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to his own wise purposes, the means he only my first work, Lettres sur l'Histoire has established himself; but it was ope- de la Terre & de l'Homme. Lastly, rated by the physical causes described (and this is a most essential coincidence in Genesis, and their effects could not to my present purpose,) he mentions the but leave strong traces on the earth, and same symptoms of great catastrophes, as strong recollections among the de- by fractures and dislocations of the strata scendants of Noah; and both are to be during these periods. It is a great satisour guides.
faction for ine, to see these conformities So far, I have taken to myself Mr. between us, proceeding froin our comFarey's ideas, though not directly op- mon study of the organic remains in the posed to me; for, till this place, he had succession of the secondary strata, while only mentioned Common Sense; but, there are none in the primary. when he speaks of me, he first points The next article of Mr. Farey's paper out a mistake of mine, in the following will lead to many important objects; passage : " Mr. De Luc seems to err, for which reason I shall first copy thie in supposing that Common Sense referred whole. “At page 414, Mr. De Luc only to Mr. Parkinson's Paper on the menrions bavina proved in his works Strata round London; when, indeed, he that coal-beds are submerged peat mosses had not alluded to this, but expressly and of dry-land origin; yet this is a poto his general work, on Organic Remains sition from which I must entirely dissent, in all parts of the World, in three quarto after having examined large tracts of carvoluines; a work which it astonishes me boniferous .strata (far more extensive that the veteran geologist should appear than those scattered patches inentioned unacquainted with."
by Ms. Williams) with no ordinary care This, sir, is a mistake which you had and attention; and assert, that nothing already pointed out yourself in your can be more unlike the recent vegetables Number for June, by a note, p. 412, of peat mosses, than those extinct ones on my paper relating to Common Sense's preserved in coal-strata, as Mr. Parkin. system, and which I found to be just. son's numerous plates and collections, But this mistake has had no influence in those of Mr. Sowerby, and numerous iny remarks on that system; and the others, in this and in every other country cause of it was, that at that time I had where geology has been cultivated, will recently received, by Mr. Parkinson's testify. Bog plants, thougb always satı. kindness, his paper containing observa- rated with moisture, do not, as is well tions on some strata in the neighbour known, grow under water; and ret, Brood of London, and on the fossil re- no person can examine the impressions mains contained in them. This there- of large plants that abound in coal strata, fore was only present to my megory. without being satisfied that they had a I know that his large work is a most va. subaqueous growth; since hollow tubes Juable collection of organic remains in of vegetable matter, little thicker than the strata of various countries; but I paper, of two to eight or ten; or even know also, that, in consequence of these twenty or thirty inches in diameter, and reinains not being found in the under many feet high, could not have supported most strata called primary, he has con- themselves in the air, however sheltered cluded (as I had done) that they did not the situation, or even in water that was exist during the formation of these strata; not very deep and quiescent. that their different classes began succes. “Those who have doubt on the subject sively to exist during the formation of should examine the remarkable grit. the secondary strata, which required a stone quarry, called Birchwood, in York. long time. Hence, recurring to the first shire, and the gardens of Sir Edward chapter of Genesis, Mr. Parkinson has also Smith, where iwo of these vegetable concluded from its context, that the word pipes, in a coaly state, filled with perfect day is not to be understood as signifying grit stone of the quarry, are erected as a day of twenty-four hours, but a period pillars at the entrance of a grotto; the of undetermined length: following then largest of which is elliptical, thirty by · the succession of different stratá and of twenty-two inches in diameter, and was
the organic bodies which they contained, twelve feet high, standing erect, in the he has described the operations in each quarry above-mentioned, which rests on of these successive periods, agreeably to a coal-sear that has been on fire.” I the words of the text, and nearly in the shall successively indicate my remarks same manner as I have done in my leto on the whole of this pas age. ters to Professor Blumenbach, which he The first error of Mr. Farey that I does not appear to have known, but shall point out, is his idea that the bog
plants, of which peat is formed, though and only shoots up above water some always saturated with moisture, do not straggling branches, which continue to grow in water. If he had read my Geo. grow on the surface of the moss; these logical Travels, on some parts of the have left their impression in the stratum Coasts of the Baltic, and of the North of slate, formed after the submersion of Sea, published in London in the year the island on which the moss had ex1810, he would have seen what labour isted, and attention I had bestowed on peat I am acquainted with the astonishing mosses, and thus have conceived a very vegetable described by Mr. Farey, hava different idea of the growth of these ing seen it near Colebrook Dale. These plants.
large, hollow, and thin tubes, branching * The principal mass of the peat is cer- like reeds, appeared to belong to the tainly formed of sub-aqueous plants, and stratum above the coals; in some parts their first bed under water is the con. also the substance of the plant is cose ferva, filling the water with its green verted into coal, which agrees with noy clouds; in which they grow, and copie system of coals being a mineralization of ously prosper; first, all the aquatic vegetable substances. But what can be mosses, especially the sphagnum palus. said of the manner in which that noxtre, very reinarkable by its star-like tufts unknown vegetable may have grown, along a thin thread; then many kinds of when we see it, not only imbedded in, reeds and other sub-aquatic plants, which but filled with, yrit-stone? What we can were shown and namned to me by the judge is ouly, that, after the submersion Prof. of Botany of Rostock, (p. 116) of the peat-moss, to which it belonged, a not only in the moss itself, but in the new precipitation happened in the arpeat dug many feet deep; they are, scir- cient sea, of a sand ht to consolidate, with pus caspilosus, scirpus maritimus, scirpus time, into grit. Such were at first all puuciflorus, eriophorum vaginatum, equi- our stoney strata, when organic fossils selun palustre, egrizetum fluviatile, were imbedded in them, and this stratum I followed very attentively the progress in particular was of a nature to consoliof mos es, along lakes and rivers, some- date into grit, both in these kind of reeds times with danger, as it is related in my and in the whole of the strata inclosing Travels, by proceeding from the part of them: but they afterwards underwent the moss already solid, and even culti- disruptions, for it was ju a cleft that I vared, to those parts where the sort of saw ibese enormous tubes at Colebrook mattress formed by mere aquatic plants, Dale.
J. A. DE LUC. still in water, yielded to the weight of my Windsor. body; however, when these aquatic plants are thus matted, various terrestrial To the Editor of the Monthly Magazines plants begin to grow on that soil, which sie, is enriched by a brown powder, produced IT SEND you the conclusion of Hugh from the moleculæ of the vegetables, sem Peters' Dying Father's last Legacy parated without putrefaction, or the loss to an only Child. Some of your readers of their combustible faculty, which is the may be pleased with the knowledge of characteristic of peat; and, as I have such other of his writings as I am ad proved in these Travels, is owing to some quainted with. antiseptic quality of moss water.
In 1646 he published, “ God's Doings It is not surprising that the vegetables and Man's Duty, a Sermon preached be found in the strata that cover coal-beds fore both Houses of Parliament, the LOM are different from those which form the Mayor, and Aldermen of London," &c. now-existing peat-mosses, since we find and, in the same year, “ Mr. Peter's last so many differences between the fossil Report of the English Wars, occasioned and recent organic bodies of other kicds: by the importunity of a friend pressing an but were are in the former many of the answer for some queries," &c. In 163 now existing vegetables, among which are be published a 410, pamplet of fourtech various species of ferns : and I may give pages, entitled, " A Word for the Army, an instance of a mere equatic plant, and Two Words to the Kingdom, to clear namely, the sphagnum palustre. In our the one and cure the other, forced in collection at Geneva we have a number much plainness and brevity from their of specimens of the slare which forms the faithful humble servant, Hogh Peters. roof of the coal-beds in Forest, a county This tract is reprinted in the Harlean of France, on wbich is impressed that Miscellany. In 1651, an answer plant, which is absolutely sub-aqueous, published to Mr. Hugh Peters's "
Work for a good Magistrate, or a short overlaid with my own and others' troucut to great quiet." This tract of his I bles; never was angry with any of the have not yet met with
king's party, nor any of them for being A small volume of tales and jests was so; thought the Parliament authority printed soon after his death, and attri- lawfull, and never studied it much ; have buted to him. In 1807, Mr. Caulheld, a not bad my hand in any man's blond, bookseller of London, reprinted this book, but saved many in life and estate. The and at the end of the Preface mentions Parliament, in 1644, gave me che bishop's the following circumstance: “The pub- books, valued at 1401. which I intended lisber of this edition, having in the year for New England, being a part of his prie 1791 put forth an account of several revate library, which (with all my own) I markable persons,' had an application have often offered for 1501. the inistake made to himn for a portrait of Peters, oc. about them was and is great, for they curring in the book, by a reverend-look- never were so considerable; and these ing divine, in appearance upwards of 80 were iny gettings, who never ained to be years of age, who reported himself bis rich, nor ever had means to reach it. grandson, stating, thai, on the execution The changes grew (as you see) a comof his ancestor, his mother, the daughter monwealth I found, but thus altered; I to whom Hugh Peters addressed his dy- staid so long at Whitehall, contented with ing legacy, had withdrawn herself to any good goveroment that would keep Annerica to her mother's relations, that things together, till the breach of that she married aud settled in that country, they call Richard's Parliament, and then and that he was the youngest of her chile I renoved, and never returned more, but dren. He was a fine looking man, nearly fell sick long, and in trouble ever since; six feet in height, and seeined rather never was summoned but once by the proud than ashained of his grandfather,” council, wbich was in April, about books;
If any of your readers can furnish me, of which (lying sick) I craved of the preby the post, with further information re- sident of the council to excuse me, who specting his family, or will communicate sent unto me he had, and I gave hun an any other particulars relative to him than account of the books; but, hearing that are collected in his Life by James Harris, my estate was gone, and I indebted, was they would peculiarly oblige,
private, and did purpose so to live, and Clifton, near Bristol, WM. Tyson. so to dye, having a resolution (which I November, 1812.
kept) never to meddle with state-mat.
lers, but, either here or in New England, Hugh Peters's last Legucy to his Daugh- to spend my old age in looking into my ter. (Concluded from vol. 32, p. 462.) grave and eternity; and never had to do
I thought Ireland the clearest work, with any transactions with souldiers or and had the pay of a preacher then and others; nor never would, had I a longer afterward, as I could get it; I was not lite, my head and heart be tired, as well here at Edge-bill, nor the Bishop of Caue as my body craz'd. I thought the Act terburies troubles or death. Upon my of Indemnity would have included me, return, was staid again from going home, but the hard character woon me excluded by the Earl of Warwick, my patron; then me, which I was sensible of, that nature by the Earl of Essex, afterwards by the (in its own preservation) carried me to Parliament, who at last gave me an privacy; but free froin that report of the estate, now taken away, I had success to magner which is suggesied, of which you the king about my New-England busi- may be assured, by my zeal (it seeins) I ness: he used me civilly : I, in requital, hare exposed myself to all manner of reoffered my poor thoughts three times for proach; but wish you to know, that (behis safety : I never had hand in contri- sides your mother) I have had no fellowving or acting his death, as I am scanda. ship (that way) with any woman since lized, but the contrary (to my inean first I knew her, haring a godly wife bepower); I was never in any councils or fore also, I bless God. cabai at any time; I hated it, and had But, because what is before written no stowage for counsel, thinking all yo- may seem my while side only, I shall vernments should lye open to all: nor had deal in all plainness with you, that, though penny from any general, but lived in for religion, I am and have been really debt, as now I ain; nor had means for sound and orthodox to my best appremy expences : what I had others shared hension, according to the blessed word ju. I confess I did what I did strenu. of God, and the generality of the Protespusly, though with a weak head, being tant confessions; yea, though I travelled
through Protestant churches for order, to most; and have thought, if good magis espy the best, and have joyned with the trates cannot bring all to their judgment, churches of Christ, and took in with that the dissenters may bave liberty, being I call a tender Presbytery, for such was kept out of office, and want some other ours in New England, and yet so, as I public characters. That which a friend never unchurcht any parish where a of mine and inyself writ by letters about godly minister was, and godly people magistrates was very little, and the Rejoyned together, though not all so; and cords of the Tower were only named as do know God may have a people under giving way to all other records, to eut of all forms, and would withdraw to the dissentions, or marks of tyranny, which farthest Indges, rather than give offence no good prince will exercise; I am sorry to what I cannot close with ; yet, so un- if any offended, it was zeal for quietness. worthy have my thoughts been of myself I honour laws and good lawyers heartily, to be a meet preacher of the gospel, ihat and know their use, only ease, expedimore than twice I had given it over, bad tion, and cheapness, what good man doth not friends prevailed, yea, my profession not call for. Sedition is the heating men's of the gospel hath been with much folly, minds against the present authority, in weakness, and vanity; I crave pardon that I never was, yet sorry authority of any that have taken offence, though in should have any hard thoughts of me, a christian way I have not bad the re. or know so inconsiderable a creature as proofs of three, either for preaching or myself; I never could be fit for a court, conversation. I am heartily sorry I was many ways not fit, and am therefore popular, and known better to others than grieved that I was either constrained or inyself; it bath much lain to my heart content to live where I could do so little above any thing almost, that I left that good, for I would dye without a secret in people I was engaged to in New Eng. my bosom, unless cases of conscience in land; it cuts deeply, I look upon it as a the way of preaching, which are secret root evil; and, though I was never parson indeed, and for reading them to the nor vicar, never took ecclesiastical pro. world I had appointed a portion, if it motion, never preached upon any agree. had been continued to me. ment for money in my life, though not Upon all this you may ask what design without offers, and great ones, yet had a I drove, being looked upon that way? fock, I say I had a fock, to whom I was Truly these ihree: ordained, who were worthy of my life and First, That goodness, that which is Jabours, but I could never think myself really so, and such religion, might be fit to be their pastor, so unaccomplished highly advanced. for such a work, for which who is sufii. Secondly, That good learning might cient (cryes the apostle)? This is my sore have all countenance. trouble, and a private life would have be. Thirdly, That there may not be a come me best, and my poor gift bave had beggar in Israel, in England. . its vent also; but here I was overpowered And for all these I hare projected or to stay. For errors in judgment I have laboured, and I have no other. And pirtyer, never closed with any that I these I pray his present Majesty may know; when I was a tryer of others I look to, and that God would bless him went to hear and gain experience, rather every way. thad to judge; when I was called about If in the prosecution of these I hare mending laws, I rather was there to pray used any of iny wonted rudeness, or in. than mend laws ; when to judge in guided zeal, I am heartily sorry. So, wills, I only went sometimes to learn and begging pardon from God and man, conhelp the poor than to judge; but in all stitution or custom, I conclude in these these I confess I might well bave been particulars, though the aim be good. spared.
I conclude the former thus: I think, Nor do I take pleasure in remembring that, as bad men care not who rule, or any my least activity in stale-matters, what is uppermost, so they may hate though this I can say, I no-where minded their lusts; so good inen, if they may en who ruled, fewer or more, so the good joy God and his truth with good consciends of government be given out, in ence. For my whole course you know which men may live in godliness and ho- and feel where my wound bath been nesty. I bave often said, that is a good these twenty years, which hath occasi. government where men may be as good oned not only my head and heart breakas they can, not so bad as they would, ing, bớt travelling froin mine own dest where good men and things are upper into business.
Bless Bless God if ever you meet with suita• though it be unexpected and uncouth, bleness in marriage. For my spirit it yet remember the best of men have been wanted weight through many tossings, servants; Moses kept his father's sheep: my head that composure others have, so Jacob, and the patriarchs; David ta credulous and too careless, but never Saul, and many more; I have before mischievous nor malicious: I thought my given thee rules for it; and be sure to be work was to serve others, and so mine steady to family and private duties, your own garden not so well cultivated; only life will be dead without them : call your this I say, I aimed at a good mark, and condition God's Ordinance, and he can trust the Lord in Jesus Christ hath ac- bless it to you. But, if you would go cepted it. My faith in the everlasting home to New England (which you have covenant was and is, though feeble, yet much reason to d), go with good coinfaith. I could thus continue ripping my pany, and trust God there : the church whole heart to you, who have very often are a tender company: a little will carry had great success, even to the last hour us through the world, yea very little: Oh, of my last preaching, and am preaching godliness with conteni! your faithfulness the life of faith to myself, to which call to ine and your mother will find accepin all prayers to the Father in Jesus tance in heaven I trust. My dear child, Christ his dearest Son, to whom let us tell me how couldst thou be without look, as the author and finisher of our God's rod? remember he hath a staff also. faith, who, for the joy that was set before For your inother (considering her distemhim, endured the cross, despised the per) I have and shall say ipoie unto you. shame, and now sits at the right hand of To His grace, who is able to do above all Majesty, making intercession for trans- we can ask or think, I commend you gressurs. Heb. xii. 12.-To whom be both. glory and praise, and thanks for ever. And, if I go shortly where time shall For he is worthy who bath washed us be no more, where cock nor clock distine from our sins by his own blood, and guish hours, sink not, but lay thy head made us kings and priests unto God the in his bosom who can keep thee, for he Facher; to brim be glory and dominion sits upon the waves. Farewel. for ever.
35. And, since we must part, must For that part of my Lord Craven's part, take my wishes, sighs, and groans, estate which I have took no small place to follow thee, and pity the feebleness of in my trouble. You may know that I what I have sent, being writ under much, was not in the city when that act was yea very much, discomposure of spirit. made, nor urged my Lord Grey to buy;
MY WISHES. nor ever advised the said Jord (as I had I wish your lamp and vessel full of oyl, time, but to good and just things and Like the wise virgins, (which all fools company, against that spirit of levelling neglect,) then stirring: and do heartily wish that And the rich pearl, for which the merchants taken offence might dye, for it was not toyi, intended by me, who could and can be Yea, how to purchase are so circumspect : as well contented without land as with I wish you that whice stone with the it, never being ambitious to be great or
new name, rich since I knew better things.
Which none can read but who possess 31. And now I must return to your
the same. self again, and to give you my thoughts I wish you neither poverty nor riches, about your own condition. I do first Buc godliness, su gainful, with content; commend you to the Lord, and then to No painted pomp nor giory that bewitches, the care of a faithful friend, whom I shall
A blauneless life is the best monument; maine unto you, if a friend may be found
And such a soul that soars above the
sky, in this juncture that dare own your
Well pleas'd to live, but better pleas'd name, though there be more of your
to oye. naine); and if such a friend advise it, that you serve in some godly family, to which I wish you such a heart as Mary had, you seem to incline, and must (it seems);
Minding the main, open'd as Lydia's was;
A hand like Dorcas, who the naked clad, but truly, if not a good fainily, what will
Feet like Joanna's, posting to Christ apace; your condition be? Dwell where God
And above all, to live yourself to see, dwalls, and be in such company as you Marry'd to Him who must your Saviour must be with in Heaven, and ihen you do but change your place not your company;