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suggestions of Dr. Herschel, is highly by this question: Why has the earth valuable.
any mountains? I never deviated froin Noo. 7, 1812. Capel Lofft. that question, which I treated in fire
P.S. As for Pegasus, I must particularly letters, from the dictates only of natural protest in his behalf. He can have a certifi- history and natural philosophy. This cate of good behaviour from one most respec- may also be seen in the opening of the table gentleman, and nine most accomplish- sixth letter, where I then positively deed ladies. And in ancient days it is not upon clared that I intended to prove the conrecord that he ever threw more than one per formiiy of the monuments of the earth son, and he had no business to mount him with the first chapters of Genesis, inHe may have thrown many in modern days cluding the account of the deluge and its for the same reason ; but from Petrarch,
consequences. Dante, Ariosto, and Tass), to Racine, Cor.
If all that I have adduced to prore neille, Voltaire, Shakespeare, Otway, Dryden, Milton, Akenside, Gray, and Thomson,
the birth of our continents to have been and several now living, he has always been
a sudden revolution on our globe, during very manageable-to those who deserved 10
which the ancient continents sinking
W sit him. Ladies have experienced this. Miss down formed the present bed of the sea, Seward, Mrs. Charlotte Smith, and others, be well founded, there must have been who are in Elysium, and several who still a violent motion of the waters. Now, make an Elysium here, whom I should be this circumstance is impressed in all the very happy to call as witnesses. That he be- mythologies of the eastern nations. In longs to the class of Beautiful Animals cannot the same letter to Professor Blumenbe disputed. How useful he has been, let bach, after having quoted my authori. the annals of poetry rehearse! I trust he ties on this subject, I stated the result will continue to adorn the celestial plains. in the following manner. « Not only lf, however, any hardy adventurer will per
the family of Noah was struck with this sist in an attempt to iurn him out from that
event, in the manner I have shown, they most ample pasture, what damages may be recovered, or what censure or punishment in
must have been as spectators; but they curred, in the court of Parnassus, I will not knew, and transmitted to their poster,
knew, and transmitted to their posterity, suddenly pronounce. This I know, he en- that God had interposed on this occa. joys immortal youth, and thirty centuries sion, and that it was by his power they have taken nothing from his spirit and acti- bad been preserved. We know this vity. And, all good nature as he is, it may be from the ancient mythologies, the first of use to those who would compel him to foundations of which necessarily refer self-defence to remember, that Mount Helic to traditions of Noah's family. Now, con bears adamantine testimony to the force the nations of the earth have applied the of his huof. " Recalcitrat undique lutus," will, whole strength of their imaginations to I hope, always be his motto.
describe the terrible agitation of the sea
during the deluge: or, rather, it is from To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine.
the greatness of the ideas preserved
among them, on which they eserted all SIR,
the power of their fancy when left to (Continued from our last.) themselves, that proceeds the strong I COME 10 the part of Mr. Farey's character observed in the oriental images, 1 idea, that the deluge was a quiet And they had not lost sight of the citeffusion of water on the land. This cer. cumstance of a superior power presiding tainly was the case with respect to the in this catastrophe; for they particularly rain of forty days; but Moses says also, attribute to such a Being the preservathat the fountains of the deep were tion of a bark, notwithstanding the viobroken up; and, in the language of Ge- lent agitation of the ocean ; which bark nesis, the deep means the sea. Moses contained some holy personage with his therefore, in his short account of the family, consisting of seven people." deluge, mentions its two causes. When Thus the history of the deluge, as I Mr. Farey shall have leisure to read, in have stated before, is very different from the British Critic, iny Letters to Professor that of the fall of man: the latter, with Blumenbach, he will certainly acquit the important circumstance of the origin me of what he attributes to soine geo- of the human race and the events relaJogists, a pious fraud; for, in the first of ting to the first men, could not be koord these letters, I positively set aside the but by Revelation; while the deluge cousielerations which might be drawn happened at an advanced period of the from the expressions of Genesis, and des history of mankind. The event was clared that I considered geology only surely miraculous, and it was predicted, as a natural science. I therefore began because the omnipotent Being directs,
to his own wise purposes, the means he only my first work, Lettres sur l'Histoire has established himself; but it was ope- de la Terre & de l'Homme. Lastly, rated by the physical causes described (and this is a must essential coincidence in Genesis, and their effects could not to my present purpose,) he mentions the but leave strong traces on the earth, and same symptoms of great catastrophes, as strong recollections among the de- by fractures and dislocations of the strata scendants of Noah; and both are to be during these periods. It is a great satisour guides.
faction for ine, to see these conformities So far, I have taken to myself Mr. between us, proceeding froin our com, Farey's ideas, though not directly op- mon study of the organic remains in the posed to me; for, till this place, he had succession of the secondary strata, while only mentioned Common Sense; but, there are none in the primary. when he speaks of me, he first points The next article of Mr. Farey's paper out a mistake of mine, in the following will lead to many important objects ; passage : “ Mr. De Luc seems to err, for which reason I shall first copy thie in supposing that Common Sense referred whole. “At page 414, Mr. De Luc only to Mr. Parkinson's Paper on the mentions having proved in his works Strata round Londou; when, indeed, he that coal-beds are submerged peat mosses had not alluded to this, but expressly and of dry-land origin; yet this is a poto his general work, on Organic Remains sition from which I must entirely dissent, in all Parts of the World, in three quarto after having examined large tracts of carvolumes; a work which it astonishes me boniferous strata (far more extensive that the veteran geologist should appear than those scattered patches mentioned unacquainted with."
by Mr. Williams) with no ordinary care This, sir, is a mistake which you had and attention; and assert, that nothing already pointed out yourself in your can be more unlike the recent vegetables Number for June, by a note, p. 412, of peat mosses, than those extinct ones on my paper relating to Common Sense's preserved in coal-strata, as Mr. Parkin. system, and which I found to be just. son's numerous plates and collections, But this mistake has had no influence in those of Mr. Sowerby, and numerous my remarks on that systein; and the others, in this and in every other country cause of it was, that at that time I had where geology has been cultivated, will recently received, by Mr. Parkinson's testify. Bog plants, thougb always satukindness, his paper containing observa- rated with moisture, do not, as is well tions on some strata in the neighbour known), grow under water; and yet, hood of London, and on the fossil re- no person can examine the impressions mains contained in them. This there- of large plants that abound in coal strata, fore was only present to my memory. without being satisfied that they had a I know that his large work is a most va. subaqueous growth; since hollow tubes luable collection of organic remains in of vegetable matter, little thicker than the strata of various countries; but I paper, of two to eight or ten, or even know also, that, in consequence of these twenty or thirty inches in diameter, and rernains not being found in ebe under many feet higli, could not have supported most strata called primary, he has con. themselves in the air, however sheltered cluded (as I had done) that they did not the situation, or even in water that was exist during the formation of these strata; not very deep and quiescent. that their different classes began succes. “Those who have doubt on the subject sively to exist during the formation of should cxainine the remarkable grit. the secondary strata, which required a stone quarry, called Birchwood, in York. long time. Hence, recurring to the first shire, and the gardens of Sir Edward chapter of Genesis, Mr. Parkinson has also Smith, where two of these vegetable concluded from its context, that the word pipes, in a coaly state, filled with perfect day is not to be understood as signifying grit stone of the quarry, are erected as a day of twenty-four hours, but a period pillars at the entrance of a grotto; the of undetermined length: following the largest of which is elliptical, thirty by The succession of ditferent stratá and of twenty-two inches in diameter, and was the organic bodies which they contained, twelve feet high, standing erect, in the he has described the operations in each quarry above-mentioned, which rests on of these successive periods, agreeably io a coal-seain that has been ou fire." I the words of the text, and nearly in the shall successively indicate my remarks same manner as I have done in my leto on the whole of this paysage, ters to Professor Blumenbach, which he The first error of Mr. Farey that I does not appear to have known, but shall point out, is his idea that the bog
3 S 2
plants, plants, of which peat is formed, though and only shoots up above water some always saturated with moisture, do not straggling branches, which continue to grow in water. If he had read my Geo. grow on the surface of the moss; these logical Travels, on some parts of the have left their impression in the stratum Coasts of the Baltic, and of the North of slate, formed after the submersion of Sea, published in London in the year the island on which the moss bad es. 1810, he would have seen what labour isted. and attention I had bestowed on peate I am acquainted with the astonishing mosses, and thus have conceived a very vegetable described by Mr. Farey, hav. different idea of the growth of these ing seen it near Colebrook Dale. These plants.
large, hollow, and thin tubes, branching The principal mass of the peat is cer- like reeds, appeared to belong to the tainly formed of sub-aqueous plants, and stratum above the coals; in some parts their first bed under water is the con. also the substance of the plant is conferva, filling the water with its green verted into coal, which, agrees with my clouds; in wbich they grow, and copie system of coals being a mineralization of ously prosper; first, all the aquatic vegetable substances. But what can be mosses, especially the sphagnum palus. said of the manner in which that now. tre, very reinarkable by its star-like tufts unknown vegetable may have grown, along a thin thread; then many kinds of when we see it, not only imbedded in, reeds and other sub-aquatic plants, which but filled with, yrit-stone? What we can were shown and named to me by the judge is only, that, after the submersion Prof. of Botany of Rostock, (p. 146) of the peat-moss, to which it belonged, a not only in the moss itself, but in the new precipitation happened in the aupeat dug many feet deep; they are, scir- cient sea, of a sand 6t to consolidate, with pus cuspilosus, scirpus maritimus, scirpus time, into grit. Such were at first all puucijlorus, eriophorum vaginatum, equi- our stoney strata, when organic fossils sétum palustre, eguisetum fluviutile, were imbedded in them, and this stratum I followed very attentively the progress in particular was of a nature to consoliof roses, along lakes and rivers, some date into grit, both in these kind of reeds times with danger, as it is related in my and in the whole of the strata inclosing Travels, by proceeding from the part of them: but they afterwards underwent the moss already solid, and even culti- disruptions, for it was in a cleft that I valed, to those parts where the sort of saw these enormous tubes at Colebrook mattress formed by mere aquatic plants, Dale.
J. A. Dɛ Luc. still in water, yielded to the weight of my Windsor. body; however, wben these aquatic plants are thus malted, various terrestrial To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. plants begin to grow on that soil, which SIR, is enriched by a brown powder, produced I SEND you the conclusion of Hugh from the moleculæ of the vegetables, see Peters' Dying Father's last Legacy parated without putrefaction, or the loss to an only Child. Some of your readers of their combustitie faculty, which is the may be pleased with the knowledge of characteristic of peat; and, as I bave such other of his writings as I am a€• proved in these Travels, is owing to some quainted with. antisepric quality of moss water.
In 1646 he published, “ God's Doings It is not surprising that the vegetables and Man's Duty, a Sermon preacbed be found in the strata that cover coal-beds fore both Houses of Parliament, the Lord are different from those which form the Mayor, and Aldermen of London," &c. now-existing peat-mosses, since we find and, in the same year, “ Mr. Peters's last so many differences between the fossil Report of the English Wars, occasioned and recent organic bodies of other kinds: by ihe importunity of a friend pressing in but there are in ihe former many of the answer for some queries," &c. In 1647 now existing vegetables, among winich are be published a 410. pamplet of fourteen various species of ferns : and I may give pages, entitled, “ A Word for the Army, an instance of a mere aquatic plant, and Two Words to the Kingdom, to clear namely, the sphagnum palustre. In our the one and cure the other, forced in collection at Geneva we have a number much plainness and brevity from their of specimens of the state which forins the faithtul humble servant, Hogh Peters." poof of the coal-beds in Forest, a county This tract is reprinted in the Harleian of France, on which is impressed that Miscellany. In 1651, an answer was plant, which is absolutely sub-aqueous, published to Mr. Hugh Peters's "Gooul
Work for a good Magistrate, or a short overlaid with my own and others' troucut to greai quiet." This tract of his I bles; never was angry with any of the dave not yet met with.
king's party, nor any of them for being A small volume of tales and jests was $0; thought the Parliament authority printed soon after his death, and attri- lawfull, and never studied it much; lave buted to him. In 1807, Mr. Caulfeld, a not had my hand in any mau's blood, bookseller of London, reprinted this book, but saved many in life and estate. The and at the end of the Preface mentions Parliament, in 1644, gave me the bishop's the following circuinstance: “ The pub- books, valued at 1401. which I intended lisher of this edition, having in the year for New Eogland, being a part of his pri1791 put forth an account of several re- vate library, which (with all my own) I markable persons,' had an application have ofien offered for 1501. che inistake made to him for a portrait of Peters, oc. about them was and is great, for they curring in the book, by a reverend-look- never were so considerable; and these ing divine, in appearance upwards of 80 were iny gettings, who never aimed to be years of age, who reported himself bis rich, nor ever had means to reach it. grandson, stating, chat, on the execution The changes grew (as you see) a comof his ancestor, his mother, the daughter monwealth I found, but thus altered; I to whom Hugh Peters addressed his dy- staid so long at Whitehall, contented with ing legacy, had withdrawn herself to any good government that would keep America to her mother's relations, that things together, till the breach of that she married and settled in that country, they call Richard's Parliament, and then and that he was the youngest of her chil. I reinoved, and never returned more, but dren. He was a fine looking man, nearly fell sick long, and in trouble ever since; six feet in height, and seeined rather never was summoned but once by the proud than ashamed of his grandfather." council, which was in April, atout books;
If any of your readers can furnish me, of which (lying sick) I craved of the preby the post, with further information re- sident of the council to excuse me, who specting his fainily, or will communicate sent unto me he had, and I gave hun an any other particulars relative to him than account of the booky; but, hearing that are collected in his Life by James Harris, my estate was gone, and I indebted, was they would peculiarly oblige,
private, and did purpose so to live, and Clifton, near Bristol, WM. Tyson. so to dye, having a resolution (which I November, 1812.
kept) never to ineddle with state-mat.
ters, but, either here or in New England, Hugh Peters's last Legacy to his Daugh- to spend my old age in looking into my ter. (Concluded from vol. 32, p. 462.) grave and eternity; and never had to do
I thought Ireland the cleaiest work, with any transactions with souldiers or and had the pay of a preacher then and others; nor never would, had I a longer afterward, as I could get it; I was not lite, my head and heart be tired, as well here at Edge-bill, nor the Bishop of Can- as iny body craz'd. I thought the Act terburies troubles or death. Upon my of Indemnity would have included me, return, was staid again from going home, but the hard character upon me excluded by the Earl of Warwick, my patron; then me, which I was sensible of, that nature by the Earl of Essex, afterwards by tbe (in its own preservation) carried me to Parliament, who at last gave me an privacy; but free from that report of the estate, now taken away, I had success to magner which is suggested, of which you the king about my New-England busin may be assured, by my zeal (it seems) I ness: he used me civilly : I, 10 requital, have exposed myself to all inanner of reoffered my poor thoughts three times for proach; but wish you to know, that (behis safety : I never had hand in contri- sides your mother) I have had no fellowving or acting his death, as I am scandaship (that way) with any woman since lized, but the contrary (to my mean first I knew her, having a godly wife bepower); I was never in any councils or fore also, I bless God. cahal at any time; I hated it, and had But, because what is before written no stowage for counsel, thinking all yo- inay seem my white side only, I shall vernments should lye open to all: nor bad deal in all plainness with you, that, though penny from any general, but lived in for religion, I am and bave been really debt, as now I ain; nor had means for sound and orthodox to my best appremy expences : what I had others shared hension, according to the blessed word in. I confess I did what I did strenu. of God, and the generality of the Protesously, though with a weak head, being tant confessions; yea, though I travelled
through Protestant churches for order, to most; and have thought, if good magis espy the best, and have joyned with the trates cannot bring all to their judgment, churches of Christ, and took in with that the dissenters may have liberty, being I call a lender Presbytery, for such was kept out of office, and want some other ours in New England, and yet so, as [ public characters. That which a friend never unchurcht any parish where a of mine and inyself writ by letters about godly minister was, and godly people magistrates was very little, and the Rejoyned together, though not all so; and cords of the Tower were only named as do know God may have a people ander giving way to all other records, to cut of all forms, and would withdraw to the dissentions, or marks of tyranny, which farthest Indges, rather than give offence no good prince will exercise; I am sorry to what I cannot close with; yet, so un- if any offended, it was zeal for quietness, worthy have my thoughts been of myself I honour laws and good lawyers heartily, to be a meet preacher of the gospel, That and know their use, only ease, expedimore than twice I had given it over, bad tion, and cheapness, what good man doch mot friends prevailed, yea, my profession not call for. Sedition is ibe heating men's of the gospel hath been with much folly, minds against the present authority, in weakness, and vanity; I crave pardon that I never was, yet sorry authority of any that have taken offence, though in should have any hard thoughts of me, a christian way I have not bad the re. or know so inconsiderable a creature as proofs of three, either for preaching or nyself; I never could be fit for a court, conversation. I am heartily sorry I was many ways not fit, and am therefore popular, and knowo better to others than grieved that I was either constrained or myself; it hath much lain to my heart content to live where I could do so little above any thing almost, that I left that good, for I would dye without a secret in people I was engaged to in New Eng. my bosom, unless cases of conscience in land; it cuts deeply, I look upon it as a the way of preaching, which are secret root evil; and, though I was never parson indeed, and for reading them to the nor vicar, never took ecclesiastical pro. world I had appointed a portion, if it motion, never preached upon any agree. had been continued to me. ment for money in my life, though not Upon all this you may ask what design without offers, and great ones, yet bad a I drove, being looked upon that way? fock, I say I had a flock, to whom I was Truly these three: ordained, who were worthy of my life and First, That goodness, that which is Jabours, but I could never think myself really so, and such religion, might be fit to be their pastor, so unaccomplished bighly advanced. for such a work, for which who is suffi. Secondly, That good learning might cient (cryes the apostle)? This is my sore have all countenance. trouble, and a private life would have be. Thirdly, That there may not be a' come me best, and my poor gift bave had beggar in Israel, in England. its vent also ; but here I was overpowered And for all these I have projected or to stay. For errors in judgment I have laboured, and I have no other. And pirtyer, never closed with any that I these *I pray his present Majesty may know; when I was a tryer of others I look to, and that God would bless bim went to hear and gain experience, rather every way. . than to judge; when I was called about If in the prosecution of these I have mending laws, I rather was there to pray used any of my wonted rudeness, or-anthan mend laws; when to judge in guided zeal, I am heartily sorry. So, wills, I only went sometimes to learn and begging pardon from God and man, cohihelp the poor than to judge; but in all stilution or custom, I conclude in these these I confess I might well have been particulars, though the aim be good. spared.
I conclude tie former thus: I think, Nor do I take pleasure in remembring that, as bad men care not who rule, or any my least activity in state-patters, what is uppermost, so they may have though this I can say, I no-where minded their lusts; su good men, if they may elle who ruled, fewer or more, so the good joy God and his truth with good consciends of government be given out, in ence.' For my whole course you know which men may live in godliness and ho- and feel where iny wound hath been nesty. I have often said, that is a good these twenty years, which hath occasi. government where men may be as good oned not only my head and heart break. as they can, not so bad as they would, ing, bớt traveling from mine own nest where good men and things are uppera into business.