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TO TAGLS AND TRAVEL 9.
Letters. By Captain William Stothert, ad. Travels into the Interior of Brazil, partie jutant, Third Guards. 8vo. with a map of the Bularly in the Gold and Diamond Districts of seat of war. 8s. that Country. By J. Mawe. 410. 21. 2s. A Sketch of the present State of Caracas,
A Narrative of the principal Events of the including a Journey from Caraccas through La Campaigns of 1809, 1810, and 1811, in Spain Victoria and Valencia to Puerto Cabello. By and Portugal, interspersed with remarks on Robert Semple, author of " Two Journeys in local scenery and manners; in a series of Spain," &c. 6s.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
W H ILE the controversy about na- ties in France is thirty-five; the number V t ional education attracts general of lyceums, forty-seven; and, the number attention in this country, it may not be of colleges, is four hundred and eighty. uninteresting to glance at the state of six !!! Besides these, there are one learning amongst our Gallic neighbours. hundred and twenty-four establishments It appears unquestionably that Bona. under the title of Secondary Ecclesias. parte is under no apprehension as to the tical Schools ;" by which it would appear effect of knowledge on the people of that the other institutions do not interFrance ; for, in nothing has his power fere with theological instruction. Thus, been more signalised, than by the nu. even after making due allowance for the merous, or, we might figuratively say, difference of population between this the innumerable, national institutions for country and France, it must be adipilted diffusing useful and scientific learning that the establishments for learning and among his whole population. There is education, in the latter empire, make at present scarcely a city in France our own appear insignificant, and un. which has not its established university, worthy of a nation which emulates, and, while in every large town there is a Ly. in many respects, truly deserves the apo meum, or public Seminary, for teaching the pellation of the greatest in the world! physical and mathematical sciences. All To those who may be disposed to be cy. these are supported by the direct pa. nical, we exclaim, “ go and do thou like. tronage of the government, which ap- wise." points commissioners and inspectors. We avail ourselves of the interest general, and supplies funds to such of likely to be created by the preceding the establishments as may be in need of statement, to invite soine of our publicpecuniary aid. Imperial Decrees and spirited readers, in every county or disStatutes are also from time to time trict, to oblige us with a list of their issued for their better regulation. In local institutions for purposes of edumost of the large towns, the Chateaux cation, specifying the numbers taugbt of the monks and ci-devant nobility which in them, their objects, foundation, orie escaped the revolutionary furor, have been gin, &c. &c. Such a list will not only appropriated to the numerous lyceums. gratify our readers, but will, we are per That of Bourdeaux, for instance, is esta- suaded, exhibii facts honorable to the blished in the ancient and extensive spirit of the people of England. buildings of the Visitation and the Feue We speak from personal knowledge of illans; that of Calais is in the old College the correctness of the following statement and the Monastery of the Cordeliers; relative to certain wonders of the English that of Caen, in the beautiful old Abbey press, which lately appeared in the of St. Ecienne; that of Marseilles, in Newspapers. Although the ascendancy what was the Monastery of the Berna. of Moore's Almanack affords little proof dins; while minor establishments occupy of enlightened character, yet the pruni. various Palaces and Castles! Our readers gious circulation of Mavor's improved will learn with surprise, that the Official Spelling Book exemplifies the attention Register, which is annually published, which is paid tu education, as well by and lies before us, under the title of parents as by guardians of public schools, " Almanach de l'Université Imperiale," in which we believe this Spelling Book though it contains merely the naines and is now generally introduced.-Modern situations of these national establish- literature affords no examples of the mula menis, and those of the learned profes. tiplication of copies equal to those of sors, fills a voluine of 465 closely printed Moore's Almanack and Mavor's Spellingpages! From this work of reference, we Book. Of that famous Almanack, about discover tbat the nuinber of Grand Aca. 420,000 copies are sold annually; and of dernies, or as we would say, of universie that generally-used Spelling-Book, about
120,000 in the same period; yet, as the English School; interspersed with Spe. former consists of only two sheets, cimens from the Italian Masters, parti. and the latter of seven, each consumes cularly Raffaello d'Urbino, &c, By JAMES 840,000 sheets, or 1680 reams of paper! MINASI, Esq. Historical Engraver to his If, then, one printing-press can work Sicilian Majesty, and his Royal Highuess three reams per day, Moore's Almanack the Duke of Sussex. will employ four presses, or cight men, The Rev. GEORGE CRABBE is prepa. nearly six months; and Mavor's Spelling, ring a volume of Tales, to be printed two presses, or four men, all the year, uniformly with his other works." besides the employment of binders, &c. Dr. BATEMAN has been engaged for &c. The press of no country boasts of some time past, in preparing for publicaworks of similar circulation."
tion, a short Treatise on the Diseases of Another proof demonstrative of the the Skin, according to the lucid arrangeimproved state of education in England, ment devised by the late Dr. Willan, may be drawn from the known cone which is calculated to teach accuracy in sumption of elementary books of geo- the discrimination of the appearances graphy, a science in which, till lately, of eruptive disorders, and to render the the mass of the English were proverbilanguage, in this department of Medially ignorant. There are now sold an. cine, clear and definite. From a long aually about
connection with the same public insti12,000 of Goldsmith's Grammar of Geo
tution with Dr. Willan, and from direct graphy.
personal communication on these topics, 2,000 of Geography for Youth.
Dr. Bateman will be enabled to include 2,000 of Geography for Children.
in his synopsis, a view of the unfnished 2,000 of Turner's Geography,
parts of the classification, as well as of 2,500 of Goldsmith's popular Geography. Those already before the public. . 4,000 of ditto's British Geography.
An Account of the Life and Adminis. 1,500 of Guthrie's Grammar.
tration of Cardinal Wolsey, is announced 4,500 of Walker's, Vyse's, Evans's, &c. &c. for speedy publication, by John GALT,
In all 50,000. By which it would appear, that, in Greatá Translation of Michaelis' celebrated Britain, at least 30,000 children are work on the Mosaic Law, in two parts, constantly instructed in this science! is announced, by the Rev. ALEXANDER Twenty-five years ago the annual sale of SMITH, of Keith Hall. all books of this class did not exceed The Rev. CHARLES LATROBE is pre. 5000.
paring for the press, Letters on the NicoSir IlumPURY Davy will publish
bar Islands, written by L. G. Hoensel. early in November, Elements of Agri
seven years a missionary of the United cultural Chemistry, in a Course of Lec. Brethren at that station: tures delivered before the Board of Agri. Mr. Price, a gentleman attached to culture, illustrated with plates en our Persian embassy, has made drawings graved by Laurie.
on the spot, of every town, village, castle, Messrs. Longman and Co. have nearly ruin, inouniain of note, &c, during the ready for publication, in three volumes, whole route from the Persian Gulf to in quarto, the Reports, Estimates, and Tehran, the Persian capital. Ile has Treatises, embracing the several subjects made Panoramic views of Shiras. Persze of Canals, Navigable Rivers, Harbours, polis, Ispahan, Kashan, Kom, and Teba Piers, Bridges, Draining, Embanking, ran; giving the costumes of the people, Lighthouses, Machinery of various De- &c. so that on bis return to England, scriptions, including Fire Engines, Milly, the public may expect to be gratified &c. &c, with other Miscellaneous Papers; with the fruits of his labor through this drawn up in the course of his employ extensive and interesting tract of coon, ment as a Civil Engineer, by the late try, hitherto so little known in Europe Mr. Joux SMEATON, F.R.S. It wil beA new edition is in the press of the illustrated with Plates engraved by Lau•, Greek Testament, with Griesbach's Text rie, and printeil chicfly from his Manu. containing copious Notes froin Hard scripts, under the direction of a Select Raphel, Kypke, Schleusner, Rosenmüller Committee of Civil Engineers.
&c. in familiar Latin : together with pa. A Prospectus has been issued for pub- rallel passages froni the Classics, 2018 lishing by subscription, a Work consists with references to Vigerus for idioms ing of Original Academical Studies fruin and Bos for ellipsis, by the Rev. E the liuman Figure, and Historical Com- VALPY, B. D. Trini. Coll, Camb. positioas selected from the Works of the A Lexicon of the New Testament
in preparation, principally intended for who endowed two professorships. The the use of schools, consequently less ex. Orator next adverted to the sciences tensive than Parkhurst's Lexicon, though connected with Medicine, viz. Anatomy compiled on a somewhat similar plan. and Chemistry; and enlarged upon the
Mr. WATSON, the author of Strictures liberality of those who established and on Bonkkeeping and Accounts, proposes improved the Botanical Garden, as, the publishing by subscription, British Proof Earl of Danby, Sherrard, and others, con. Tables or Calculation, being an import- cluding with a high and merited eulogiuin ant improvement of calculation, and will on Dr. J. Sibthorpe, whose ardent purbe a useful acquisition to the counting- suit of Botany led hin all over Greece, bouse.
where he literally trod The Rev. ROBERT WALPOLE has in
Avia Pieridum loca; the press, an Essay on the Misrepre- and lamenuing bis untimely death, which sentations, Ignorance, and Plagiarisms, prevented the intended publication of of certain Infidel Writers.
his valuable collections. An Account of the Gold Coast of Af. The Duke of Devonshire lately bought rica, and of the Manners, &c. of the Na. the Count Maccarthy's splendid library tives, has been undertaken by Henry for 25,000 guineas. MEREDITH, Esq. Governor of Winnebah According to some late experiments Fort.
on the comparative strength of men and Dr. Trotter is about to print a Tra- horses, applicable to the movement of gedy in five acts, entitled, The Noble machines, it appears that the effect of foundling, or the Hermit of the Tweed; a horse is fourteen times greater than founded on the traditional History of the that of a man ; or, which amounts to Border.
the same thing, fourteen men must be In the month of August will be pub- used instead of one horse. Hence it lished, The Scripture Doctrine of Grace appears, that it is much more advanta. Vindicated; being Remarks on Calvinism geous to employ hur-es than men in Refuted by the Bishop of Lincoln; moving inachines, if other reasons did not, wherein is examined and brought to the in some cases, require us to preler men, test ef Scripture, his Lordship's views of Mr. G. THOMPSON, of the Classical, Original Sin, Free Will, Regeneration, Commercial, and Mathematical, Seini. Justification, Faith, Good Works, Re- nary, Penriill, and Mr. MOORHOUSE, demption, Election, and Final Perseve- of Rotherham, bave published their iesrance. By an Old Calvinist.
rimony in favor of the interrogative sysThe author of the Mental Telescope tein of instructing youth. has made considerable progress in a Tale The canker in the stems and branches designed for youth, and to be entitled, of apple trees may be cured, merely by Rose and Emily, or Sketches of Youth. lifting the trees in October or November,
On the 10th of June was celebrated in planting then again above the land's the Theatre at Oxford, Lord CREWE's level, upon little hills of common road. annual Commemoration of Founders and sand taken from the scraped heaps by Benefactors of the University: when see the highway-side. No other application veral Honorary Degrees were conferred. is wanted for the cankered holes in the The Creweian Oration was delivered by stem-rub the road-sand into the wounds the Rev. William Crowe, B. C. L. of after cutting out all the black. Branches New College, and Public Orator, in must be cut away to sound wood, and, if which he very eloquently spoke in praise you reduce the tree to a mere post, a of those public benefactors to the Unic new head will quickly shoot fortli. versity who have patronized the study The interest of the public was powere of Medicine. He introduced his speech fully excited during the past monili, by with a description of the city of Oxford, accounts from Barbadoes and Nevis, of the pleasant and healthy situation of a preter-natural darkness, on the first of which happily made it less suitable to the May, and a fall of volcanic dust, which prosecution of medical science. Among indicated some great natural convulsion the public benefactors celebrated, were, in that part of the World. It was feared first, Dr. Radcliffe, the founder of the that the dreadful earthquakes which bad travelling fellowships for the study of ruined the Caraccas in March, * had replıysic, and of the Lifirmary; Lord Lich
turned field, formerly Chancellor of this Unie versity, who instituted the Clinical Lec- The St. Thomas's Gazette, of the 9th ture ; and, in earlier times, the cele of April, gave the following particulars :frated physician and scholar, Linacer, March 26 bas been a day of woe and
turned with novel effects : and, reports idca may be formed of this awful conflagrawere actually circulated of the destruction tion, when 'stated, that showers of volcanic of the Islands of Martinico and Guada- particles continued pouring for several hours Joupe. Al length, however, the follow all over the island, accompanied, at intervals, ing accounts from St. Vincent's explained with violent shocks of earthquake, and at
times, from the dreadful aperture of the the phenomena; and, we conceive, we
mountain, were shot off rocks of enormous are called upon by their interesting na
size, which in their fatal fall have done the ture, to insert them at length.
most calamitous injury, and such has been The St. Vincent's Gazette of the 2d of May
the destructive impetuosity of the liquid fire, contains the following account of the dread
that its baneful effecrs are of the most serious $ul eruption of the volcano on the Souffrier
nature. The brilliancy of the flames, which Mountain:
majestically rose from the mouth of the cra“ Amongst the evils, natural and experi
ter, had a must sublime and awful effect, mental, which this island aid already most
and the burning stones ishich darted in the woefully experience, it has now to enumerate air resembled the stars in a rocket. The the awlul visitation of an eruption of the vivid Aashes of lightning, which shot forth a Souffrier mountain, which, in its symp
noise far exceeding the heaviest artillery, re. foms and effects, surpasses the most terrific
sembled in colour and brightness what is picture we can possibly draw of it. The fol
usually seen in a tempest; and the curling Towing, as far as we have yet ascertained, are sheets of smoke so obscured the sky, that the particulars :-On Monday last, a loud ex
yesterday morning, until ten o'clock, was plosion of the volcanic mountain took place,
nearly involved in nocturnal darkness. So followed by an immense column of thick, sul
dreadful were these appearances, that our phurous smoke, which suddenly burst over
terrors added new horror to the scene; the the vicinity of the crater, and in the course
whole island was in a state of trepidation, and of a minute discharged vast quantities of
the people, filled with supplication and dread, volcanic matter; the whole surface became
precipitately retreated from their homes to covered with ashes, which presented an
places of shelter. About noon yesterday, the alarming appearance, and the noise which
wind blew from the south-east, the sun made proceeded from the bowels of the mountain
its appearance, and the whole heavens began threw the whole neighbourhood into the ut. to brighten. The eruption, we find, has most consternation. But this is not all, the abated considerably in its violence, but we amazing scene remains yet to be told !-The understand that the leeward and wind ward truption, continuing with increased violence, plantations are covered all over with torrents presented, on Thursday night and yesterday of melted matter morning, one of the most awful sights hu- Another account says "The Souftrier man imagination can form an idea of. The Mountain.the most northerly of the lofty chain mountain burst forth in a most tremendous
running through the centre of this island and blaze, throwing up huge spouts of fire and
od the highest, as computed by the most accurate burning stones, accompanied with the most
survey that has ever yet been taken, had for frightful thundering noise-at the same time
some time past indicated much disquietude ; sending down its sides torrents of burning
and from the extraordinary frequency and matter, and scattering in the air large pieces violence of earthquakes, which are calculated of rock, which, in their descent, made a
to have exceeded two hundred within the last dreadful ravage among the cattle, &c. Some
year, portended some great movement or
eruption. The apprehension, however, was horror to the province of Venezuela. At not so immediate, as to restrain curiosity, or four p. m. the City of Caraccas stood in all its to prevent repeated visits to the crater, which splendor; a few minutes later 4500 houses, of late had been more numerous than ac any 19 churches and convents, with all the pub- former period, even to Sunday last, the 26th dic buildings, monuments, &c. were crushed of April; when sorne gentlemen ascended it, tu atoms by a sudden shock of an earthquake, and remained there for some time. Nothing which did not last a minute, and buried unusual was then remarked, or any external thousands of the inhabitants in ruing and de. difference ubserved, except rather à stronger solation. La Guayra has, in proportion, emission of smoke from the interstices of the suffered still more, as well as its immediate conical hill, at the bottom of the crater. To coast. Huge masses of the mountains were those tbat have not visited this romantic and detached from the summits, and hurled down wonderful spot, a slight description of it, as into the vallies. The following cities and it lately stood, is previously necessary. towns also suffered :-Cumana, New Barce. « About 2000 feet from the level of the sea Tona, Val ncia, and Magueta, nearly de- (calculating from conjecture), on the south stroyed; Barquisimeto, Santa Rosa, and Can- side of the mountain, and rather more than dare, totally destroyed; St. Charles and Cara- two-tbirds of its height, upens a circular maocte', very much injured; Arilagua surik; clasm, somewhat exceeding half a mile in and the inland town of Sc. Philip; with a popu- diameter, and between 400 and 500 feet in datioa ui 1200 persons, entirely swallowed up." deptia : exactly in the centre of this capacious
bowl bowl, rose a conical hill about 260 or 300 inmense height, with a noise at intervals feet in height, and about 200 in diameter, like the muttering of discant thunder. richly covered and variegated with shrubs, “On Wednesday, the 29th, all these me. brushwood, and vines, above half way up, nacing symptoms of horror and combustion and the remainder covered over with virgin still gathered more thick and terrific for nuiles sulphur to the top. From the fissures of the around the dismal and balf-observed moun. cone and interstices of the rocks, a thin white tain. The prodigious column shot up with smoke was censtantly emitted, occasionally quicker motion, dilating as it rose like a bala tinged with a slight bluish flame. The pre- loon. The sun appeared in total eclipse, and cipitous sides of this magnificent amphithea- sbed a meridian twilight over us, that aggra. tre were fringed with various evergreens and rated the wintry gloom of the scene now comaromatic shrubs, flowers, and many alpine pletely powdered over with falling particles, plants. On the north and south sides of the It was evident that the crisis was yet to come base of the cone were two pieces of water, one that the burning fluid was struggling for perfectly pure and tasteless, the other strong- a vent, and labouring to throw off the superly impregnated with sulphur and alum. This incumbent strata and obstructions, which suplonely and beautiful spot was rendered more pressed the ignivomous torrent. At night, it enchanting by the singularly melodious notes was manifest that it had greatly disengaged of a bird, an inhabitant of these upper solin itself from its burthen, by the appearance tudes, and altogether unknown to the other or fire flashing above the mouth of the crater. parts of the island: hence principally called On Thursday, the memorable 30th of or supposed to be in visible; though it cer- April, the reflection of the rising sun on this tainly has been seen, and is a species of the majestic body of curling vapour was sublime merle.
beyond imagination-any comparison of the "A century had now elapsed since the last Glaciers, of the Andes, or Corderas with it, convulsion of the mountain, or since any can but feebly convey an idea of the fleecy other elements had disturbed the serenity of whiteness and brilliancy of this awful column this wilderness than those which are common
those which are common of intermingled and wreathed smoke and to the cropical tempest. It apparently slum. clouds ; it afterwards assumed a more eul. bered in primeval solitude and tranquillity, phureous cast, like what we call thunderand, from the luxuriant vegetation and growth clouds, and in the course of the day a ferrugi. of the forest, which covered its side from the nous and sanguine appearance, with much base nearly to the summit, seemed to dis
livelier action in the ascent, a more extensive countenance the fact, and falsify the records dilation, as if almost freed from every obof the ancient volcano. Such was the majes- Struction; in the afternoon, the noise was tic, peaceful Souffrier on April the 27th ; but incessant, and resembled the approach of we trod on ignem supositum cineri doloso, and our thunder still nearer and nearer, with a vibraimaginary safety was soon to be confounded sion that affected the feelings and hearing; by the sudden danger of devastation. Just as at yet there was no convulsive motion, or the plantation bells rang twelve at noon on sensible earthquake. The Charaibs settled Monday the 27th, an abrupt and dreadful at Morne Ronde, at the foot of the Souffrier. crash from the mountain, with a severe con abandoned their houses, with their live stock, cussion of the earth, and tremulous noise in and every thing they possessed, and tied prethe air, alarmed all around it. The resurrec. cipitately towards town. The negroes betion of this fiery furnace was proclaimed in a came confused, forsook their work, looked up moment by a vast column of thick, black, to the mountain, and as it shook, trembled, ropy smoke, like that of an immense glass- with the dread of what they could neither un. house, bursting forth at once, and mounting derstand nor descrive-che birds fell to the to the sky; showering down sand, with gritty ground, overpowered with showers of favilla, calcined particles of earth and favilla mixed, unable to keep themselves on the wing-the on all below. This, driven before the wind cattle were starving for want of food, as not towards Wallibou and Morne Ronde, darken. a blade of grass or a leaf was now to be found ed the air like a cataract of rain, and covered the sea was much discoloured, but in no the ridges, woods, and cane-pieces with lights wise uncommonly agitated; and it is remark. grey colored ashes, resembling snow when able, that throughout the whole of this vioslightly covered by dust. As the eruption lent disturbance of the earth, is continued increased, this continual shower expanded, quice passive, and did not at any time sym. destroying every appearance of vegetation pachise with the agitacion of the land. About. At night a very considerable degree of igni. four o'clock P. M. the noise became more tion was observed on the lips of the crater : alarming, and just before sun-set the clouds but it is not asserted, that there was as yet reflected a bright copper color, suffused witla any visible ascension of flame. The same fire. Scarcely had the day cioses, when che awful scene presented itself on Tuesday ; the flames barst at length pyramidically from the fall of favilla and calcined pebbles still in. crater, through the mass of smoke ; the rollcreasing, and the compact, pitchy column ing of the thunder became more awful and from the crater rising perpendicularly to an dcafening; electric fa.hce quickly succeede