreadlul mainterpret, to buy all you want, to change lady the scurry. The nopaul keeps fresta. money, to provide you with servants, and even continues to vegetale long after tradesmen, and palankeens, and, in shurt, it is gathered; it makes an excellent to do every thing that a stranger finits it pickle, which is now issued to the ships irksome to co for himself. We went of war. jostaediately to our friend's garden-house; POPULATION AND MANNERS. for at Madias every body lives in the The language spoken at Madras by the country, though all offices and counting, natives is the Talinga, here called Mala houses, public and private, are in the fort bars. The men-servants are all Hindoos. or in town. The garden-houses are ge- but the women are mostly Portuguese: Derally of only oue story; they are of a The palankeen.bearers are called Bhois. pretty style of architecture, having their and are remarkable for strength and swifta porucos and virandas supported by piliars ness. They have a peculiar song, or cry, or chuvam; the walls are of the same with which they amuse themselves on a material, either white or coloured, and journey; at first it sounds like the expresthe doors are covered with ratan mals, sion of pain and weariness, but it presently $0 that it is impossible to be asore cool breaks out into sounds of exultation.
I have not seen any banians at Madras, go from house to house to retail the news, but there are a number of hawkers who ask commissions to town for the ladies, resemble the borahs. I often see natives bring a bauble that has been newly set, of Pondicherry, French converts, going or one which the Indy has obliquely hintabout with boxes of lace and artificial ed, at a shopping party the day before, flowers, made chiefly by the ladies of the she would willingly purcbase, but that decayed French families in that settle her husband does not like her to spend ment. There is sumething in the gaiety 90 much, and which she thus obtains of the French character that communi from some young man, one quarter of cates itself to all around. I have seen a whose monthly salary is probably sacriblack man, froin Pondicherry, bandle a ficed to his gallantry. When all the visie lace, a flower, a ribbon, with all the air tors who have any business are gone to of a fine gentleman, and in bis rays shew' their ofhces, another troop of idlers apmore politeness and gallantry, than half pears, still more frivolous than the forour Madras Civil Servants are possessed mer, and remains till tiffin, at two o'clock, of. Besides these French pedlars, there when the real dinner is eaten, and wines are a set of Mahomedans, who go about and strong beer from England are freely selling inoco stones, petrified tamarind drank. The ladies then retire, and for wood, yarnets, coral, mock amber, and the most part undress, and lie down with a variety of other trinkets, and who are, a novel in their hands, over which they in their way, as amusing as the French generally sleep. About five o'clock the men. The manner of living among the master of the family returns from his English at Madras has a great deal more othce; the lady dresses berself for the of external elegance than at Bombay; Mount Road; returns, dresses, dines, but, the same influences operating on the and goes from table to bed, unless there society, I find it neither better nor be a ball, when she dresses again, and worse.
dances all night; and this, I assure you; I was two evenings ago at a public is a fair, very fair, Account of the usual ball in the Pantheon, which contains, life of a Madras lady. besides a ball-roum, a very pretty theatre,
CALCUTTA. card-rooms, and virandas. During the The English Society of Calcutta, as it cold season there are monthly assemblies,' is more numerous, affords a greater variety with occasional balls all the year, which of character, and a greater portion of are very well conducted. The Pantheon intellectual refinement, than that of either is a bandsome building; it is used as a of the other presidencies. I have met free-masons' lodge of modern masons, with some persons of borb sexes in this among whom almost every man in the place, whose society reminded me of army and navy who visits Madras enrols that we have enjoyed together in Britain, himself. The only other public place at when some of the wisest and best of our Madras is the Mount Road, leading froin countrymen, whose benevolence attracted Fore.George to $1. Thomas's Mount. It our attention, as their talents commanded is smooth as a bowling-yreen, and planted our esteein, loved to relax from their on each side with banian and yellow tu. serious occupations in the circle of their lip trees. About five miles from the friends. Among the few here who know fort, on this road, stands a cenotaph to and appreciate these things, the most the memory of Lord Cornwallis. It agreeable speculacions are always thesa Has cost an immense suin of money, but that point homeward to that Furope, is not remarkable for good taste; howwhere the mind of man seems to Aurista ever, I love to see public monuments in in preference to any other land. If we any shape to greal men. It is the fa: bion look round us, the passive submission, for all the gentlemen and Óladies of Ma. The apathy, and the degrading superstidras to repair, in their gayest equipages, tion of the Hindoos; ibe more actiro to the Mount Road, anci, after driving fanaticisin of the Mussulmans; the arasfuriously along, they loiter round and rice, the prodigality, the ignorance, and round the cenotaph for an hour, partly the vulgarity, of most of the wbite peofor exercise, and partly for the oppor. ple, seem to place them all on a level, tunity of Airting and displaying their infinitely below that of the least refined . fine clothes ; after which they go home, natinns of Europe. " to meet again every day in the year. Of the public buildings of Calcutta, But the greatest lounge at Madras is the governmentahouse, built by Lord. during the visiting hours, from wine Wellesley, is the most remarkable. The d'clock till cleven, when the young men luwec.story forms a rustic baséinent, with
arcades to the building, which is Topic. the English at least, the effect seems diaOn the north side there is a bandsome metrically opposite. Every Briton apPortico, with a flight of steps, under which pears to pride himself on being outragecarriages drive to the entrance; and on ously a John Bull; but I believe it is the south there is a circular colonnade, more in the manner than in the matter, with a dome. The four wings, one at for, in all serious affairs and questions of each corner of the body of the building, justice, every inan is, as he ought to be, are connected with it by circular pasa on a footing. sages, so long as to secure their enjoying
SERAMPORE. the air all around, from whichever quar. The Danish town of Serampore is imter the wind blows. These wings contain mediately opposite to Barrackpore. It all the private apartments; and in the is now in the hands of the English, and north-east angle is the council-room, de- is the great resort of the inissionaries, corated, like the family breakfast and under whose direction there is a press dinner rooms, with portraits. The centre where the Scriptures have been printed of the house is given up to two rooms, in all the eastern languages. Many other the finest I have seen. The lowest is bonks have also been published under paved with dark grey marble, and sup. their direction, one of the most curious ported by Doric columns of chunain, of which is the works of Confucius, in which one would take for Parian marble. the original Chinese, with an English Above the hall is the ball-rogin, floored translation, by Mr. Marshman, who, with dark polished wood, and supported without assistance or patronaye, bas la. by lonic pillars of white chonam. Both boured and succeeded in the study of the these fine rooms are lighted by a profue Chinese language, and in teaching it to sion of cut-glass lustres suspended from his children, so as to enable thein to the painted ceilings, where an excellent speak and write it correctly at a very taste is displayed in the decorations. early age. Besides the government-house, the
FORT WILLIAM. public buildings are, a town-house, which I embarked, at Calcutta, on board promises to be handsome when finished; a pilot's schooner, which should have the court-house, a good-looking building; proceeded immediately to this place; and two churches, the largest of which but by some accident we were detained has a tine portico, and both have hande till the next day opposite to Fort-William, some spires The hospital and jail are and had full leisure to admire it, as the to the south of the town, on that part of setting sun gilded its long lines and the che esplanade called the Course, 'where white barracks within. Nothing can be all the equipages of Calcutta assemble more beautiful than both the outside and every evening, as those of Madras do on inside of Fort William. The barracks the Mount Road, The houses now oc. are all very handsome buildings, and the cupied by the orphan schools being ruin- trees in the different squares make the ous, there are handsome designs for whole delightfully cool. There are no erecting new ones. The writers' build. private houses within the fort, and the ingy, to the north of the government. public buildings geein all in excellent or. house, look like a shabby hospital, order. I was particularly pleased with the poor's-house; ebese contain apartments foundery and the machine for boring for the writers newly come froin Britai, guns, which I had never seen before. and who are students at the college of There is a private dock-yard nearly opFort-William, which is in the centre of positę to Port-William, and another a the buildings, and contains nothing but mile below it, on the same side of the soine lecture-rooms.
river. Calcutta, like London, is a small town
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. of itself, but its suburbs swell it to a I have spent ten days very agreeably prodigious city, peopled by inhabitants ou shore at Cape Town, the neatness from every country in the world. Chic and beauty, and singular situation, of jiese and Frenchmen, Persians and Ger. which, immediately at the foot of the mals, Arabs and Spaniards, Americans Table Mountaill, have been so often and Portuguese, Jews and Dutchmen, describerl. are seen mixing with the Hinduos and The English people at the Cape lire English, the original inhabitants and the like the 'English every-where, as inuch inn actual possessors of the country. This the manner they would do at home as mixture of nations ought, I think, to circumstances will permit. Weuken national prejudices; but, among The Dutch colonists in general pre