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per vaginam. And in the eighth volume fusion of language, which universal, he has given the detail of seven cases of prevailed in ihis department of the ague, which were speedily cured by the cine, while his attendance at a pobhe preparation of arsenic, which had re- institution brought many of these diseases cenily been recommended by Dr. Fow. constantly under his inspection. So ler. After the publication of the eleventh early as 1784 and 1785, that accuracy volume of this Journal, Dr. Simmons led him to attend to the elementary commenced a new series, under the title forms of eruptions, if we may so speak, of " Medical Facts and Observations;" upon which he saw that a definite de in the third volume of which a paper of menclature could alone be founded, and Dr. Willar's appeared, containing a de- upon which he erected the ingenious scription of several cases of ischuria system developed in his large work. renalis in children, which was found to At that period, in his notes of cases, la be connected with inflamination through has seloom designated eruptions by cher out the mesentery.

ordinary names; but speaks of papule In the year 1796, Dr. Willan com. scorbuticæ, eruptio papulosa, &c. In menced a series of monthly reports, after 1786, bis notes exhibit still more de the manner of those which Dr. Fother- cisive proofs of the careful attention gill had formerly given to the public, which he was directing to this subject, containing a brief account of the state in the minute descriptions (accompanied of the weather, and of the prevalent dis. by slight sketches with the pen,) of be eases in the metropolis. The practice of forms, magnitude, and progress, of erup a Dispensary, where the diseases of the tions. The zeal with which he was at poor, who are peculiarly exposed to the the same time investigating the origmal vicissitudes of the seasons, were observed acceptation of the Greek, Roman, and 09 a large scale, was particularly favour- Arabian, terms, applied to eruptire able for ascertaining the existence of diseases, is likewise manifested by his epidemics, and for estimating the state of copious collections from authors, and by the public health. By the additional the occasional alterations of the nomen. scheme, which Dr. Willan devised, of clature, applied in the cases, before be presenting a monthly catalogue of the had finally determined on his arrangediseases which came under his care, the ment. This was probably decided about state of the general health was brought the year 1789; as in the following year Fost distincily under the view. These his classification was laid before the seports were published in “the Monthly Medical Society of London, and boMagazine," which had been recently noured by the assignment of the Fa. established, and were continued to the thergillian goid medal of that year, to year 1800, when he collected them into the author. a small volume, and published them in It is scarcely necessary to state bere, 1801, under the title of “ Reports on the that the ground-work of this arrange Diseases in London.” This little work ment is laid in the external characters is pregnant with important and original or what we have above called the ele medical observations, especially on points mentary forms, of eruptions, which are of diagnosis, which are ihe foundation of distinguished in the outset by precise all rational and successful practice. definitions, such are pimples, scales, “ Eum verò recte curaturum, quem prime rashes, pustules, vesicles, &c. Upoa oriyo cause non fefelleril." Bilt, from this plan alone can a perspicuous and its unassuming pretensions and desulo intelligible classification be formed, as tory arrangement, it has not been suffi. in other branches of natural history. ciently known and valued by the pro. It was not till the beginning of 1798, fession: it never reached a second edi- that the first part of this work, including tion *

the Papulous eruptions, was published, We are unacquainted with the cir in which, as in the subsequent parts, cumstances which originally drew the each variety was represented by à coattention of Dr. Willan to the subject of loured engraving. In 1801, the second cutaneous diseases. Most probably his part, including the Scaly diseases of the own extreme accuracy made him feel skin, appeared ; in 1805, the third part, early a:d acutely the vagueness and con- comprising only two genera of Rashes,

viz. ineasles and scarlet-fever; and, i * The Monthly Magazine was also in 1808, the fourth part, comprehending debted to Dr. Willan, for many valuable the remainder of the rashes, and the anonymous papers.-EDITOR.

Bulla, or large vesicationsg the whole

containing

containing thirty-three plates, and com- nary porrigo favosa of the face, a disease prising about half of the classification. the origin of which had been falsely atFour orders, characterised by the ap- tributed to vaccination. Although six pearance of pustules, vesicles, tubercles, years have now elapsed since the pube and spots, remain unpublished ; and, lication of this volume, subsequent exwith the exception of the two first ge- perience has added no fact of importnera of pustular diseases, Porrigo and ance to the information which it conImpetigo, which have been long delayed tains ;-another proof of the accuracy of froin some impediments on the part of Dr. Willan's ob-ervation. the engraver and publisher, the rest of Several years aye, Dr. Willan made a the MS. is probably not at present in a collection of observations, in about two scate to meet the public eye.

thousand patients, with a view to an In the interim, however, from the investigation of medical physiognonny, temporary interest which the investigaor temperaments, chiefly in regard co sign of the vaccine question excited, the diseases to which each variety of Dr. Willan was induced so far to anti- temperament is peculiarly predisposerd, cipare the order of ocsicles, as to pub- and to the operation of medicines or lish, in 1806, a treatise “ On Vaccina- tbem respectively. In the prosecutiou cion;" in which he also introduced the of this inquiry, he procured several subject of chicken-pox (another vesicular drawings (portraits) illustrative of the disease,) in consequence of the mistakes, characteristic inarks of the more striking which had been committed, in supposing varieties. He arrived at some interestthat this was small-pox, when it occur. ing inferences respecting both the playred after vaccination. Two engravings sical and moral constitutions connected accompanied this treatise, which exhi- with these external characters, but he bited the regular form of the vaccine did not deem the matter sufficiently vesicle, the imperfect vesicle, the three matured to lay before the public. farieties of chicken-pox, and the ordi.

ORIGINAL LETTER.

ORIGINAL LETTER of the late Dr. not imagine that I think you inclined to

Hawkesworti, to YOUNG Lady, all the faults and follies that I shall wara on leuring schooL.

you against: but you must remember,

that all men have faults and follies; and DEAR MADAM,

that to caution persons while they are VOU are now going from the com, innocent, may prevent the shame and

pany, the conversation, and amuse. anguish of being reproved or upbraided ments of children, into a scene of life after they are guilty. which affords more rational pleasures, Great part of the happiness of every and will engage you in more important individual depends upon the opinion and pursuits. The world is opening before actions of others; it is therefore des you a wilderness in which many have sirable to gain and preserve the good been lost; and in which, among a thou. will of all: nor would I have you think sand broad ways, there is but one narrow any person either so mean in iveir state parh that leads to happiness and houour. of life, or so undeserving in their characIf this path is missed at setting out, it is ter, as that their good will is of no convery difficult to recover it: it is, there- sequence to you. Every one who thinks fore, of great consequence to be directed you love them, will love you; for this into it at first; and, though I hope you reason, be always ready to shew sour will be long under the protection and good will to all, by such acts of friendguidance of parents, in whom there is ship as are in your power; still taking all that can be wished in the relation, care to avoid a partiality, which may yet I shall give you a few plain instruc- lead you to do any thing in favour of one tions, which I hope will assist you in person, at the expense of another, or fulfilling your duty to them, in obraining of yourself. There are many acts of the good will of others, and promoting friendship to mankind in general, which your own welfare.

are neither difficult, troublesome, nor As my affection to you first led me to expensive. The principal of these is, this design, my knowledge of your capa. speaking well, or at least not speaking sity encouraged me to pursue is, Do ill, of the absent.

If

If you see a fault in another, do not and return it with fidelity and zeal. In make it the subject of conversation; this place, I would caution you never to hide it with as inuch care as if it was be trusted with the secrets of others, if your own. Do not think yourself justi. you can by any means avoid it with de fied by saying, that what you report to cency; reject it, as an enemy to your another's disadvantage is true. If all peace, and as a snare for your good the failings which are true, of the best of name. us, were to be told to our dearest friend, Whoever tells you a secret, tells it as perhaps all our virtues could scarcely se a secret to twenty inore; at length it is cure his estcem. But this rule must not betrayed; and as this breach of faith is extend to the concealing any thing by always denied by the guilty, the innocent which another may be injured in bis pro- are always suspected. It has been perty or character, it by revealing it thought good advice not to reveal your the evil may be prevented; and this is own secrets; but I would rather advise the only instance in which you are al. you to have none. Do nothing that, if lowed to speak of the faults of others. known, would wound your reputation,

Be always punctual in returning what or fill your own bosom with shame or te the world calls civilities. The failing in gret. To lie at the inercy of accident; this, however trilling, is often taken for to be obliged constantly to watch over contempt, or at least for want of esteem; our words and actions, lest what we wish and I have known the omitting to return to hide should be discovered, is the life a visit, or to answer a letter in due time, of a slave, full of fear, suspicion, and attended with coldness, indifference, anxiety. Those who have nothing to and worse consequences. That persons fear but falsehood and detraction, enjoy ought not tu set such a value on these their own innocence, have an open look, trities is true; but, if they do, it behoves a noble confidence, natire cheerfulness, us to act as if they ought. However, as and perpetual pence. If, upon any dit the resenting a breach of these punctilios ference, you should happen to lose an is really a fault, take care that you are intimate acquaintance, do not be eager not betrayed into it. Let it be a rule to relate she circumstances of the quarwith you never to resent any thing that rel, in order to justify your conduct and was not intended as an affront. Mere' condemn their's. Those stories, which negligences should be below your resent a thousand little circumstances make of ment; though, for the sake of the infir- importance to you, and warm your mind mities of others, you should guard against in the recital, are insipid to every other them in yourself.

person; and, while you think you amuse There are two ways of gaining the good them, and are rising into a person of will of the world, which weak people consequence, by a detail of your own practise, because they know no other : prudent inanagement, you will beone is flattery, the other is lavish pro. come tiresome, impertinent, and ridicu. fessions of friendship, which begin and lous, end on the lips. Never stoop to either If the party with whom you have difof these low and infamous arts : what- fered should pursue this method, che ever is thus gained, is bought too dear. wiser part of mankind will rather conTo refrain from this fault is easy, but to clude them to be in fault, froin their teal guard against the ill effects of it in others, to defend themselves, than you for your difficult; it is not, however, more diffi. silence; for it is a consciousness that cult than necessary. Always suspect others will condemn us, which makes us that a person who commends you to so eager to anticipate their judgment. your face, endeavours to gain a confi- This rule extends to your talking of yourdence that he intends to betray.

self and of your private affairs, on every Remeniber, that whoever inakes pro- other occasion except when it has some fessions of friendship which are not me pertinent relation to the discourse of the riled, is an hypocrite; and beware that company, or when it is necessary to obe your own vandty does not encourage you tain some valuable purpose. in think that you have merited uncom As to your behaviour at home, keep mon and excessire instances of favour, yourself always above the servants; Four and zeal to serve you. But the constant station is above their's, as their master's steady e-teem and friendship of a person daughter, while they are your father's ser long tried and well known, who has ob- vanis; and every one should act suite tained a reputation for virtuc and since- ably to their station. But do not think rity, is an invaluable treasure: if you that I mean that you should treat them find it, preserve it with a religious care, baughtily, or juok upon the uncanest of S

them

them with contempt; that you should opportunity of compensating your un. put on a commanding air, or speak to easiness. You should regard these aca them in a peremptory tone: this would cidents as opportunities of endearing be most effectually to lose the superiority yourself to them, and as tests of your of your situation, and to become de- prudence, duty, and affection. What spised and hatent by those who ought to may not children expect from a father, regard you with respect and esteem. who is a friend to the whole circle of My meaning is, that you should treat bis acquaintance! It is your happiness them courteously, but perunit no fami- to have such a father : think yourself harity. Never suffer yourself to be secure of every thing that is fit for you made their confidant in any thing that in bis affection, and do not anticipate they would conceal from their master bis bounty by requests : the pleasure of and mistress ; never make yourself a both will be lessened if you receive beparty in their discourse; and, if they cause you ask, and he gives because he should address themselves to you, de cannot deny you. liow very shameful, cline the conversarion with as inuch anda then, is the common triumph of fadress as you can, not to incur the iin- vourites, for having gained by inportue putation of pride or ill nature, by nity what is denied to inerit, and withe frowning looks and harsh lauguage. held by prudence! Whatever is thus Avoid also the opposite exereine: do not gained froin the band is lost in the lieart. watch their most trivial actions as a spy, I have seeni, with grief and resenunent, nor report every litile misdeineanour every tender moment watched, to urge which falls under your observation, with a request, and wrest a promise, from the the low pleasure and petry ofticiousness generous weakness of unguarded affec. of an informier. Never steal the know- tion. Ilow mean and selfi-h is such a lerye of what passes between them, practice! Remember, that a noble when they think they are nione, by mind will dispose a person in suffer secretly listening with a vain or inalevo. much, rather than ask a favour which he lent curiosily. What vull overbear by knows cannot be refuseri, if he thinks sach means may probably do you inore that his friend may, !!!enithstanding, harm, than any thing which may be have reason to wish it had not been thus discovered can do you good. If asked. I shall finish this long letter your mamma should delegate part of with a note of yet higher importance. her authority to you, in the management If you succeerd in every design which of the household affairs, use it with you forin, ne the world gives you, wil moderation, and give orders to the maid its utmost bounty 1s exhausted, your rather in her name than your own; you happiness will be still in perfict, young will then be obeyed, without seeming to will find some desire unsatisfied, and assume a comunand, or to value yourself your possession will never fill your upon it.

wishes. But do not sutter the present If your papa or mamma should at any hour to pass away unenjoyed, by an time express a di-approbation of your earnest and anxious iesire of some conduct, immediately resolve to amend future good; for, if this weakness is it, apologize for the past, and promise indulged, your happiness will still fly for the future: never seen in baste to from you as you pursue it, and there justify yourself; and, ihough you should will be the same distance between you think their displeasure unmerited, in and the object of your wishes, till all which it is a thousand to one but you the visions of magination shail vanish, will be mistaken; vet be sure to avoid and your progress to further degrees of all pert and self-suficient replies on the temporal advantage shall be stopped by one hand, and on the other sullen looks the grave. Il 15, 110wnlıstanıny, true, and duinb resentment. If it should that the expectation of future good, if happen that an harsh expression escapes the object is worthy of a rational desire, them, when their temper is rufiled by plea-es more than any present enjoythe perplexing accidents and disappoint- ment. You will, therefore, and that a ments of business, as it would be the we!l-grounded bope of heaven will give highest ingratitude and indecency in you a relish to whatever you shall possess to express inpatience and discontent, upon earth. If there is no time to so, as the reward of a contrary conduct, come, that we can anticipate with their own reflections upon what is past, pleasure, we regret every inument that when the mind is calm, will be in your passes; we see that time is flying away favour, and their affection will seek au with all our enjoyments; that youth is MuntaLY Mag, No. 235,

3 X

- short,

short, health, precario'is, and age ap. immediate use, I think you cannot fail proaching, loaded with infirmities, to which to understand now; and I would recoindeath only can put an end. For this mend the frequent perusal of this letter, reason, endeavour to secure an interest that you may at length comprehend in the favour of God, which will ensure the whole; for, as the world opens to to you an everlasting life of uninterrupt- you, you will see the reason and the ed and inconceivable felicity. Nor is use of other parts; and, if they assist this a difficult or an unpleasing attempt; you, in any degree, to pass through life no real present happiness need to be with safety and reputation, I shall think forfeited to purchase the future; for iny labour well bestowed. virtue and piety at once secure every

I am, dear Madam, goed of body and inind, both in time and

Your affectionale friend, eternity.

JOHN HAWKESWORTH. As many of these hints as may be of Bromley, Kent, December 14, 1748.

Extracts from the Portfolio of a Man of Letters.
SPANISH TRAGEDIES.

Chaldaisms, which deform the Hebrew
MAONTIANO, in the Discourse on text,
IV Spanish Tragedies prefixed to his

ABRAHAM, own Virginia, enumerates, as among the

The Hollanders possess an epic poem,

The most popular, these four: Los Aspides de in twelve books, with this title: it was Cleopatra. (2) El Tetrarca de Jerusalem.

ein, written by Arnold Hoogvliet, and was so (3) Reynar despues de morir. (4) EL

• popular that it attained the eighth ediConde Esex. We have on our theatre, An.

tion, which is a splendid quarto, dated thony and Cleopatra, Herod and Marie

1766. This pious epopea consists of ainne, and Essex, wbich are probably three

about seven thousand lines of rhymed of these favourite subjects. Can any

any Alexandrines. seader state, what is the fable of Reynur

The story begins with the journey of despues de morir ?

Abraham into Ægypt, to purchase corn, ECCLESIASTES.

The Pharoah falls in love with Sarah, obThe date of the composition of this

tains her, but is induced by a pesailence work has never been approachingly

to give her back. The feast of Isis forms ascertained. It quotes the Pseudo-Da.

an agreeable episode. The return of niel, employs the words of synch, and

Abraham to his land, the compact with upadangos, and has other marks of an

Lot, the attachment to Hagar, the visit origin subsequent to the Macedonian

of the Angels, the devoteinent of Isaac, conquest. To Philo, it appears to have

and, finally, the death of the patriarch, been utterly unknown; and is the only

are narrated in too historic an order, but one of the canonical books of the Old

with much spiritual grace. Testament which has escaped his notice. The passage, (c. iv. v. 13 and 14,) reads

CONRAD GESNER. very like an allusion to the detention in Conrad Gesner, the author of Mithpriscon, by Caligula, of the king Ptolemy ridates, and of other learned works, re Euergetes the Third, the son of Juba, by ceived, in 1564, marks of the Emperor's Selene, a daughter of Anthony and Cleo- favour, by a present of plate and jewels, patra. Grotius is struck as wich an which are noticed in his Will as efficaallusion to Agrippa. No quotation of the cious encouragements to learning. When Ecclesiastes occurs in any of the Jewish he thought his end approaching, he chose Scriptures prior to the Christian cra; to be led at midnight out of his bed-room aud it is quoted by the Christian writers, into his book-room, and placed in the Luke, Paul, and John.

chair at his writing-table; where, laying Surely this book chen must rather be his elbow on a folio, he said, he would jong to the New than to the Old Testa. await his end; Death should find him at ment; and becaine canonical through the his darling occupation. And in this at. mediation of the Christian Churchi. Ittitude he soon after expired. To pro. may have been written in Greek, and vide for dying in a manner expressive of translated back into the holy language, the ruling passion is a rare, but, in a celewith all those Græcisms, Syriasms, or brated man, not an unwise precaution,

LITERABY

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