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óccupy the ladies, with the addition of female servants are Portuguese, and they Jace, jeweis, intrigues, and the latest only act as ladies'.maids, all hausehold fashions; or, if there be any newly-ar- work being done by men, as well as the rived young women, the making and needle-work of the family. breaking matches for them furnish ein
ENGLISH MANUFACTURES. ployment for the ladies of the colony tilt In Bombay there are a good many the arrival of the next cargo. Such is Banyans, or travelling merchants, who the company at an English Bombay feast. come mostly from Guzerat, and roam The repast irself is as costly as possible, about the country with muslins, collon). and in such profusion that no part of the cloth, and shawls, to sell. On opening table-cloth remains uncovered. But the one of their bales, I was surprised to find dinner is scarcely touched, as every per. at least half of its contents of British son eats a hearty neal called liftin, at manufacture, and such articles were much two o'clock, at home. Each guest brings cheaper than those of equal 6neness from his own serrant, sometimes two or three; Bengal and Madras. Excepting a par, these are either Parsees or Mussulmans. ticular kind of chintz made at Poonah, It appears singular to a stranger to see and painted with gold and silver, there behind every whice man's chair, a dark, are no fine cutton-cloths made on this long bearderi, turbaned gentleman, who side of the peninsula; vet still it seems usually stands so close to his master, as straige, that cotton carried to England, to make no 'trifling addition to the heat inanufactured, and returned to this coupe of the apartment; indeed, were it not for lry, should undersell the fabrics of India, the punka,(a large frame of wood covered where labour is so cheap. But I believe with cloth, which is suspended over this is owing partly to the uncertainty every table, and kept constantly swinging, and difficulty of carriage here, al:hough in order to freshed the air, it would the use of machinery at hope must be scarcely be possible to sit out the melan. the inain cause. The shawls are brought choly ceremony of an Indian dinner. here direct from Cashmeer, by the native
On leaving ihe eating room, one gene- merchants of that couniry, so that we rally sees or hears, in some place near sometimes get thein cheap and beautiful, the door, the cleaning of dishes, and the The Banyans ought to be I lindoos, though squabbling of cooks for their perquisites. I have known Mussulmans adopt i he If they are within sight, one perceives a name, with the profession; their distine couple of dirty Portuguese (black men gwishing turban is so formed as to present who eat pork and wear breeches) direct- the shape of a rhinoceros' born in front, ing the operations of liall a dozen still and it is generally red. dirtier Pariahs, who are scraping dishes
NATIVE MANNERS. and plates with their hands, and then, On first coming here, one would ina with the same unwashen paws, putting gine that none of the people ever slept aside the next day's tiitin for their mas- at night ; for, besides that the copper. ier's table.
smiths and blacksmiths generally work The equipage that conveys one from a all night, and sleep all day, on account of party, if one does not use a palankeen, the heat, there are processions going is curious. The light and elegant figure about froin sunset till sunrise, with tomof the Arab horses is a strong contrast toins (small drums), kettle-drums, citarrs, with the heary carriages and clumsy vins, pipes, and a kind of large brazen harness generally seen biere; the coach- trumpet, which requires tivo people to man is always a whiskered Parsee, with carry it, making alivgether the most hora a gay-coloured turban, and a nuslin or rible din I ever heard. These processi chintz gown, and there are generally tivo ons, with the picturesque dresses of the mussalgees, or torch-bearers, and some natives, and their graceful attitudes, the times two horse-keepers, 10 run before orches carried by children, and the little one. On getting home, one finds a sepny double pipe blown by boys, whose wild. or peon walking iound the open virandas ness inight make them pass for satyrs, of the house, as a guard. We have four put one strongly in mind of the ancient of these servants, iwo) of whom remain Bacchavals. li is usually on account of in the truse for twenty-four hours, when marriages that these nocturnal leasts are they are relieved by the two others. held; when they are in honour of a god, These men carry messages, go to market, they take place in the day, when the and afford to the reinoval of goods or deirs is carried on a ficter in triumpli, furnicute, but will carry nothing thein. with banners before and behind, and selves heavier thail a small book. The priests carrying flowers, and milk and
rice, while hardly any one joins the pro. five different kinds of fire, among which cession without an offering. All this I was surprised to hear ihe dustoor men. looks very well at a distance, but, when tion that of a funeral pile, as the Gue. one comes near, one is shocked at the bres expose their dead; but he told me meanness and inelegance of the god, and that it was formerly lawful to return the at the filth and wretchedness of his votabody to any of the four elements; that ries.
is, to bury it in the earth or in the water, THE PARSEES.
to burn or to expose it, but that the It appears that there have been two laiter only is now practised; consequenca legislators of the name of Zoroaster, one ly, if the atsh-babaram goes out, they of whoin lived in times of such remote must travel to such nations as burn their antiquity, that no dependence can be dead, to procure the necessary ingredieng placed on the traditions concerning him. to rekindle it. When the last atsha The last flourished as late as the reign of khaneh was built in Bombay, a portion Darius, the son of Cambyses. He ap- of the sacred fire was brought from the pears to have reformed the religion of his altar at Yezd, in a golden censer, by country, which there is reason to think land, that it might not be exposed to was till that time the same with that of the perils of the sea, India, to have built the first fine temples, The sun and the sea partake with fire and to have written the books of Guebre in the adoration of the Guebres. Their laws, of which only some fragments re- prayers, called zemzemé, are repeated in main.
a low murmuring tone, with the face The Parsees acknowledge a good prin. turned towards the rising or the setting ciple under the name of Hormuzd, and sun, and obeisance is made to the sea an evil principle under that of Ahrimane. And to the full moon. The Parsee year Subordinate to Hormozd, the ferishta, of is divided into twelve lunar months, with angels, are charged with the creation intercalary days, but there is no division and preservation of the material world. of tiine into weeks. The festivals are the The sun, the moon, and the stars, the nowrose, or day of the new year, and six years, the months, and the days, have following days; the first of every month, each their presiding angel; angels attend and the day on which the name of the on every human soul, and an angel re. day and that of the month agree, when ceives it when it leaves the body. Myrh, the same ferishta presides over both, or Mithra, is the serishta to whom This A Parsee marries but one wise, ex. important charge is assigned, as well as cepting when he has no couldrell; then, that of judging the dead; he is also the with the consent of the firsi, he may take guardian of the sun, and presides over a second. An adopted child wineriis the sixth month, and the sixth day of the equally with legitimate children, but, if month. The good ferishta hare corres. there be nine, before all other relations, ponding evil genii, who endeavour to The death of a father is observed as an counteract them in all their functions; annual festival. The body must not they particularly encourage witchcraft, touch wood atier de::th; it is accordingly and willingly bold converse with enchan- laid upon an iron bier, to be conveyed ters of both sexes, sometimes revealing to the repository for the diead, where it truly the secrets of futurity for inalicious is left exposed to the ai vill it is conpurposes. As in other countries, the sumed. In Bombay these repositories old, the ugly, and the miserable, are stige are square joclosures, surrounded by high marized as witches, and the Indian Brae walls : the vulgar Parsees superstitiously minis are regarded by the Guebres as watch the corpse, to see which eye is powerful magicians.
first devoured by the birds, and thence Fire is the chief object of external angur the happiness or misery of the worship among the Parsees. In each soul. atsh khaneh, or fire-bouse, there are iwo The sacred books are in the Zend and fres, one of which it is lawful for the Pehlavi languages, buth ancient dialects vulgar to behoid, but ilm other, utsh. of Persia. The fragments of these which bahuran, is kept in the most secret and escaped during the troubles that followed buty part of the temple, and is approaclied the Malouedan conquest of Persia, are only by the chief dustoor; it inust not all that the Guebres liave to direct either be visited by the light of the sun, and the their practice or their faiils; and, where chimneys for carrying off the smoke are these are found insullicient, the dustoors so constructed as to exclude his rays. Supply rules from their own judgmeni. The all-babaram must be composed of The chief doctrines of the remaining
books respect future rewards and pu. and laymen; all religious ceremonies and nishments, injunctions to honour parents, festivals come under its cognizance, toge. and to marry early, that the chain of ther with the care of the temples, the being be not interrupted, and prohibi- adjusting the alınanack, and the sube tions of murder, theft, and adultery. sistence and life of the dogs. I could
When the Guebres were driven from not learn with certainty the origin of the their own country by the Mussulmans, extreme veneration of the Parsees for a considerable body of them resolved to this animal; every morning the rich merseek a new land, and accordingly put to chants employ koolis to go round the sea, where they suffered great hardships. streets with baskets of provision for the Afier atteinpting to settle in various wild doys; and, when a Parsee is dying, places, they at length reached Suujum he must have a dng in bis chambór lo in Guzerat, and sent their chief dustoor, fix his closing eyes upon. Some believe Abah, on shore, to ask an asylum. This that the dog guards the soul, at the was granted by the Rajah on certain moment of its separation from the body, conditions, and a treaty to the following from the evil spirits; others say that the effect was drawn up: The Guebres shall veneration for the dogs is peculiar to the have a place allotted to them for the Indian Guebres, and that it arose from perforinance of their religious and burial their having been saved froin shipwreck rites : they shall have lands for the main in their emigration to India, by the barktenance of themselves and their families; ing of the dogs announcing their approach they shall conform to the Hindoo customs to the land in a dark night. with regard to marriages, and in their The Parsees use some solemnities when dress; they shall not carry arms; they they name their children, which is done shall speak the language of Guzerat, that at five or six moimhs old; when the mus. they may become as one people with the lin shirt is put on the first time, a sacrert original inhabitants; and they shall abo fire is lighted, prayers are repeated, and stain froin killing and eating the cow. the name is given. Since their interTo these conditions the Parsees have course with Europeans, they persist in scrupulously adhered, and they have al. calling this ceremony christening, beways been faithful to their protectors. cause it is performed when the first or
The Parsees in British India enjoy proper name is given; the secund name every privilege, civil and religious. They is a patronymnic; thus Nurozejee Jionare governed by their own panchaït, or sheedjee, is Norozejee the son of Jumvillage council. The word panchait lite. sheediee. rally ineans a council of five, but that of The Parsees are the richest individuals the Guebres in Bombay consists of thire on this side of India, and most of the teen of the principal merchants of the great merchants are partners in British sect; these were chosen originally by commercial houses. They have genethe people, confirmed by the govern rally two or three fine houses, besides ment, and have continued hereditary, those they let to the English; they keep This little council decides all questions a number of carriages and borses, which of property, subject however to an ap- they lend willingly, not only to Euro. peal to the recordier's court; but an ap- peans, but to their own poor relations, peal seldom happens, as the panchait is whom they always support. They often jealous of its authority, and is conse- give dinners to the English gentlemen, quently cautious in its decisibns. It su- and drink a great deal of wine, parti. perintends all marriages and adoptions, cularly Madeira. The Guebre women and inquires into the state of every in enjoy more freedom than other oriental dividual in the community ; its members females, but they have not yet thought would think themselves disgraced if any of cultivating their minds. Perhaps this Parsee were to receive assistance from is owing in great ineasure to the early a person of a different faith ; accordingły, marriages which, in compliance with the as soon as the children of a poor man Hindoo customs, they contract. By beare old enough to inarry, which, in con- coming the property of their husbands in formity to the Hindoo custom, is ai five their infancy, they never think of acquir. or six years of age, the chief inerchants ing a further share of their affection, subscribe a sufficient sum to portion the and, with the hope of pleasing, one great child; in cases of sickness, they support incitement to inental improvement is cut the individual or the fainily, and ipain. off. tain all the widows and fatherless.
The Parsees are in general a handTl:e panchaït consists both of dustoors some large people, but they have a more
Tulgar yulgar air than the other natives; they by teeth in the timber, fitting to corres. are extremely active and enterprising, ponding holes in the rock; I imagine and are liberal in their opinions, and his to be a precaution against the des less bigotted to their own customs, man. Struction of this beautiful work by the nérs, and dress, than most nations. Of monsoon rains. The cave of Carli is their hospitality and charitable disposin really one of the most magnificent chamtions, the following is an instance. Dur- bers I ever saw, both as to proportion ing the famine that desclared India in and workmanship. It is situated near the years 1805 and 1806, the Parsee the top of a wooded mountain, come merchant Ardeseer Dadce, fed five thou- manding one of the finest prospects in sand poor persons for three months at the world; its reservoirs cut, like itself, his own expense, besides other liberalio out of the living rock, overflow with the ties to the starving people. The Parsces purest water, and the country around it are the chief landholders in Bombay. is fertile enough to supply every thing in Almost all the houses and gardens inse abundance for human subsistence. The habited by the Europeans are their pro- cave is a temple, and on each side there perty; and Pestengee told me that he are corridores, with cells proper for the received not less than 15,0001. a-year in residence of priests and their families. tents, and that his brother received But the most laboured part of the work nearly as inuch.
is the portico of the temple. One third MYTHOLOGICAL SIMILARITY. of its height is filled up by a variety of I have forborue to point out the strik figures, one of which, in a dancing pos. ing siinilarity of many of the deities to ture, is remarkable for gracelulness of those of Greece and Roine, as it is too design, and the ends are occupied to the obvious to escape your atiention. A sane liciylit by gigantic elephants; above remarkable proof of their identity with these is a cornice of reeds, bound toge. the gods of Egypt, occurred in 1801, ther by filleis at equal distances, and ille when the sepoy regiments who had been space over it is filled by small arched sent into that country, fell down before niches, finished with the same cornice. the gods in the temple of Tentyra, and The centre is occupied by a borse-shme claimed them as those of their owu le- arch, with a pointed moulding above, lief.
and below there is a square doorl of ene GREAT CAVE AT CARLI.
trance to the cave. To protect the pore When we looked round, we almost tico from the injuries of the weather, fancied ourselves in a Gothic cathe à rode screen was left at the entrance, dral. Instead of the low flat roof of part of which has fallen in; before it the cave of Elephanta, this rises to an ihere is an enormous pillar, crowned wih astonishing leight, with a highly coved three animals, and now overgrown with roof, supported by twenty-one pillars on moss and grass. each side, agd terminating in a semi. The difference between the cavern circle. Opposite to the entrance is a temples of Carli and of Elephanta is large teinyle, (if I may call it so,) not striking. Here are no personifications bollowed, with a dome, on which is fixed of the deity, no separate cells for secrec a huge teak umbrella, as a mark of re. rites; and the religious opinions which spect. Without the pillars there is a kind consecrated them are no less different, of aisle on each side, of about six feet The cave of Carli is a temple denticated wide; the length of the cave is forly to the religion of the Jines, a sect whose paces, and its breadth is fourteen. Here antiquity is believed by some to be greater are no sculptures within the cavern, exe than that of the Braminical failli, froin cept on the capitals of the pillars. The which their ienets are essentially differe columns are mostly hexagons, though ent, though many of their customs agree the number of angles varies; the bases entirely with those of the Bramins, as are formelt like compressed cushions; might be expected from natives of the the capitals resemble an inverted flower, same country. or a bell, on the top of which are two
THE JINES. elephants, with two riders on each; and The Jines believe that the world is of on several of the columns there are in- itself eternal, and that its 'changes are scriptions in a character not hitherto the effects of necessity. They hold, that decyphered. There is a very curious to abstain from slaughter is grace, and circumstance in this cavern, which is, that to kill any thing is sin. They ac. that the roof is ribbed with teak wood, cordingly abstain from animal food, froin cut to fit the cove exactly, and supported the fruit of trees giving milk, and from MONTILY MAG, NO, 236.
honey. Adultery and theft are forbid. enough for two or three persons, and den; they burn the dead, and throw the back a space for the servant who their ashe's into the water, but pay n10 bears the umbrella. The driver sits honours to the deceased. They are diastride on the animal's neck, and, with vided into four classes, but in what re- one foot behind each ear, he guides bim spects they agree with, or differ froni, the as he pleases. On our returp we save Braminical casts I hare not learnt ; like bin fed; as soon as the howda is taken the Braivins, they worship fire, and have off, he is led to the water, where he sixteen ceremonies in common with washes and drinks; he is then fastened them.
ly the heels to a peg in his stable, where WAR AND FAMINE,
he lies down to sleep for a few irours in Round Tulligong the country presents the night only. His food is rice, grass, melancholy traces of the ravages of war leaves, and young branches of trees, but and famine. The camps of Scindia and he is inost fond of bread and fruit, espe Holkar are every-where discernible, and cially ihe plantain. the march of their soldiers is marked by
POOJAI. ruined houses and temples, and drained In the afternoon the resident escorted tanks. Tulligong is just recovering from us through the town of Poonalı, to the the effects of the dreadful famine of sacred mount of Parbutty or Parvati, 1805-6. It is said that, in this towtt about two miles from Poopah. On cach alone, eighty thousand persons perished; side of the road are gardens, fields, and and one of niy fellow-travellers says, that, country-houses; and at the fuol of Par when he was here last year, the bones butly ihe Peishwa has a pleasant palace, strewed the fields around. The inhabis with extensive gardens, in which there tanits of many towns and villages emi- is a beautifully winding lake, whose banks water, hoping to find elsewhere that are clothed with trees, and in the middle sustenance'which failed at home ; thou- of the bason, opposite to the palace, ia sands perished on the road side, and a small island with a temple, and two wany, at the very moment when they or threo Bramins' houses, in a grove of stretched forth their hands to receive fruit-trees. the means of life which the charity of The view froin Pa butty is fine; it the British afforded, sunk to death ere commands the town, with its gardens and dhe lopu.nisheit-for morsel reached their plantations, thie cantonments of the lius. Ä mother, with five children, on British subsidiary force, and the Sune berway from Hydrabad to Bombay, had gum. Near the foot of the hill is a reached Salsette; there she was too large square field, inclosed with high weak to proceed, and, to preserve ber- brick walls, where the Peisbwa assen. self and lour of her offspring. she sold bles the Bramins, to whom he gives the Gifth for a little rice; bui it was too alms at the great Mahratia feast at the late. she and her infants perished the close of the rainy season. They are next morning; and instances of the like shut up in it till all are assembled, and, were monitrus, Yet such was the pa. as they come out one by one, they re cence of the Hindous, that they saw ceive the gratuity, of which, but for the waggons of rice, sent by the English this . precaution, some would get too at Bombay to the relief of Poonab, pass many shares. On this occasion I be Bram brough their villages without an attempt mius come from all parts of India, and to stop them.
beg their way to and from Poonah, so RIDING ON ELEPHANTS. ' .
that they have the pleasure of ibe fer To-day, for the first tiine, I rode op an tival, and gain a few rupees by their elephani; his motions are by no means journey. Wileasant, and they are quick enough I am sorry the Peishwa is now abe tu keep a horse at a round trot to keep sent un a pilgrimage, as I should like to w with him. The anjinal we rode is see a native privce. I am told that be
levene feet higb; his forehead and ears is a man of little or no ability, a great are in autifully mottled ; ' his cusks are sensualist, and very superstitious. His were chuck, and saned off to a convenient time is spent in making pilgrimages, or lenth for him to kneel while his riders buried in his zezana. Hurdly a week mount. On his back an enormous pad passes without some devout procession, is wluced, and tighty girt with chains on which he squanders immense suins, and contra rope; upon this is placed the and consequently he is always poor. bowoda, a kind of box divided into two The Peislina's family is Biaminical, warisi tie frunt coura:uiny a seat large but of so lux an order ibat the pare