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MATIEMATICS.-Bonnycastle's Alge- this period. Girls may begin the pianobra-Hutton's Mensuration - Crocker's forte. Land Surveying-Simson's Euclid - In the NINTH year introduce Bossut's Keith's Trigonometry-Ilutton's Course Phrase BookGoldsmith's Grammar of of Mathematics.

Geography and Blair's Class Book ; STENOGRAPHY.-Mavor's System. proceeding regularly in arithmetic, wriMUSIC.—Busby's Dictionary.

zing, dancing, and music. FRENCII.-Bossut's First French Buok In the TENTII year, answer the Quesof three thousand Words--bis Conver- tions in Goldsmith Graminar, and Adair's sations or Phrase Book--his First Grain. Questions on Murray--Proceed to BosInar-his Exercises-Oiseau's Nugent- sut's Grammar and Exercises-Read in Murray's Lecture Français.

the Class Book and Classical Poetry LATIN.--The Eton Grammar-Ellis's Proceed with arithmetic and music. Exercises-Ainsworth, by Morell-Val. In the ELEVENTI TEAP, begin (for py's Exempla Moralia-Valuy's Delectus boys) the Latin Vocabulary--Proceed

Selecta e Veteri - Cæsar - Ovid- through Bossut's French Exercises--Sallust-and Virgil Baldwin's Pantheon Commence Robinson's Grammar of Flis-Lempriere's Classical Dictionary. tory, and read his Ancient and Modern

Such are the useful subjects to which History-Answer Adair's Questions on conductors of English schools are now Murray's Notes, and correct his Exerenabled to extend their systematic course cises; or, if Blair's English Grammar is of general education. Other books ena. preferred, finish his Syntax and Questions ble them, in particular cases, lo diver. - Proceed through Vulgar and Decisify and still further extend the system. mal Fractions~Take lessons from HaFor example, in botany, there are the milton in drawing, and project geomeworks of Thornton; in Agriculture, the trical figures with scale and compasses. works of Young; a Grammar of Medi. In the TWELFTH year, begin the Larin cine; Elements of the Art of War, Grammar-Copy Blair's Models of Letby Muller; and of Navigation, by Moore ters---Answer the Questions in Robiland Bowditch. There are besides ele- son's Grammar of History, Begin Blair's gant works on Astronomy by Bonny. Universal Preceptor-Fill in the first castle and La Place; a Dictionary of Geographical Copy-Book-Read Gold. Commerce by Mortimer; Elemenis smith's Popular Geography-Write Let. of Theology by Prettyman, of Moral ters on Blair's Topics - Proceed in Arith, Philosophy by Paley, and of English metic, Music, and Drawing. Law by Blackstone. So that, at this In the THIRTEENTH year, go through tine, nearly every art and science has Ellis's Exercises, and begin Valpy-Finish its elements reduced to a convenient Blair's Universal Preceptor, and proceed form for purposes of study; and, though to the Questions--Fill up the Second Geoall those books are not adapted with equal 'graphical Copy-Book, and work the useful success to the practical use of public problems on maps in the School Adas schools, yet they are so arranged as to as. Answer Adair's Questions on the New sist the self-student and private teacher, Testament--Read that book, and Goldand serve to bring the whole within the smith's England Answer Adair's Ques. scope of popular education.

lions on Irving's Elements-Write Themes In the practical subdivision of these and Letters from Blair's Models-Proceed subjects, through that period of life with Drawing, Music and Dancing, and usually allotted to education, an arrange. in Writing copy forins of business, ment something like the following, variedIn the FOURTEENTII year, let boys go for boys and girls and for different capa through Morrison's Book-keeping, and cities, will, perhaps, be found to answer: proceed through Valpy to Cesar--Finish

Previously to the seventh year, the and repeat Barrow's Questions on the popil should be employed in a prepara. New Testament; and Adair on Goldtory course of reading, poetry, and spel- smith's England and Irving's Elements. ling with tbe books, designated under Read Mavor's Nepos and Plutarch--Bethe first class-Writing and dancing gin Algebra--Finish Morrison's Bookmay be commenced in the sixth year. keeping-Make French and Latin--

In the seventh or Eighth year, Bos. Learn the Military Exercise and Swimsui's First French Book will lay the four- ming. dation of the French tongue-Murray's In the FIFTEENTHI year, proceert Abridgment and the First Rules of Ariih- through Ovid, Sallust, &c. Repeat the metic should diversily the occupation of Questions on Blair's Preceptor, referring MONTHLY Mac, No. 235,


to Watkins's Portable Cyclopædia- tion and despotism ;-and, from the conRead and answer the questions in Gold- dition of other countries, to draw compasmith's British Geography - Repeat risons favourable to their own!--Such a Adair's Questions on Irving -- Ricile population will best maintain their own from Murray or Enfield-lake French happiness, and the glory of their gover, and Latina-Read Mavor's Natural Histo- nors!

COMMON SENSE. ry, and Warkins' Scripture Biography Go through Blair's Giammar of Natural To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, Philosophv, make the experiments and SIR, answer the questions-Read Joyce's TN perusing Crombie's Treatise on the Dialogues; and consult Watkins's Pori. 1 Etymology and Syntax of the En. able Cyclopædia, and Lempriere's Clas- glish language, I find that he disap sical Dictionary.

proves of the following expression of At FIFTEEN boys in general leave Sterne : “ Some fifty years ago, he had school. Those who continue longer been no mean perforiner on the vielle." may read other authors in Latin, and he says, the word some should be omit. proceed to Greek, and to modern ted; and, in the first edition, he assigns janguages, accordiog to their several the following reason. Some fifty yect> destinations in life. Those who are in- ago, which in such examples, if the extended for particular professions, should pression have any meaning, is equivalent in ve last year vary their course accord. to some fifty yeurs or other, must imply jogly. The young merchant should re- not a point or limit of time, but a conpeat his course of book-keeping; the tinued space, the date of its commenceyoung physician or surgeon should an- ment being left undetermined. Now, swer the questions in the Grammar of with all due deference to the learning. Medicine; the intended fariner should pe- and critical acumen of the author, it apsuse Young's Farmer's Kalendar; while pears to me, that the omission of the the young divine should answer a third word some does not exactly express, what time Barrow's Questions on the New is usually intended by this phrase. If Testament, and should read his Young we say, “ Fifty years ago he was no Christian's Library, and his School Sere mean performer on the vielle," we fix a mons.

riefinite period; whereas, it is the intenOther books may in due time still tion of the speaker to leave the time further exiend the system. Better books somewhat indefinite, and merely to may also be compiled than those now in note che iact as existing at, or near, the use. Yet much has been done within period specified. these few years to render the next an H e censures also, “ Ile arrived at PaENLIGHTENED and puu LOSOPHICAL AGE ris as yesterday." Here likewise I have

to qualify the mass of our future po- the misfortune to differ from this ingepulation to be able to distinguish be- nious grammarian. If we say, “ He ar. tween truth and error; consequently to rived at Paris yesterday," we express a protect them against the 'delusions of positive fact: if we say, “ He arrived corruption and the influence of bad as yesterday," we signify an expectation passions. And, as KNOWLEDGE IS VIR. merely, or a strong probability, founded TUE, AND VIRTUE IS HAPPINESS, the on his own express intention, or on our etects may, perhaps, in some degree, knowledge of the usual rate of travelling, realise the dreams of the millenarians and it may be true, indeed, that neither of the poelic fables descriptive of a golden the expressions, which hare incurred age. At any rate the prospect is cheering the censure of this judicious critic, will to the philanthropist, who, in the pre. bear a strict analysis; but expressions selit generation, has been doomed of this description occur, I believe, in to witness the ascendency of folly, every language, and, if sanctioned by ge prejudice, and superstition; and to see neral use, are therefore not to be rethe mass of the people become the dupes jected.

T. VERE. of knaves and fools. The best hope of Devonshire-street, Nov. 10, 1812. philosophy and patriotism is the better instruction of the whole population; To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, while the best security of wise, virtuous, SIR, and paternal governments are, the culti I AM obliged to Stenographicus, of vated faculties of the people,-enabling 1 Vauxhall, for his “ mite of infor. thein to distinguish beiween law and op. mation," in your Magazine for October, pressiosi,.--liberty and anarchy,-protec- p. 213, being a reply, in part, to my


Queries respecting Writers on Steno. barm (yeast). The bread produced was graphy, in the Number for August, only 14 pounds and 4 ounces ! p. 19, and shall be farther obliged by his

· A. BODORGAU. affording the the opportunity of an interview.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I conceive myself correct in supposing SIR, Dr. Mavor to have transferred the names VIIE caverns in Derbyshire, and of Labourer and Facey, from Lyle's list I particularly those at Castleton, of writers on the art, to his own; for, are every summer visited by a great although Dr. M. bas Coles' name, it is number of travellers; many of whom evident that neither he nor Lyle had have contributed, from time to time, to seen his Treatise (first published in 1674 raise them as an object of public estima. not 1672), which contains a list inclu- tion and curiosity. In the principal ca. ding eleven names not noticed by them. rerns, every protuberance has been

It is of importance that, if a list be christened; every fissure, every cavily, given at all, it should be as correct as has had a godfather of some rank. Only possible'; and as the progress of the art this summer, Mr. II. Hare Townsend will be illostrated by placing the names found something to dignity with an ocin a chronological series, I am desirous tave of verses, in the large cavern at to acquire accurate information of the Castleton; having christened a small dates of the works by the following per- bell-shaped cavity in the roof of one of sous: Barnaby, Bartlet, E. Beecher, the passages, “ The Cap of Liberty," Blandemore, Blosset, Bryant, Buiton, The caves on the north-west side of Cross, Ewen, Facey, Farthing, Labou. Yorkshire have not met with such great rer, Lloyd, S. (not T.) Shelton, Slater, patronage. The number of persons who Soare, Stileman, Walker, Webster, visit these caves is very small, compared West, and Witt.

with the throng of rank and fashion who Should any of your numerous corres. every season stop at the Castle at Caspondents be able to favour me with the tleton. There are several reasons for desired information; and, moreover, of this. They have not been so often prethe present existence of the respective sented to the public notice, and are works; together with those of Bridges, therefore much less known to those who Lane, Mawd, Nicholas, Redpath, Steel, travel for pleasure; they are also not so and Willoughby, dates of which latter I much in the circle or round of travelling already possess; I shall be enabled to in which this class of travellers generally complete a project, which, I Hatter mye follow one another; neither can the self, will be found to contain much ste country, in which they are situate, boast nographic novelty. B. DANBURY. of the beauty of the Vale of Castleton, 8, Temple place, Blackfriars'- road, and the attraction of the scenery of DerNovember 6, 1812.


Much of the gratification which arises To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

to the stranger from visiting the great

carern at Castleion, consists in the asSIR,

tonishment at finding cavities of such THE two following Experiments in large dimensions in the very bowels of

1 Baking merit a place in your use. the hills. This gratification is much ful publication, as they prove the state. lessened to those who have before seen ment of Mr. Johnes to be fallacious. the various caverns of a similar kind;

Exp. 1. Eight pounds of four, best and on the reflection that the hills in seconds; 1 lb. of rice boiled; hialf a the whole neighbourhood aboundt in expint of barm, previously mixed with as cavations, and internal hollows of differmuch warm water; and 1 ounce of salt; ent dimensions; it having been ascerproduced 12lbs. of good bread. The lained that a succession of caverns and rice when boiled bad absorbed so much passages very nearly connects Poole's water as to wcigh 5 pounds and a quar- ille at Buxton, with the Speedwell mine. ter. The dough, just before it was put With the exception of the magnificent in the oven, weighed 14 pounds 2 ounces. archway and cave at its entrance, per

Exp. 2. This experiment was made baps few have found that celebrated caby a friend. To 11 pounds of the flour, vern at the Peak a pleasing object; 1 pound of boiled rice (= 5lbs. 4 and perhaps still fewer have found pleaOunces with the water) and 2 ounces of sure in going through it a second time. salt were added, with about a pound of The 'splendid reflections froin various


parts parts of the roofs and walls of the mines covered unless pointed out to you; and caverns, whence the different spars where a man and his wife live; a small and crystallizations are gutten, must, part of whose scanty livelihood arises geveraly, also be found a pleasing ob- froin finding candles, if wanted, and jecr, if the descent into inost of them be attending to light the cave. not considered.

On the way to the cave, pass the spring But, as a spectacle, I think these are of the river Doe, wbich runs hence to all much inferior to Weathercote Care, Ingleton. In its way it proceeds through and Gordale Scar, on the north-west a channel or dell, in many places very side of Yorkshire. These may be scen remarkable. It will well repay the again and again, and scarcely want the trouble of tracing its whole course, but aid of novelty to please. The mind, I it is more particularly remarkable by a think, is also vastly more filled with waterfall which it produces in one part, wonder, at beholding the stupendous called Thornton Force; which may be vaulted cave in Yordas Fell, than in be. visited either in going to, or returning holding the caverns at the Peak. · Add from, the cave. to this, the feeling of something like On approaching Yordas Case, it does pleasure in admiring at the upright sides not present itself to us, with the grand of this well-proportioned cave, as if chis. and imposing appearance of the cavern selied by its fabled gigantic genius; and at the Peak. On the contrary, there is at the elevated regular Gothic roof, give so little to distinguish its entrance, that ing a finish to the rude architecture of there might be some difficulty in finding the place. The roar of its subterraneous it without a guide. The first appeare Waterfall, altogether invisible in the large ance is inderd so humble, that we can care, must also not be forgotten in the not help a feeling of disappointment. comparison.

In the slope of ine moor is a large hole I have herewith extracted for you, my some yards diameter. Getting down notes on the caves in Yorkshire, as put this hole, we stand opposite to the endown at the time on looking over them, trance to the cave. This is a low arcband bring the objects themse' is in my way of about eight feel high. Through mind's cre; the account appara to n.? this archway we are almost immediately scanty, sud a very inadequate circle in the cave. On entering the care, the of their distinguishing fries, I shall, first thing which arrests the attention is, however, make no : dion to them the sound of water dropping on the floor, froin recolection, havien int to think on all sides, from the high rool, and the riat, as well as fi: lights are fre- noise of a distant waterfall within, from quently the most repliable, so also which only, some idea is formed of its are the first impress the most vivid dimensions. As the candies (of which and correct.

thirty-six are lighted, and fixed on three " Yordas Care."--Take a guide from sticks framed like bay.rakes) are moved Ingleton with candlus, &c. Proceed about, the whole space is, by degrees, along the high road to Thornton church; darkly visible; and we become more the way from which place to the cave is and invre surprised at the magnitude of about five miles over the Moors. There this cavernal hall, shaped with perpenis something of a road for about a inile dicular sides of excellent proportion, up an extremely-steep ascent from and crowned with an arched roof, ol Thornton church, when every appear- great altitude and regularity. It imme. ance of a road-way is lost. Passing over diately brought to my mind Westminster some boggy moor, we get again into a Hall, than which it appeared to me more beaten track; but scarcely pass. larger and much higher. Various parts able for a horse, where now and then a of the sides have the appearance of being solitary lule cart is to be seen. The fluted in the rough style of the place ; vicw now is closely shut up by the sells and at several parts are projecting on each side; and the whole country masses of stone, bearing very gruiesque hence to the cave, and in the neighbour. figures; one group in particular, at the hood of it, is prodigiously dreary and farthest side, which is called The Bishop's desolate; the bald tells on one side being Thrones. The floor of the cave is in ge* scarcely more melancholy than the black neral level, and covered with pebbles; moors on the other. No sigo of habi. towards the farther end, as we keep apo tation here is to lie seen, excepting a proaching the sound of the waterfall, niserable cottage about half a mile from some masses of stones lie piled toges the cave, which would scarcely be dis, ther,

Having reached the farthest end of the inclosed on each side, from top to bottom, cave, we hear the water close upon us, by a skirting of rugged perpendicular without the least sign of its dwelling- limestone, forming a recess for it. Near piace. In the rock appear several very the top of it, opposite to the opening narrow passages, but of considerable whence the stream is precipitated, a height. They are connected together, stone of large dimensions is a singular obthe roof, as it were, supported by a num. ject, being suspended across this recess, her of pillars, and forining sometbing apparently in a very ticklish and insecure like rude and natural colonnades or clois- manner, diagonally by two of its corners, ters. In a few steps through these, the From the archway to the pool, in which waterfall is seen on the lefi, shut up in a the water is lost, the access is over rocks small round cave, or cabinet, of about piled on the floor in the wildest confutep or twelve feet diameter, but very sion. The day being cloudy, we lost an high; from near the top of which, through additional beauty in this cave, which are a hole, this subterraneous stream is pro- the rainbows formed by the spray. The jected. At this time it was not large, guide said, that he had frequently seen although it Glled the apartment, so as to several complete ones at once in a sunny prevent entrance. It has been said, that day about noon. Looking up, a fringe from this cave it is possible to get, by of green turf is in many places inore or passages, to Kirkby; but I could find no less visible, and a few stunted trees are opening that would admit of farther pas, disposed to advantage, overhanging che sage.

chasm. From the top, looking dowa Weathercote Care--in Wcathercote into the cave, the view is also in the Feil-in a far less rude country Than highest degree picturesque, having some Yordas Cavem about a mile out of the of the awfulness of the neighbouring high road froni Lancaster to Richmond, Hartlepot with its own peculiar beauty. and four long miles from Ingleton. This Gordale Scar.-"On the right of the is a very different cave from the one be town (Malham), about a mile and a balf, fore described, and more pleasing as a is another scoop out of the same moor view, chiefly perbaps on account of the (the moor forming a high back-ground to beauty of the cascade. Coming from Malham as you approach it) in which is having seen Yordas cave, you may rea- a very remarkable chasm or chine, into dily imagine the roof of this cave to have the belly of the hill called Gordale Scar. been broken down, and half filled up the This is a very grand and pleasing specta. cavity which was in the lull, and which is cle. The first appearance of it is an imnow open to the day. From the entrance, mense circular scoop out of the steep we descend slopingly many yards over high moor, siinilar to Malham cave, but fragments of rock, or limestone, till we deeper and of a very different aspect. come to an archway of very rude con- The approach to it from the road is up a structure, having large stones hanging in narrow valley, along the course of the ri. the most threatening manner froin the vulet which runs from the Scar. The roof. Turning to the right, under this height of its limestone walls accord with archway, we come full and at once in the slope of the hill, the highest or farfront of a very handsome waterfall thest side being reckoned about 250 feet at the end of the cave. This water bigh. And their ruggedness is softened enters the ground about a mile dis. by patches of grass and ledges of shrubs tance, and, after proceeding through at different heights. This may be called a subterraneous passage, discharges the antichamber of the Scar, which beitself into this cave in a considerable comes visible on the right on reaching body, and with great force, from an the end of this first excavation. Note opening nearly at the top of it, into a withstanding the expectations already deep hcle or whirlpool at the lowest parts formed, we are surprised at the grandeur Here it boils and foams, and throws all and beauty of the scene. This chasm, around a very large spray. In this hole open to the sky, and to which no roof the water is lost iminediately, and runs can be imagined ever to have existed as for near a mile under ground towards at Weathercote Cave, is spacious and Ingleton, when it makes its appearance nearly circular, The area or floor of it again from underneath a ledge of rocks, is a sost herbage, spread over with lime. which is called God's-bridge, and forms a stones of various shape and size, the rivuclear rivulet. Over this bridge we cross- let running, in the centre, across it. The ed to come to the cave.—The cascade is concave sweep of cliff surrounding it, on from twenty to thirty yards high, and is the right of us, is black and frightful,


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