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Col. 4.-_THE population of Great Britain in the year 1811, as here ascribed to the several counties, is less by 243,000 than in a Summary of an Enumeration of 1801, because above a third of the army, navy, &c. are supposed not to be natives of Great Britain : Ireland furnishing a large proportion of the army and of the navy; and foreign countries a considerable number to the army, besides a majority of those seamen wbo navigate registered vessels. On these considerations, only a thirtieth part is added to the resident population of each county, for its share of the army, navy, &c. and the same proportion is continued backward in the preceding columns, 1, 2, and 3.
Col. 5.—The Area of the several Counties in English Statute Miles is here given for the convenience of those who may have occasion to calculate the comparative degree of population; and, to convert the English square mile into a measure kuown by all civilized nations, it is only necessary to reckon it as three to four of the area of the square geographical mile; or that four English square iniles are equal to three geographical. This proportion may be deemed exact; for supposing a degree of latitude (between 590 and 53°) to measure 60,864 fathoms (on the authority of General Mudge) the area of an English square mile to the geographical square mile is as 300 to 398.6. The English square unile contains 640 statute acres.
Scotland (with its Islands) is about equal to Ireland in area, and is half as large as England and Wales; but in computing the area of Scotland in English square miles, it is right to mention that the Scottish mile is 5,952 English feet, or (com pared with the English mile) as 9 to 8. But it is rapidly falling into disuse.
Col. 7.--The Justices of Peace acting under the commission for the Isle of Ely are included in Cambridgeshire; and the justices acting for the Ainstey of the City of York, are included in the East Riding. One hundred and eighty-three cities and towns have magistrates who lay claim to an exclusive jurisdiction; but most of them exercise only a concurrent jurisdiction with the county magistrates, and some of them no jurisdiction at all,
Col. 9. The unentered baptisms, burials, and inarriages, mentioned in the Parish-Register Abstract, at the end of the several counties, are included in these computations.
The number of marriages in Devonshire and Hampshire is considerably increased by sailors' marriages, which take place at Plymouth and Portsmouth: and the proportion of marriages in Middlesex is rendered very high by the practice of Clandese tine Marriage, which is easily accomplished in London. The very low proportion of marriages in Hertfordsbire sbews that this practice extends even to the lower classes in that county.
THE For the Monthly Magazine, to the consideration of parliament. The CONSIDERATIONS concerning Court of Session at present consists
La Proposal for dividing the Court of fifteen judges, fourteen of whom, of Session into Chambers.
including the president, sit together II. Expediency of Reform in the Court in the Inner Court-house, while one of Session.
sits in the Outer Court-house, each III. Memorial and Report on the Bill of the lords in turn taking that duty for by the Lords.
a week. From the lord ordinary, who IV. Substance of Speeches delivered presides in the Outer House, an appeal by some Members of the Faculty
lies to the collective judges of the Inner These four pamphlets include a mas. House. These appeals are so frequent, terly discussion of ihe Reforms projected and the mass of litigation naturally grow in the Court of Session for Scotland. ing out of the increased prosperity of
The present Court of Session was in. Scotland is so considerable, that the court stituted at Edinburgh in 1532, by King is no longer able to overtake the business James V. of Scotland, and originally bore of the country, but incurs every year an the name of the College of Justice. It increasing arrear of causes. As a remewas an avowed imitation of the parlia- dy for this delay of justice, it is proposed ment of Paris, and adopted from the be to separate the Court of Session into three ginping a similar practice of taking evi- chambers, and that five judges should sit dence in writing. In the Catholic times in each chamber; by which means three half the court consisted of spiritual per- causes could be heard cotemporarily, and sons; but, after the abolition of popery,che three times the business dispatched in the spiritual half of the court was laid aside. same space of time.
During the sixth parliament of James From the Court of Session an appeal VI, an Act was passed in 1584 declara- lies at present to the British House of tory of the king's right to fill up vacancies Lords; and these appeals again are so in the Court of Session. This preroga. frequent, and the points of Scotch las, tive was limited by a right in the court on which they turn, so discordant from to reject the king's presentee; and, un. English parliamentary and judicial prederthe usurpation of Cromwell, the court cedent, that there is great difficulty 18 had dwindled to seven, and secms to contriving decisions consistent with anahave filled up vacant seats its own way. logy and with each other. It is proposed, Further regulations were therefore thought therefore, to institute a Scoich High necessary in 1672, which cestored to the Court of Appeal, or Court of Review, to king his patronage, and to the court its consist of the three chambers of the Court original constitution. By the articles of of Session, collectively assembled and the Union in 1707, the jurisdiction of this presided by a Lord Chancellor of Scol. court was especially confirmed, and its land. The Court of Appeal, it is con. authority and privileges expressly re- ceived, might intercept from the House served; subject nevertheless to such regu- of Lords much troublesome detail, and lations for the better administration of would be more likely to decide with a justice, as shall be made by the Parliament thorough knowledge of Scottish law. of Great Britain.
Beside a division into three chambers, During the competition of a pretender occasionally to be concatenated as a of the house of Stuart, it became impor. Court of Review; it is also proposed to lant to the kings of England to overcome introduce jury-trial in various civil cases, any hostile ascendency among the lords wbere it has not hitherto prevailed ; jury judges of the Court of Session. A bill trial being in Scotland confined to crimi. therefore was introduced, in the tenth nal cases. This change will tend much year of George I. to take from the court to assimilate the judicial usages of both the power of rejecting the king's presen- countries, and to prepare that entire tee. This was evidently an invasion of amalgamation of their respective laws, the Articles of Union between the two which would open to Scotch barristers the countries; the new law having no ten. whole mass of English preferment. dency to promote a purer adininistration These projected alterations appear to of justice, but merely to destroy the in. us highly beneficial. A numerous body dependency of the Court of Session. A of judges is better calculated for debate solemn and well.argued protest should than decision. The dignity of the cha have been entered against this regal en- racter is lessened in proportion to the croachment.
number; and the sense of responsibility A more liberal change is now offered is commensurately enfeebled. Where
there are many judges, it is held needless sion of jury-trial a spirit of inquiry, of that each should excel: the minister lis- veracity, of equity, will be diffused ainong tens to the voice of party, or connexion, the people. A greater assimilation will in bis nominations; and, as each appoint be accomplished between provincial and ment is made with negligence, a general metropolitan usage, and a communicamediocrity overspreads the benchi. tion prepared of the better institutions of Where there are a few judges, eminent each country to the other. And thus a professional knowledge and skill is known sort of completion will be given to the to be requisite in each; and the compe- union, preparatory perhaps to an ultia tition for nominations is naturally rea mate entire consolidation. stricted to its proper circle. For celerity of decision, weight of character, and pro- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, fessional acquirement, a corporation of SIR, five judges is likely to excel a corporation HE subject is nearly exhausted by of hfteen.
1 Mr. Ritson's industry, but we may It is important that a Court of Review yet glean a few additional proofs of the should include at least the presidents of degraded state of minstrelsy, and its pro. the separate courts, whose proceedings fessors, which have escaped his reare there to be revised. Without such searches. The ninstrels are unquestje Inclusion there will not be enough of onably alluded to in the statute of the analogy and parallelism in the decisions 13th Edward I. entided, “ Stat. Civitan of the subordinate courts. These would tis Lond." After venting the evils which tend to independency, to rivalrous com, had been occasioned by the worst of petition, to the introduction of opponent evil.doers, Meffesours) in the metroprecedents, were there no form of incor- polis, it orders the wine and ale taverns poration tending to inspire the whole to be shut, at the ringing of the curfew with one body-spirit. The institution of bell, after which hour, no one is to be a Court of Review forins this desirable harboured there, “ beadant ne reccitant." Land of union.
The expression of the statute is pecue The introduction or revival of jury- liar, but appropriate and distinct. Rem trials in civil cases, will expedite judg. citation was the chief business of the ment, will approximate decisions to the minstrels; the musical accompaniment common sense of mankind, will favour held a secondary place. Some few of the popularity of courts of justice, and the instrel tales which have been handed will diffuse a taste for veracity among the down to us, are in prose, intermixed multitude, by exhibiting the disgrace of with rhyme; such is the beautiful fabliau presaricatory witnesses.
of “ Aucassin and Miolette.” The stoA fourth amendment is intended, that ries of the professed reciters in Arabia of limiting litigation in small causes, by and Turkey, are in prose, with a couplet Inaking the first decision final: a measure here and there. It appears clear enough. more defensible on grounds of conveni. from this enactment, that it was not in elice than of equity.
the decline of the art only, that the Various other projects of change have minstrels were classed by the legislature suggested themselves to different indivi- with rogues and vagabonds; even at this duals. Some persons are for dividing early period they associated with the the Court of Session into two chambers, lowest ranks of society. The last female rather than three; others are for resisting minstrel upon record, “Mabille," of innovation wholly. These several pro. Rennes, in Brittany, who, as we are in. posals are especially examined in the formed by Noel du Fail, was celebrated speeches delivered by some members of for singing the lay of “ Tristan de Leon. the faculty of advocates. Many objec- nois,” was carried off by the diseases lions of detail are urged in the technical attendant upon drunkenness and proslanguage of the Scotch bar.
titution; she seems to have lived in the On the whole we think the enterprize reign of Francis I. The only class of of reformation praise-worthy, and the minstrels who attained any degree of remain principles of the intended change spectability, were the “Spruch-sprechers." satisfactory. With gentle deviations of Nuremberg; this was occasioned by fron usage, much practical benefit is their being placed under the immediate likely to result. By the improved con- superintendence of the magistracy. The aution of the juridical order, a higher Spruch-sprecher appeared to the greatest rauk of talent and acquirement will be advantage, at the weddings of the called upon the bench. By the exten, burghers, As soon as the guests were MONTHLY Mac. No. 234.
seated at the dinner-table, he entered poetical talents, by composing extempo the room in his official attire, which con. rary verses on any subject proposed to sisted of a cloak, doublet, and trunk.hose, him. The honest bard was not dismissed all of black velvet, duly puffed and with empty praise, in return for the gre slashed; several badges of silver embossed tification which he afforded the companr; with the devices of the town, and of the he levied a contribution upon them, by different fellowships, were suspender sending a little silver dish round the round his neck, and he was provided with table, into which the parties put as much a staff, or truncheon, decorated with small money as they thought proper. little plates of silver, engraved with the From the nature of the language, thest armorial bearings of his benefactors: the Teutonic“ improvisatori" had greater noise produced by shaking this instro. difficulties to contend with their Italian ment, was the signal he used to rouse the brethren, Ainongst semi-civilized naattention of his hearers.
tions, all poetry is extemporary; hence, After saluting the guests, he addressed it has been supposed to be the effects of a string of extemporary complimental inspiration, the gift of a deity. lines to the bride and bridegroom; and, August 27, 1812.
T.C. when this was finished, he displayed his
MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
Historical EULOGY On the late Hon. by evidences still more astonishing than
IIENRY CAVENDISH, read at u their discovery. The writings in which PUBLIC MEETING of the IMPERIAL he explains thein, are so many chef. INSTITUTE, on the 6th of JANUARY, d'autres of science and method: ibey
1812, by the CHEVALIER Cuvier.* are perfect either as a whole or in their N F the eminent men whose talents details: for no other hand has been able
we are accustomed to celebrate to correct them, while time has cono in this assembly, there have been too tinually increased their reputation, le many who have had reason to learn how short, there is nothing of rashness in to withstand the obstacles opposed to the prediction that his memory will re them by misfortune. But he of whom flect as much lustre on his family as he we are about to speak, had the still himself received from it, and that those scarcer, and probably the much greater, studies which, perhaps, excited the pity mert, of not suffering himself to be or contempt of some of his relatives, overcome by vast wealth! Neither will transmit bis name to a period at his birth, which laid open before him which his rank, or that of his fore the road to honours, nor great riches, fathers, will be scarcely recollected. which offered him the attainment of The history, indeed, of thirty ceuturies every pleasure, could withdraw him from clearly teaches us, that great and osejul his fixed object. He was regardless truths are the only permanent les even of glory, or worldly distinctions, ritances which man can leave behind and his only predilection was a disin- him. terested love of truth. But, if he de Certainly a genius of this class is not prived himself of what ordinary men in need of eulogy: but it is necessary most highly prize, he was rewarded to hold up such men as examples to the by a magnificence proportioned to the world, and this will be our object in purity of the sacrifice. All that the sketching the life, or, rather, in present science's have revealed to him seems to ing an abridgment of the labours, contain something of the sublime and Henry Cavendish, esq. Member of the wonderful. He weighed the earth; he Royal Society of London, and Foreign prepared the means of sailing in the Associate of the Imperial Institute of air; be deprived water of its elementary France. quality, by decomposing it; and the We say an abridgment of his work, truth of these doctrines, so new and so because he has, in fact, been sufficiently opposite to received opinions, he proved wise or fortunate to render society te
gardless of any thing else that concerns le it not a reproach on uur country, and him; and, therefore, his history contains on the legatees of this scientific and wealthy no incidents except his discoveries, which man, that we get this first account of him are worthy of recording. Let no on from a foreign nation?
then expect to hear, as a part of