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PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.
THE ROYAL SOCIETY. the sea near St. Michael's, we immedias THIS illustrious Body has just pub- ately concluded that the smoke we save
lished the first part of its transac- proceeded froin that cause, and, on our tions for 1812, containing the following anchoring the next morning in the road interesting Papers.
of Ponta del Gada, we found this con1. On the Grounds of the Method which jecture correct as to the cause, but not La Place has given in the second Chapter of to the time; the eruption of January the tbird Book of bis Mécanique Céleste for having totally subsided, and the present computing the Attractions of Spheroids of one having only burst forth two days every Description. By James Ivory, A. M.
prior to our approach, and about three 9. On the Attractions of an extensive class
miles distant from of Spheroids. By J. Ivory, A.M.
the one before ala
luded to. 3. An Account of some Peculiarities in the Structure of the Organ of Hearing in the
“ Desirous of examining as minutely Balæna Mysticetus of Linnæus. By Everard
as possible a contention so extraordinary
! Home, Esq. F.R.S.
between two such powerful elements, I 4. Chemical Researches on the Blood, and set off from the city of Ponta del Gada some other Animal Fluids. By William on the morning of the 14th, in company Thomas Brande, Esq. F R.S.
with Mr. Read, the Consul General of 3. Observations of a Comet, with Remarks the Azores, and two other gentlemen, on the Construction of its different Paris. After riding about twenty miles across By William Herschel, LL.D. F.R.S.
the NW. end of the island of St. Min 6. On a gaseous Compound of carbonic chael's, we came to the edge of a cliff. Ozide and Chlorine. By John Davy, Esq. from whence the volcano burst suddenly
7. A Narrative of the Eruption of a Vol. cano in the Sea of the Island of St. Michael.
upon our view in the most terrific and By S. Tillard, Esq. Captain in the Royal
awful grandeur. It was only a short
mile from the base of the cliff, which was 8. On the primitive Crystals of Carbonate
nearly perpendicular, and formed the of Lime, Biiter-Spar, and Iron-Spar. By margin of the se
margin of the sea; this cliff being as William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. sec. R.s. nearly as I could judge from three to
9. Observations intended to show that the four hundred feet high. To give you an progressive Motion of Snakes is partly per. adequate idea of the scene by description formed by means of the Ribs. By Everard is far beyond my powers ; but for your Home, Esq. F.R.S.
satisfaction I shall attempt it, 10. An Account of some Experiments on
“ Imagine an immense body of smoke the Combinations of different Metals and rising from the sea, the surface of which Chlorine, &c. By John Davy, Esq.
was marked by the silvery ripling of the 11. Further Experiments and Observations on the Action of Poisons on the Animal Sys
waves, occasioned by the light and steady tem. By B.C. Brodie, Esq. F.R.S.
breezes incidenial to those climates in From among these papers we liave in
summer. In a quiescent state, it had the present month selected the Narra.
the appearance of a circular cloud retite of the Eruption of a Volcano in the
volving on the water like an horizontal Sea off the Island of St. Michael. By
wheel, in various and irregular involu. S. TILLARD, Esq. Captain in the Royal
tions, expanding itself gradually on the Nury.
lee side, when suddenly a column of " Approaching the island of St. Min
od of Sr Mi the blackest cinders, ashes, and stones chael's, on Sunday the 12th of June,
would shoot up in form of a spire at an 1811, in his Majesty's sloop Sabrina,
angle of from ten to twenty degrees from under, my cominand, we occasionallý a perpendicular line, the angle of incliobserved, rising in the horison, two or
pation being universally to windward ; three columns of smoke, such as would
This was rapidly succeeded by a second, have been occasioned by an action be. third, and fourth, each acquiring greater tween two ships, to which cause we
we velocity, and overtopping the other till universally attributed its origin.
This they had a
this they had attained an altitude as much opinion was, however, in a very short
above the level of our eye, as the sea time changed, from the smoke increasing
was below it. and ascending in duch larger bodies than
“ As the iinpetus with which the co. could possibly have been produced by
lumns were severally propelled diminishsuch an event; and, having heard an ac.
ed, and their ascending motion had count, prior to our sailing from Lisbon,
nearly ceased, they broke into various that in the preceding January or Fc
branches resembling a groupe of pines ; bruary a volcano had burst out within these again forming themselves into fes. MostaLY Mac. No. 230,
toons of white feathery smoke in the crash. So soon as our first consternation most fanciful manner imaginable, inter- had a little subsided, we removed abuut mixed with the finest particles of falling ten or a dozen yards further from the ashes, which at one time assumed the edge of the cliff, and finished our appearance of innumerable plumes of dinner. black and white Ostrich feathers sur. “On the succeeding day, June 15th, mounting each other; at another, that having the Consul and some other friends of the light wavy branches of a weeping on-board, I weighed, and proceeded willow,
with the ship towards the volcano, with " During these bursts, the most vivid the intention of witnessing a night view; flashes of lightning continually issued but in this expectation we were greatly from the densest part of the volcano; disappointed, from the wind freshening and the cloud of smoke, now ascending and the weather becoming thick and to an altitude much above the highest hazy, and also from the volcano itself point to which the ashes were projected, being clearly more quiescent than it was rolled off in large masses of fleecy clouds, the preceding day. It seldom emitted gradually expanding themselves before any lightning, but occasionally as much the wind in a direction nearly horizontal, flame as may be seen to issue from the and drawing up to them a quantity of top of a glass-house or foundery chimney. water spouts, which formed a most beau. On passing directly under the great cloud tiful and striking addition to the general of smoke, about three or four miles disappearance of the scene.
tant from the volcano, the decks of the *That part of the sea where the vole ship were covered with fine black ashes, cano was situated, was upwards of thirty which fell intermixed with small rain. We fathoms deep, and at the time of our returired the next morning, and late on the viewing it the volcano was only four days evening of the same day I took my leave old. Soon after our arrival on the cliff, of St. Michael's to complete my cruize. a peasant observed he could discern a “On opening the volcano clear of the peak above the waler: we looked, but NW. part of the island, after dark on could not see it: however in less than the 16th, we witnessed one or two erups half an hour it was plainly visible, and tions that, had the ship been near enough, before we quitted the place, which was would have been awfully grand. It apo about three hours from the time of our peared one continued blaze of lightning, arrival, a complete crater was formed but the distance which it was at froin above the water, not less than twenty the ship, (upwards of twenty miles,) prefeet high on the side where the greatest vented our seeing it with effect. Requantity of ashes fell; the diameter of turning again towards St. Michael's, on the crater being apparently about four the 4th of July, I was obliged, by the or five hundred feet,
state of the wind, to pass with the ship " The great eruptions were generally very close to the island, which was novi attended with a noise like the continued completely forined by the volcano, being firing of cannon and musquetry inter- nearly the height of Matlock High Tor, mixed, as also with slight shocks of about eighty yards above the sea. At earthquakes, several of which having this time it was perfectly tranquil; which been felt by my companions, but none circumstance determined me to land, by myself, I had become balf sceptical, and explore it more narrowly. “I left and thought their opinion arose merely the ship in one of the boats, accompanied from the force of imagination; but, while by some of the officers. As we ap. we were sitting within five or six yards of proached, we perceived that it was still the edge of the cliff, partaking of a slight smoking in many parts, and upon our repast which had been brought with us, reaching the island found the surf on the and were all busily engaged, one of the beach very high. Rowing round to the most magnificent bursts took place which lee side, with some little difficulty, by we had yet witnessed, accompanied by a the aid of an oar, as a pole, I jumped very severe shock of an earthquake. on shore, and was followed by the other The instantaneous and involuntary inove- officers. We found a narrow beach of ment of each was to spring upon his feet, black ashes, froin which the side of the and I said “This admits of no doubt.” island rose in general too steep to admit The words had scarce passed iny lips, of our ascending; and, where we could before we observed a large portion of have clambered up, the mass of matter the face of the cliff, about fifty yards on was much too hot to allow our proceeding our left, falling, which it did with a violent more than a few yards in the ascent.
* The declivity below the surface of bottle sealed up containing a small ac. che sea was equally steep, baving seven count of the origin of the island, and of fathoms water scarce the boat's length our having landed upon it, and naming froun the shore, and at the distance of it Sabrina Island. twenty or thirty yards we sounded (wen. “Within the crater I found the com. ty-five fathoms. From walking round it plete skeleton of a guard fish, the bones in about twelve minutes, I should judge of which, being perfectly burnt, fell to that it was something less than a mile in pieces upon attempting to take them up; circumference; but the most extraordin and, by the account of the inhabitants on nary part was the crater, the mouth of the coast of St. Michael's, great numbers which, on the side facing St. Michael's, of fish bad been destroyed during the was nearly level with the sea. It was early part of the eruption, as large filled with water, at that time boiling, quantities, probably suffocated or poiand was emptying itself into the sea by a soned, were occasionally found drifted sinall stream about six yards over, and into the small inlets or bays. The island, by wluchi I should suppose it was contie like other volcanic productions, is com. nually filled again at high water. This posed principally of porous substances, stream, close to the edge of the sea, was and generally burnt to complete cinders, 39 hot, as only to adinit the finger to be with occasional masses of a stone, which dipped suddenly in, and taken out again I should suppose to be a mixture of iron innunediately.
and lime-stone. "It appeared evident, by the forma. tion of this part of the island, that the THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, LONDON, Bea had, during the eruptions, broke into The annual distribution of the pre. the crater in two places, as the east side miums and rewards, adjudged by the of the small stream was bounded by a Committee of the Society for the Encouprecipice, a cliff between twenty and ragement of Arts, Manufactures, and thirty feet high, forming a peninsula of Commerce, to the successful candidates about the same dimensions in width, and in the several classes, took place on the from fifty to sixty feet long, connected 26th of May. The Duke of Norfolk, as with the other part of the island by a president, distributed, in his usual, able, narrow ridge of cinders and lava, as an and dignified manner, the following re, isthmus of from forty to fifty feet in wards: length, from which the crater rose in the
In Agriculture. form of an amphitheatre.
To Dr. Ainslie, M.D. for his plantatione “This cliff, at two or three miles dis. at Griezedale, of 151,240 forest trees-the tance from the island, had the appearance gold medal. of a work of art resembling a small fort To the Rev:
To the Rev. Dr. F. Haggitt, for his im. or block-house. The top of this we were provement of fifty acres of land lying waste determined, if possible, to attain; but the
at Pittington, near Durham-the gold medal. difficulty we had to encounter in doing so
To J. Austin, esq. of Grange, near Strabane,
in Ireland, for gaining 300 acres of land from was considerable ; the only way to at the sea-the gold medal. tenipt it was up the side of the isthinus, To J. C. Curwen, esa. M.P. of Woking. which was so steep, that the only mode by ton-hall, Cumberland, for his improved which we could effect it, was by fixing method of feeding milch.cows the lesser gold the end of an oar at the base, with the medal. assistance of which we forced ourselves To J. Finch, esq. of Red-heath, near Wat. up in nearly a backward direction, ford, for 128 stocks of bees-the silver medal,
“ Having reached the summit of the or twenty guineas. isthmus, we found another difficulty, for
To Major Hesleden, first West York regi. it was impossible to walk upon it, as the ment, for improving twenty-one acres of bogey descent on the other side was immedia
medie land, at Clapham, in the county of York the
" lesser silver medali ate, and as steep as the one we had as.
To J. H. Moggridge, esq. Lanrumpcy, cended ; but, by throwing our legs across
Monmouthshire, for his remarks and experi, it, as would be done on the ridge of a ments on the growth of timber trees--the house, and moving ourselves forward by lesser silver medal. our hands, we at length reached that part To Mr. M. Braithwaite, of Kendal, Westof it where it gradually widened itself and moreland, for his plantation of 60,000 cimbes, formed the suinmit of the cliff, which we trees, near Hawkshead, in Lancashire the found to have a perfectly flat surface, of lesser silver medal. the dimensions before stated. Judging To T. C. Skurray, esg. of Alverdiscot, this to be the most conspicuous situation, near Barnstaple, for the culture of spring we here planted the Union, and left a wbeata
To Mr. J. Ogden, of Dukinfield, Cheshire, To Mr. H. W. Bedford-row, Holborn, for for his improved instrument for pruning tim. a drawing of the Outline of the Antinous ber trees ten guineas.
the silver medal. In Chemistry.
To Mr. R. W. Siever, Clarendon square, To Mr. C. Wilson, for a substitute for Somers'-town, for a pen-and-ink drawing Portland-stone chimney-pieces--twenty-five from the Battles of Le Brun--the lesser silver guineas,
medai. To Mr. R. D. Cathery, Mead's-row, Lam- To Mr. Petherick, of Penydarron Ironbeth, for transparent paper for the use of en works, near Merthyr Tidvil, Glamorgana gravers and painters-five guineas.
shire, for an original drawing of the said iron, In Polite Arts.
works-the lesser silver medal. To Miss Adair, Great Cumberland-place, To Mr. W. Morrison, Carburton-street, for an original drawing of flowers--the silver
Fitzroy-square, for a drawing of two Heads medal.
after Raphael--the silver pallet To Miss Phillips, of Wandsworth-road, for To Miss Eliza Hay, Tavistock-street, for a an original view of Cacrnarvon Bay-the lesser drawing of fruit, after an old painting-che silver medal.
silver pallet. To Miss L. Adams, of Billericay, Essex, To Miss A. Hayter, Wells-street, Oxfordfor an original historical drawing of the
road, for a drawing of Aurora, a copy-the Raising of the Widow's Son the lesser silver silver pallet. medal.
To Miss Steele, of Union-place, Lambeth, To Miss M. Geddes, Alderbury, near Salis. for a drawing of a landscape, a copy-the silbury, for an oil painting, a copy from Guido ver pallet. the lesser silver medal,
To Miss Edwards, Great Suffolk-street, To Mr. W. H. Harriott, Clipstone-street, Southwark, for a drawing of a Shepherd's Boy, for a View of Trossac Mountains, a copy--the a copy-the silver pallet. silver medal.
In Mechanics. To Mr. H. Parke, Dean-street, Soho, for an original painting of a View at the Nore
To Mr. M. Cooke, Winchester-row, Padthe silver medal.
dington, for a machine, by means of which To Master F. Y. Hurlstone, aged eleven
blind people can both learn and teach music years, of King sireet, Covent-garden, for a
the gold medal. drawing of the Head of Neptune, after Ra
To Mr. T. Machell, surgeon, Wolsingham, phael, a copy--the silver pallet.
near Durham, for an annular saw, which can To Miss H. Eyre, of Reading, a chalk cut deeper than its own centre-the gold drawing of a Magdalen, a copy--the silver
To Dr. G. Cumming, M.D. Denbigh, To Miss M. Sheppard, of Oley, Glocester
Wales, for a vapour, fumigation, or shower shire, for the copy of a drawing from Maral
bath, adapted at a cheap expense, for the use the silver pallet.
of public hospitals or private families—the silTo Miss E. E. Kendrick, Upper Mary-le
ver medal. bone-street, for a miniature of Jesus, from
To Mr. I. Goss, of Enfield, for a mechanie Guercino-the silver medal.
* cal instrument to work addition of numbers To Mr. G. R. Pain, Dixon's-place. New. with accuracy and dispatch the silver medal foad, for an original Design of a Gothic
and fifteen guineas. Church-the gold medal.
To Mr. T. Perry, of Farnham, for a chiroTo Mr. W. Pitts, James-street, Lambeth,
graphagist, intended to form the hand in wrifor an original Model in Wax of two War.
ting, so as to manage the pen with correctness riors--the lesser gold medal.
-the silver medal. To Mr James Craig, of Charlotte-strert,
To Mr. A. Hodge, Bride-lane, for a me. Rathbone-place, for an original etching of the
thod of preserving butter from becoming rancid Holy Family—the lesser gold medal.
in warm weather, or in hot climates-ten To Mr. J. H. Wright, High Holborn, for
guineas. an original engraving of a landscape-the sil.
To Mr. J. Davis, Catherine-street, Strand, ver medal.
for a temporary scaffold, by means of which To Miss E. Craig, Charlotte-street, Rath
the outside walls of houses may be repaired or bone-place, for an original drawing of fruit and
beautified with equal safety, and at a less ex. Howersthe lesser gold medal.
pense than usual the silver medal. To Miss M. A. Say, Norton-street, for a
To Mr. W. Bowler, Holborn-hill, for a drawing of Two Fallen Angels, a copy-the
mechanical method of destroying rais and other lesser silver medal.
vermin-tenguineas. To Miss Violet, Upper James-street, for a
To Mr. W. Sampson, Great Wild-street, miniature drawing, a copy the silver ballet. for a churn, by which butter may be easily
To Mr. Jones, St. Chad's-row, for a draw and quickly made-the silver niedal and ten ing of Mr. Kemble, in the character of Corio. guineas. Janus--the silver medal,
To Mr. J. Martin, Flecc-street, for a me.
thod of relieving a horse fallen down in the stones, coarse cinders, or coarse bart shafts of a loaded cart-ten guineas.
raised about ten or tweive inches over the To Mr. J. King, Mulberry-court, near the crown of each plant, and, from about the Bank, for a machine to enable shoe and boot latter end of February to the latter end of makers to work without pressure upon the
March, the plants will be very fine and breast and stomach-ten guineas. To Mr. D. Ricchie, Prince's-street, Cler
fit for use. I prefer that which has been kenwell, for a compensation-penduluin to pre.
bleached with our round sea-gravel, about vent the going of a clock from varying by heat
the size of larje pease or beans, to any pr cold-twenty guineas.
other mode whatever. The plants should
be cut but once in a year, as cutting it Among the papers published in the last
oftener weakens and lessens the size of volume of the Transactions of this useful Society, was the following account of the
the plants. Il it is not desired to have culture of Sea-Cale, or Sea-Kale, by H.
the plants large, they may be bleached B. Way, esy. of Bridport:
and cut a year sooner. “The mode which I consider the best
“I have sent a specimen of the sandy
soil in which it grows naturally here, as I for the culture of sea-cale, is to draw
think the generality of gardeners are too lines in a very dry soil and dry situation,
careful, and manure the ground too highly on ground with a southern aspect, about
for it. In the month of April last, atier Iwo feet one way by about eighteen inches the other, and where the lines
cutting my plants, I covered the ground
all over, at least six inches above the cross to put in three or four good perfect
crown of the plants, with this earth: they seeds in a square or triangle, about three
soon shot up through it, and never looked inches apart; this may be done any time in November or December in open wea
finer or produced a larger quantity of good
secd than that year. ther, and it will require no other care af.
“I am thus particular in order to show terwards but keeping the ground clear
that this vegetable will succeed as well, from weeds till the autumn of the follow
if not better, in poor ground than in rich, ing year, when all the plants but one of
provided the soil be dry, and care taken the finest in each square may be taken up, which if wanted will serve to form
in the management; I speak from long other beds set the saine distance apart.
experience, having been well acquainted
with the management of this valuable The ground in the intervals of the plants
plant from my youth. When I cut the should be dug in the spring and fall of the
sea cale for use, I inmediately draw up year, taking eare not to injure the plants.
the earth with a trowel, so as completely The leaves should be left on the plants
to cover the whole of the plant; this I till they fall off paturally, which will not
fancy makes i hem grow more luxuriantly. in general be sooner than the latter end
This plant, if properly managed, is supeof November. In the autumn of the seCund year the same attention should be
rior to asparagus, and if more is cut than
wanted for immediate use, it will keep paid to the plants, and to remove the
for some days in a pan of cold water, but dead leaves.
of course it cannot be better than when In the third year, about the middle or latter end of November, when the leaves
recently cut. It precedes the use of aspan
ragus, being ready for the table in Februhave been cleared away, and the ground dug, each plant should be covered over
ary and March," close with a tub, pan, a heap of small