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timate knowledge of human nature, than most physicians have the opportunity of possessing.
that no bodily ailment happened without the intervention of mind; Plato says, “Omnia cor,poris mala ab anima procedere;" and Philostratus, “non conquinatur corpus, nisi consensu
animæ," Without admitting this doctrine to the extent which these philosophers would per.
SAMUEL FOTHERGILL, M.D
REPORT OF THE PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY.
sent deservedly-popular science of Chemistry, we flatter ourselves that we shall be per. forming a task not altogether unacceptable to the majority of our readers, and trust that, ia the prosecution of our design, the necessary brevity to which we are constrained, will excuse, in some degree, those slight obscurities which, in summarily treating such a subject, can hardly fail to prove occasionally unavoidable.
The interesting experiments of M. KIRCHOFT, of St. Petersburgh, proving that starch may be converted into sugar by the action of dilute sulphuric acid, have been eagerly repeated by the most distinguished chemical philosophers in Europe. This singular conversion is produced by boiling 100 parts of starch with 400 of water, and from two tu cight parts of strong
sulphuric acid, in an unglazed earthen vessel for a period of from 24 to 56 hours, constantly • Hirring the mixture during the first hour, (after which it becomes more Auid) and carefully
maintaining the original quantity of water by adding more as it is wasted. Upon growing
cold the mixture must be neutralized with chalk, and clarified by charcoal ; filtrated through * flannel, and evaporated to che consistence of oil. It must then be again cooled, in order to remove its sulphate of lime, and the clear liquor, if further gently evaporated, will yield about 100 parts of gummy syrup of the specific gravity of 1.295, easily susceptible of vinous fermentation, and when separated from the gum, which in general forms no less than a fifth part of it, capable of being crystallized, and applied to all the common purposes of native sugar, With the rationale of this very important transmutation we are not yet acquainted. It is plain, however, that the acid still exists undecomposed, and there is reason to believe that the quantity of water is increased. The probability therefore is that the agency of the acid is er. erted in abstracting from the starch a part of its hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions requisite to form che excess of water, and in thus enabling its remaining principles to be in such way arranged as to induce the extraordinary change effected.
An easy method of comparing the quantity of light which bodies emit on burning, has been given us by Mr. NicHOLSON. He says, that, when the shadows of the same object, projected on a wall by two lights, are equally dark, the lights themselves are equally intense Chat, if not, the darkest shadow will be projected by the interruption of the brightest of the
lights; and that, if this brightest light be then removed farther from the wall, eill both sha.dows become equally dark, and the distances of the lights from the wall be in that situation .." measured, the intensity of each will be in proportion to the square of its distance. For exam.
ple, if two lights give shadows equally black or dark, when their distances from the wall are - respectively five and seven feet, the intensity, or quantity of light emitted from them, will
be respectively as 25 (or 5X5) and 49 (or 7X7).
A heavy viscid cil, possessing the favour of hops united with the odour of outmegs, and burning with a greenish fame, has been produced by transmitting chlorine gas through oil of turpentine.
rum a series of elaborate experiments by M. BEBZELIUS, of Stockholm, now in London, we have additional reason to believe that the base of Silica is of a metaline nature, the ingenious Professor having succeeded in uniting it to irva and other metals, without impairing their me Lalline propertics.
• From the same able source, we expect soon to have the pleasure of announcing to the sci. entific world, the publication of some observations upon Nomenclature, a work which, owing
to the rapid strides of modern chemistry, is already very much required. · The proposal of Sir Humphry Davy to introduce into the processes of bleaching calicoes and linens, the use of oxymuriate of magnesia, has experienced but slight attention, on ac. count of the enormous price of this new agent, when compared with that of oxymuriate of lime; a substance which has been successfully employed for many years, and which, toreover, has been proved devoid of those injurious qualities, even when in a concentrated state, from whose supposed existence the proposition of the celebrated Professor originaled.
Mr. Sylvester, of Derby, from having ascertained that the amelioration which rum espe. riences by being kept for some time in its cask, arises from an union of the gallic acid of the wood with the lead, which new rum generally contains, and on which depend its well-known pernicious properties, has been induced to offer this acid as a convenient test for the discovery of lead in cyders, wines, or other liquids, where its presence is suspected. The same gentle. man proposes also to detect arsenic, by the green precipitate occasioned by the addition of an acetate of copper, prepared by decomposing sulphate of copper with acetate of lead. And the presence of corrosive sublimate he recommends to be demonstrated by reducing its mer cury to a metallic state upon another metal, (by silvering a golden ring for instance with it) by the agency of galvanism.
A Prussian chemist, by the aid of galvanism, has united the constituent principles of blood into a substance of a reddish colour, which, he asserts, is very similar to the noble vital fluid itself. But that this is utterly impossible, must be the conclusion of any one who weighs the inimense difference between vital and chemical action; and we are truly sorry at seeing the ingenuity of so able a gentleman applied in the search of an object so unattainable ; for, as Arbuthnot has well observed," no chymist can make milk or blood of grass."
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. DURING the present month, the public mind has been kept in a state of constant agitation
by the tricks, maneuvres, and false news of stock jobbers, and gamblers in the funds. Wagers had been laid to a large amount by parties deeply interested, among whom were the conductors of many London Newspapers, of one thousand guineas to one hundred, that the omnium would, before Christmas, bear a premium of ten per cent. Actuated by such in ducements, can we wonder that men, long practised in all the arts of deception, should have moved the press and pen from Petersburgh to Cadiz, to insure success to their cupidity. Other effects have sprung irom the same cause, such as speculations in colonial produce, founded on a belief in the news spread by the stock-jobbers. Some temporary benefit may thus have accrued to some individuals, likely however to be followed by ruinous disappointinents. Om. nium was on the 19th done at 10 per cent., the purpose therefore was effected. How dis. graceful are such transactions to the moral and intellectual character of a people!
The deplorable state of trade, credit, and confidence, in these Islands, late the focus of wealth, successful industry, and universal commerce, is partly demonstrated by the recorded bankrupicies of our merchants and manufacturers, during the successiye years of this fatal war. We say, partly demonstrated, because the bankruptcies register only the average proportion of commercial failures, the compositions and arrangements of distressed traders, being, it is supposed, about five times the number of the bankruptcies. By referring to the Indexes of the Monthly Magazine, we find the number of bankruptcies since the commence. ment of the war, to have been as follows, in England and Wales only. In 1803
912 Jn 1804
842 In 1805
1,088 In 1210 ..
1,688 In 1811
9,056 In 1812 ..
Bankruptcies since the commencement of the war . 1:2,138
of which TWELVE THOUSAVD BANKRUPTCIES, probably more than HALF have bees occasioned by circunstances arising out of the war irself. Nor are these all; other six thou. sand should be added for Scotland and Ireland; and five times that total for failures equally
mischievous to the parties, but settled by a composition. The whole forming a total of 108,000 traders, ruined within the last ten yeirs. When also we consider the dependants, relatives and connections of 103,000 of the most active traders in the empire, Its LIFE' BLOOD and SOURCE of POWER ; can we wonder at the misery which pervades the trading classes ?
In the two last years, the numbers per month have been as under:
| November, 1811
183 December ........
104 January, 1811......
February ............. February........
í March ........................ 139, March
171 171 June ......
158 one .....
August ..... August .........
1 September ........:
.......... 90) October ..........
. ....... 86
. 208 The commissioners for redeeming the national debt, between the 1st of November 1786, and 1819, have bought up of the public debt 242 millions; and their current means are: 6,814,0001. or above 15 millions per annum-but cui bono -are not the public expences ac the same cime augmenting ten millions per annum, and the debt forty millions.
As a further proof of commercial distress, the Court of King's Bench was lately occupied a day and a half in justifying bail. The whole number amounted at that time to seven hundred and seven. But in all, one thousand and twenty-seven had to justify. The Lord Chancellor too, in a late bankrupt cause, stated, that he had lately, in one day, put the seal to one hun. dred and sixteen commissions of bankruptcy ; being nearly a sixth of the whole that had taken place during the period that Lord Hardwicke presided in Chancery.
At Messrs Wolfe and Co.'s, Canal Office, No. 9, Change Alley, Cornhill.-London Dock stock shares fetch 1941. per cent.-West India ditto, 1471. Jitto.-East India ditto, 1051. ditto.-West Middlesex Water-works, 401. ditto. Grand Junction Canal 2001. ditto.
The 3 per cent. reduced on the 29th were 60, the 4 per cents. 70.
•. 107 ........ 78
95 | November ..
AGRICULTURAL REPORT. AFTER one of the most tedious, wasteful, and expensive harvests within memory, to toe 4 many parts of the country, and a seed season so protracted and interrupted by constant rains, that large breadths of land intended for wheat are left unsown, the labours of the field are at length nearly concluded, and the farmers either employed in the home-stall or in making and repairing fences, carting inanure, or other seasonable operations. The crops in general do not yield to expectation, wheat excepted, an unusual quantity of which has been hurried to market, from the almost total clearance of the old stock.' Vast quantities of oats and barley have been carted in a most unfavourable srace, whilst in the late loost irregular harvest, in some districts, every description of produce was saved in perfeccion. New inclosures, notwithstanding the disadvantage of exorbitant fees, proceed generally and with
The early-sown wheats have a luxuriant and healthy appearance, but a greater quantity : of land has been, from necessity, reserved for spring wheat, than in any former year. The lace frost has mellowed the soil, which now works well. Turnips are generally a good crop, and all the castle crops promise well. Reports of the potatoe crop very indifferent, boch in sespect to quantity and quality.
The catile markets have been abundantly supplied throughout the season, but the rot has prevailed much in the midland county Rocks, and has been general in Gloucestershire. Hogs and large pigs 'very dear, the smaller description cheap. Cows at a very higba price.
Smichfield: Beef 45. to 5s. 8d. --Mutton 4s, 8d. to 55. 8d Veal 69, to 8.-Lamb 20s. to 258. per quarter.-Pork 5s. 4d. to 75.-Bacon 85.--Irish ditto 75. 4d. to 7s. 8d Skins 20s. to 60s. Fat 58. to 5s. 2d. Oil.Cake 191, 19s. per chousand. ---Potatoes 61, to 91.. per too.
Corn Exchange: Wheat 90s. to 1365. The quartern loaf 1s. 64d.-Barley 50s. to 66s.. -Oats. 35s. to 63.-Hay 1l. to 5l. 185. per load. -Clover 5l. 101. to 71, 101.--Straw ai. 16s. to 21. 8s...! Middlesex, December 26, 1812.
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT.. Observations on the State of the Weather, from the 24th of November, 1812, to the 24th of December, 1812, incluside; Four Miles N. N.W. Sl. Paul's. Barometer.
Lowest, 21°, - 13. East.
In the morning of
the 5th instant the mer Greatest
on the evening of
cury stood at 40°, and variation in dredths of the same the same huur on variation in 100.5
on the following day at 24 bourh. aninch. the 16th it was 24 hours.
the same hour it was no higher than
( only at 30° 28-75. The quantity of rain during the month that is now closed, including snow, is very trifting, equal only to about half an inch in depth. The characteristic of the month has been very foggy weather, and, as might be expected, the wind bras blown almost constantly from the casterly points of the compass, on the greater part of thirteen days it has blown steadily from the east, and on fifteen others it has come from the south-east and north-esst. There have bren triling falls of snow on four days. The average height of the thermometer for the montb is 35:7, that of the barometer 49.54.
On the second of che ensuing month, at twenty-one minutes past five o'clock in the morne ing, the moon changes, or, as we usually say, it is a new moon : and on the 16th, at four minutes past six in the evening, the moon is full, when her recess from the two principal stars in the constellation Gemini, and her approach to the planet Jupiter, will repay the attention of an observer. Om che next evening she will be found to have passed that brilliatin planet.
Mercury is a morning star during the whole of January, but too near the sun to be seen till toward the middle or close of it. Venus is also a morning star, and the early riser will see Mars to the west and Saturn to the east of her ; but the latter is not visible till late in the month.
Jupiter is a fine object for telescopic observation towards ten in the evening, at which hour there may be seen eclipses of bis satellites, on the 7th, 16th, 23d, 28th, and Soth.
TO CORRESPONDENTS, &c. We beg leave to repeat the information, that our Office for publication and for the receipt of Communications is removed 10 No. 1, liternoster Row.
X. Y. and MODERATOR, who prefer an unusual request for the return of papers not yet used, are informed that delay is no evidence of the rejection of their pieces. Many circumstances render a productim interesting to the public and desirable to our Miscellany at particular periods, which ill suit other periods; and we often use a pe. per which has been unavoidably deferred for two or three years. In exercising This necessary discretion, our correspondents have the security that we can be influenced by no feeling but the interest of our work, their gratification, and that of our readers at large. The mixed considerations that govern us in giving precedency to one paper over another are the relative worth of the papers themselves the temporary interest of their subjects and their practical utility-preferring those in each class which have the real signatures of their Authors.
We lament that our Poetical Article was printed before we received the beautiful poem entitled the SWALLUWs, and hope our pledge to insert it next month, will be our sufficient apology for its non-appearunce. Several other accepted poetical favours are also deferred, owing to their coming to hand too late in the month.
We thank AMICUS. How could he suppose that we, of the fraternity, should chee raclerize all Booksellers as •i sordid, capricious, &c." He read our well-intentioned paragraph inatientidely, or he would have perceived that the epithets applied only to « PATRONAGE,” in the degree in which it might be attainable ; and not in any sense te BOOKSELLERS, many of whom we rank among the most liberal charucters in society. Sone liberal patronage may, howeder, be tardy; and some sordid patronage may be ob tained in & community of men, the majority of whom are liberal.
TO THE THIRTY-FOURTH VOLUME OF THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE. No. 236. JANUARY 30, 1813.
Sir Harford Jones, Bart. K.C. His through
Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and MiPersia. Armenia, and Asia Minor, nister Plenipotentiary to the Court of
Persia, in H. M. S. Sapphire, Captain TO CONSTANTINOPLE,
George Davies: after having touched at IN THE YEARS 1808 AND 1809; Madeira and at the Cape of Good Hope, In which is included,
we reached Bombay on the 26th of April, Some Account of tbe Proceedings of His Majes. 1808: owing to some political arrangea ty's Mission under Sir Harford Hones, Bart. . ments, we did not quit Bombay till the K.C.ro ibe Court of the King of Persia. 19th September. We arrived at Bushire
BY JAMES MORLER, ESQ. 'on the 13th October, and proceeded toHis Majesty's Secretary of Embassy to the
wards the Persian capital on the 13th Court of Persia.
December. H. M. Mission reached TeIn One Volume, 460. price 21. 2s.
heran on the 14th February, 1809 : on the 12th March the preliminary treaty
was signed between Sir Ilarford Jones SAs Civilization, Christianity,and Philosophy, and the Persian Plenipotentiaries; and
do not appear to raise the nations of France and England above the petty Rivalry and
on the 7th May I quitted Teheran with implacable Hatred which characterize the
Mirza Abul Hassan, the King of Persia's most barbarous ages and most ferocious Lovoy Extraordinary to the Court of tribes; so having exhausted all means of London, with whom I reached Smyrna injuring and destroying each other in Eu- on the 7th September, and 'embarked rope, they now begin to calculate on their there on board H. M. S. Success, Capt. power of waging war at the extremity of Ayscough. Having at Malia changed Asia ; and hence the recently conceived the Success for H. M. S. Formidable, we importance of Persia! Two French and finally reached Plymouth on the 25th two English Embassadors have therefore November, 1809. visited the Court of Teheran, within the
MODERN HISTORY. last fifteen years; and, in the elegant 'work The history of Persia from the donch of Mr. MORIEK, we have an interesting re- of Nadir Shah to the accession of the port of the last of the English Embassies, un. der Sir HART'ORD JONES, As Persia had not
i present King, comprehending a period of
. been described by an Englishman since the hity-one years, presents little else than a civil wars that followed the usurpation of catalogue of the names of tyrants and Nadir Shah, our curiosity was powerfully usurpers, and a succession of murders. excited by the announcement of Mr. Mo. treacheries, and scenes of misery. rier's work, and we can unreservedly de After the assassination of Nadir, one clare, that in its perusal we have been of the most formidable of the competitors abundantly gratified. Our copious extracts for the vacant throne, was Mahomed will bespeak to every reader, a bigh opinion Hassan Khan, the head of the Cadjar of the Author's ability; yet verbal descrip- tribe, and a person of high rank among tion constitutes but a portion of the value the nobles of Shah Thamas, the last king of the work. Twenty-nine Plates, many
of the Seffi race. Mahomed Hassan of them Views of Cities and Rivers, trans.
Khan had several sons: Hossein Kooli port their observer into Persia, and confer great credit on the taste of Mr. Morier as Than, the eldest, was father to the pre. a draughtsman. The work is also enriched sent King of Persia, and was killed in a by a plan of the route, drawn by the illus, battle with the Turcomans: Aga Mahoyious veteran, Major Rennell, who still med Khan, the second son, was the im. lives to honour science and his country.] mediate predecessor of his nephew on
the throne. PERIOD.
Mahomed Hassan Khan bad not long THE time of my absence from Eng. assuined the crown, when he was op
1 land coinprehends a space of liule posed by Kerim Khan, a native of Cours more than two years.--On the 27th of distan; who, under the pretence of proOct. 1807, I sailed from Portsmouth with tecting the rights of Israel, a lineal MONTHLY MAQ, No. 230.