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I am most desirous that some person, ventured to recommend, will tend to rea whose personal kno:vledge enables hin, golve this very important inquiry, which would be so kind as give us such infor- so well merits discussion, and opens a mation respecting him, as would clear up field for instructive criticism. M. this difficulty.
Biographical notices of this description To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, are both useful and pleasant; for eminent SIR, men, in their lives, often furnish both TT is enacted by the 5th Elizabeth, warnings and exainples. Before I dis. l chapter 41h, that all indentures, comiss him, I shall also observe, that, in venants, promises, and bargains, of or those trials which possessed interest, he for the hiring, taking, or keeping, any apvery seldom omits the charge of the prentice otherwise than by indenture for Judge to the Jury, (a practice litile ob. The terms of seven years, shall be void, and served by Mr. Gurney) which always that any person taking an apprentice affords much instruction and satisfaction contrary to the tenor of the act, shall be to the reader. Indeed, I bave very often subject to a penalty of 101. The stawished to see a work in English, similar cute further enacts, that it shall not be to that of Monsieur D'Alembert's “ His lawful for any person to set up, occupy, tory of the Members of the French Aca. use, or exercise, any crafe, mystery, or demy," a publication replete with in. occupation, used or occupied in England struction, amusement, and the soundest or Wales at the time of the passing of the criticism. A history of those men who statute, unless he shall have been brought existed by their literary labours, would up therein seven years at the least as an gratify many readers of your Magazine; apprentice, nor to set any person to work and I do not know any more suitable is such mystery, art, or occupation, un. vehicle. I would have it confined to less he shall have served an apprenticeauthors of as modern a date as possible. ship of seven years. The penalty for It is not to be expected, that we ought to non-compliance with this latter part of liope to see a life drawn up as from the the statute is 40s, a month. pbilosophical pen of a D'Alembert or a The object of the stature may be cola Johnson, This would be unreasonable. lected from the preamble, which states, I shall take the liberty of mentioning a that, if an uniform order were to be prefew names, so that any of your corre- scribed concerning apprentices, there is spondents, whose knowledge enables hope that the same law, being duly exe. them, and “ honest desire of giving use. cuted, would banish idleness and advance ful pleasure" will stimulate them, inaytrade. To enable us to judge of the po. afford your readers a treat, by every licy of this statùte, it is necessary that month filling upa page of your work with we should inquire whether it has that a communication so acceptable:~Mr. tendency which is professed to be its obe Strickness ; Mr. M. Madan, author of ject. It may be laid down as a general Thelyphthora; Mr. and Mrs. Griffiihs, principle that all legislative restrictions play and novel writers; Dr. Forster and upon domestic industry are impolitic, his son, who circumnavigated the world and that trade never prospers to so great with Captain Cook; Mr. Ireland and an extent as when it is left to take its son; Monsieur D'Eon, &c. &c.
own course. Individuals will always diThe above naines are but a few of the rect their attention to that branch of bu. very numerous list of authors, whose lives siness which bolds out the greatest prosand works might form part of a most in pect of profit. They are the best judges structive and amusing record. Ove part upon the subject, and, though their choice of the design of Mons. D'Alembert, in will be influenced by self-interest, the inhis book, was to determine the compa. terests of individuals are so far identified rative advantages and evils of the pro. with the general interest of the commufession of literature; and although he has nity, that one can seldom be promoted furnished a list (not very numerous) of without the other. If therefore the sta. those authors, whose works and talents tute of Elizabeth cannot be considered as have produced both fame and fortune; forming an exception to the general rule, yet we have a large catalogue indeed of it follows, as a necessary consequence, writers of eminence who have died in that it is an unjustibable infringement extreme wretchedness, and been buried upon natural liberty, and that it ought at the expense of their friends or the not to be encouraged. parish. The work which I have just now The statute appears from its preamble
to have a double object, the promotion that attachment without going through of industry and the prevention of unskil the drudgery of a second apprenuceship? fulness; with respect to the encourage. We will now consider bow far long apment afforded by the statute to industry, prenticeships tend to prevent uoskilfa. it may be observed that a journeyman ness, premising, by the bye, that un is more likely to be industrious than an skilful workinen are rarely prosecuted apprentice, because he derives a more under the statute of Elizabeti), which is immediate profit from his labour; at all almost invariably directed against person events, long apprenticeships tend to the whose abilities render them obnoxious to introduction of idleness. A young man tbeir competitors. Arts which in their bound for a short term, knowing that he infancy could not be learnt without has not any time to lose, and that at the great application, are now taugbt with end of his apprenticeship be shall be at facility. Times are much altered since liberty to work as a journeyman for his the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The own emolument, may reasonably be ex- improvements which have taken place pected to apply himseli assiduously to in mechanism of every description must learn the trade to which he is bound. Jessen the labour of an apprenuce most A young man, on the contrary, bound for materially. Is it probable that a raas. a long term, and having no early prospect ter would employ an unexperienced of profit before him, may as reasonably workman? Would not a due regard be expected to be negligent in his atten. to his own interest prevent him fron tion to a business of which he is aware committing such an act of folly? The that he can obtain a sufficient knowledge choice of workmen may surely be leit in half the time for which he is bound to the discretion of their einplovers, to it: an idle disposition is not easily era. The affected anxiety of the legislatore to dicated, and there cannot be a doubt prevent the employment of unskiltul that long apprenticeships have been the workmen is both impertinent and oppres. ruin of numbers, who might otherwise sive. Their interference to prevent the have become valuable members of so- sale of articles which have been ill ins. ciety. The statute of Elizabeth, so far nufactured is equally unnecessary. Per from having a tendency to prevent idle sous who sell articles of this description ness, is, in fact, a restraint upon indus. will be sufficiently punished by being detry, by precluding persons who have not prived of the future custom of the purbeen so fortunate as to serve a regular chasers; bad work is more frequently be apprenticeship from applying themselves effect of fraud iban ignorance, and to any business whatever, and by pre against fiaud long apprenticeships atjord venting persons, who have served an ap- no protection. The statute of Elizabeth prenticeship to one business, from chang. tends to iucrease the price of articles, for ing that business for another which pro. which there is an unusual demand, by inises to be more profitable.
confining the manufacture of such artsIt is an undisputed fact, that some of cles to hands who are unable to satisfy the greatest mechanical geniuses of the wants of the public. which this kingdom can boast, have not This statute is also objectionable on been brought up to the businesses in account of the encouragement which it which they have excelled. Of this we affords to combinations. These illegal have a striking instance in Mr. Harrison, associations have almost universally for the inventor of the famous time-pieces their object the controul of masters in which were the subject of pecuniary re- the employment of persons not having compeuce from Parliament. Why then served a regular apprenticeship. Were coupel a man to follow a business for every man at liberty to work at what which he has no inclination, and deprive trade he pleased, wages woulu soon find the country of his services in a line which their own level, and there would cease he is likey to bring in perfection? We to be any inducement to combinations, should recollect that youths are usually or at all events the master would have bound to trades selected by their parents, it in his power to counteract the object before the turn of the apprentice's mind of them, by employing other persons Dias had time to develope itself. Is it who might be satisfied with the wages he not, therefore, most unreasonable that, thought fit to give Actions, upon the when the apprentice discovers a fixed statute of Elizabeth, are, with a few exattachment to some other business, he ceptions, brought by workmen in supe should not be allowed to avail himself of port of combinations. It is therefoie
biglily desirable that workmen should be is presumable that this gentleman's sugbeaten out of this strong hold,
gestions, maintained by professional exAgainst the general policy of the sta- perience and the evidence of facts, will tute of Elizabeth, there are many most bave met with the warm and patriotic respectable opinions. Dr. Adam Smith, concurrence of the enlightened commisin particular, calls it, what it has been sioners of the navy. Not doubling, already styled, an encroachment upon therefore, that the alterations proposed Datural liberty, without producing any by Mr. Pering will be adopted by them, beneficial result to the community. The and thus effectually strengthen the wood. patrimony of a poor man, says Dr. en walls of old England, and animated Smith, lies in the strength and dexterity by a sincere regard for the interest of of his hands. To hinder bin from ein- individuals, I beg to recommend Mr. ploying that strength and dexterity, in Pering's pamphlet to the perusal of your what manner he thinks proper, without readers. For, sir, it is a trite and true injury to bis neighbours, is, as Dr. Sunith maxim, that whilst the grass grows the contends, a plain violation of his most horse starves; whilst the navy is benesacred property.
fiting by the discoveries alluded to, mer Lord Nansfield, in a case upon this chant vessels may continue to be curistatute, calls it a Penal Law in Restraint strucied on an uniinproved system, and of Natural Right; and adds, that the thus all the advantages of Mr. Pering's policy on which the statute was made, invaluable plan be, for a tine, lost to has from experience become very doubt. the ship owner. ful. Other judges have said, that no Among other important information, encouragement ought to be given to the Mr. Pering recommends : Statute, and that it would be for the com- 1st. That copper nails be substituted mon good if it were repealed.
for tree-nails. The courts uniformly set their faces 2dly. That the bolts of knees and against actions upon the statute, and hooks, and the nails, of decks should be they have even gone so far as to permita copper; by the use of which the whole, service of seven years to be made out by particularly the decks, would last as months, or, if necessary, by weeks. It long ayain. will also be recollected, ibat no costs are 3dly. That the covering of the sheus allowed in actions upon this statute, and under wbich the ships are built, to be that such actions have no retrospect be kept dry whilst building, be of copper. yond a year. When thoroughly inves. The above-named gentleman houes, tigated, the statute of Elizabeth docs not ere long, to see the use of copper tilg. appear to have a tendency to promoie tenings generally extended to nur mere either of the objects professed by its pre- chant vessels, as well as to our ships of amble; it does not, in my opinion, form war; staring his opinion, that no treean exception to the general rule; and ( nail shoull, on any mccount, be used, conceive, that it is therefore impolitie, but that the works should be fastened by and ought to be discountenanced: in copper alone, whenever it be practia deed, I was much surprized to see, froin cable-100 with iron, the rust of whucho an advertisement a lew days ago, that it is certain destruction to all wood, partiwas in contemplation to apply to Par- cularly in salt water. Dir. P. answers liament for an extension of the provisions erery objection on the score of expence, of a statute, in justification of which so in page 27 of his painphlet. little can be advanced.
I may mention, ia addition to these reManchester.
MUDESTUS. marks, that our anchors, which, by fre.
quently breaking, endanger cargo, ship, To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine, and crew, causing besides a heavy loss SIR,
in themselves, might be rendered in. VOU will probably render an inpor- comparably stronger and safer by sube
tant service to the country, by in- stituting copper, or a proper mixture of serting in your respectable Magazine, the copper, for iron. The Grsi cost would, I following notice of a work entitled, A grant, be more; but, if to be weighed in brief Enquiry into the premature Decay the balance with the lives of British seaJo our Wooden Bulwarks, with an exa- inei, and niuch valuable property, let mination of the meang best calculated it be remembered that old copper sells to prolong their duration; by Richard for nearly its original price, and ihal an Pering, Esq. Clerk of the Cheque of his old iron anchor would command a com. Majesty's Dock-Yard at Plymouth. It paratively, triling sum. It may, “per
haps, through Protestant churches for order, to most ; and have thought, if good magisespy the best, and have joyved with the trates cannot bring all to their judgment, churches of Christ, and took in with that the dissenters may have liberty, being I call a tender Presbytery, for such was kept out of ofhce, and want some other ours in New England, and yet so, as I public characters. That which a friend never unchurcht any parish where a of mine and inyself writ by letters about godly minister was, and godly people magistrates was very little, and the Rejoyned together, though not all so; and cords of the Tower were only named as do know God may have a people under giving way to all other records, to cut of all forms, and would withdraw to the dissentions, or marks of tyranny, which farthest Indges, rather than give offence no good prince will exercise; I am sorry to what I cannot close with; yet, so un- if any offended, it was zeal for quietness. worthy have my thoughts been of myself I honour laws and good lawyers heartily, to be a meet preacher of the gospel, that and know their use, only ease, expedimore than twice I had given it over, bad tion, and cheapness, what good man doth mot friends prevailed, yea, my profession not call for. Sedition is the heating men's of the gospel hath been with much folly, minds against the present authority, in weakness, and vanity; I crave pardon that I never was, yet sorry authority of any that have taken otience, though in should have any hard thoughts of me, a christian way I have not bad the re- or know so inconsiderable a creature as proofs of three, either for preaching or myself; I never could be fit for a court, conversation. I am heartily sorry I was many ways not fit, and am therefore popular, and known better to others than grieved that I was either constrained er inyself; it hath much lain to my heart content to live where I could do so little above any thing almost, that I left that good, for I would dye without a secret in people I was engaged to in New Eng. my bosom, unless cases of conscience in jand; it cuts deeply, I look upon it as a the way of preaching, which are secret root evil; and, though I was never parson indeed, and for reading them to the nor vicar, never took ecclesiastical pro. world I had appointed a portion, if it motion, never preached upon any agree. had been continued to me. ment for money in my life, though not Upon all this you inay ask what design without offers, and great ones, yet had a I drove, being looked upon that way? fock, I say I had a flock, to whom I was Truly these three: ordained, who were worthy of my life and First, That goodness, that which is Jabours, but I could never think myself really so, and such religion, might be fit to be their pastor, so unacconiplished highly advanced. for such a work, for which who is sufii. Secondly, That good learning might cient (cryes the apostle)? This is my sore have all countenance. trouble, and a private life would have be. Thirdly, That there may not be a come me best, and my poor gift bave had beggar in Israel, in England. . iis vent also; but here I was overpowered And for all these I have projected or to stay. For errors in judgment I have laboured, and I have no other. And pireyed, never closed with any that I these I pray his present Majesty may know; when I was a tryer of others I look to, and that God would bless him went to hear and gain experience, rather every way. than to judge; when I was called about If in the prosecution of these I bare mending laws, I rather was there to pray used any of my wonted rudeness, or ubthan mend laws; when to judge in guided zeal, I am heartily sorry. So, wills, I only went sometimes to learn and begying pardon from God and man, cob help the poor than to judge; but in all stitution or custom, I conclude in these these I confess I might well have been particulars, though the aim be good. spared.
I conclude the former thus: I think, Nor do I take pleasure in remembring that, as had men care not who rule, or any my least activity in state-rnatters, what is uppermost, so they may have though this I can say, I no-where minded their lusts; so good inen, if they may eitwho ruled, fewer or more, so the good joy God and his truth with good consciends of government be given out, in ence. For my whole course you know which men may live in godliness and ho- and feel where iny wound bath been nesty. I have often said, that is a good these twenty years, which bath occas government where men may be as good oned not only my lead and heart break. as they can, not so bad as they would, ing, bút travelling fruin mine owo nest where good men and things are upper- into business.
Bless God if ever you meet with suita. though it be unexpected and uncouth, bleness in marriage. For my spirit it yet remember the best of men have been wanted weight through many tossings, servants; Moses kept his father's sheep; my head that composure others have, so Jacob, and the patriarchs; David ta credulous and too careless, but never Saul, and many more; I have before mischievous nor malicious: I thought my given thee rules for it; and he sure to be work was to serve others, and so mine steady to family and private duties, your Own garden not so well cultivated; only life will be dead without them : call your this I say, I aimed at a good mark, and condition God's Ordinance, and he can trust the Lord in Jesus Christ hath ac- bless it to you. But, if you would go cepted it. My faith in the everlasting home to New England (which you have covenant was and is, though feeble, yet much reason to do), go with good coinfaith. I could thus continue ripping iny pany, and trust God there: the church whole heart to you, who have very often are a tender company: a little will carry had great success, even to the last hour us through the world, yea very little: Oh, of my last preaching, and am preaching godliness with content! your faithfulness the life of faith to myself, to which call to ine and your mother will find accepin all prayers to the Father in Jesus tance in heaven I trust. My dear child, Christ his dearest Son, to whom let us tell me how couldst thou be without look, as the author and finisher of our God's rod? remeinber he hath a staff also. faith, who, for the joy that was set before For your inother (considering her distemhiin, endured the cross, despised the per) I have and shall say inoie unto you, shame, and now sits at the right hand of To His grace, who is able to do above all Majesty, making intercession for trans- we can ask or think, I commend you gressors. Heb. xii. 12.-To whom be both, glory and praise, and thanks for ever. And, if I go shortly where time shall For he is worthy who hath washed us be no more, where cock nor clock distin. from our sins by his own blood, and guish hours, sink not, but lay thy head made us kings and priests unto God the in his bosom who can keep thee, for he Father; to trim be glory and dominion sits upon the waves. Farewel. for ever.
S5. And, since we must part, inust For that part of my Lord Craven's part, take my wishes, sighs, and groans, estate which I have took no small place to follow thee, and pity the feebleness of in my trouble. You may know that I what I have sent, being writ under much, was not in the city when that act was yea very much, discomposure of spirit. made, nor urged my Lord Grey to buy;
MY WISHES. nor ever advised the said lord (as I had I wish your lamp and vessel full of oyl, time but to good and just things and Like the wise virgins, (which all fools company, against that spirit of levelling
neglect,) then stirring: and do heartily wish that And the rich pearl, for which the merchants taken offence might dye, for it was not toyl, intended by me, who could and can be Yea, how to purchase are so circumspect : as well contented without land as with I wish you that whice stone with the it, never being ambitious to be great or
new game, rich since I knew better things.
Whichi none can read but who possess 31. And now I must return to your
the same. self again, and to give you my thoughts I wish you neither poverty nor riches, about your own condition. I do first But godliness, so gainful, with content; commend you to the Lord, and then to No painted pomp nor glory that bewitches, the care of a faithful friend, whom I shall
A blauneless life is the best monument; name unto you, if a friend may be found
And such a soul that soars above the
sky, in this juncture that dare own your
Well picas'd to live, but better pleas'd name, (though there be more of your
to aye. läine); and if such a friend advise it, that
I wish you such a heart as Mary had, you serve in some godly family, to which
Minding the main, open'd as Lydia's was; you seem to incline, and must (it seems);
ki. A hand like Dorcas, who the naked clad, but truly, if not a good fainily, what will
feet like Joanna's, posting to Christ apace; your coudition be? Dwell where God
And above all, to live yourself to see, dwalls, and be in such company as you Marry'd to Hirn who must your Saviour must be within Heaven, and then you do
bc. but change your place not your company;