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only as to the time of that great revolu. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tion op our globe. But a part of my SIR, system on that event is, that, by the sink. T HAVE always found much pleasure ing of the ancient continents, the level and information in reading the highly of the sea was much lowered over the interesting and truly valuable communia whole globe; and this has its immediate cations of the ingenious and learned cora proof. It is a point of which I have respondents to your Monthly Magazine. treated with inany details in my above The accounts I have found there respecte quoted Letters tn Professor Blumenbach, ing various wonderful productions of the and it will recur when I shall reply to far remote, perhaps antediluvian, ages Mr. Farey's objections against what I of the world, have contributed much to bave said of the origin of coal beds, and excite my surprize and admiration : I am of the remains of terrestrial animals in now more particularly alluding to the our strata, as having existed on islands large and nunerous bones that hare at of the former sea. But I must show various times been dug from the bowels first how important is this point for ascer- of the earih, or drawn from the beds of taining the divine inspiration of Genesis. its rivers, the remains of species of anie

Tournefort, the celebrated French boe, mals that have now no existence, and tanist, travelling in Asia, ascended that cease to be sharers of the bounties Mount Ararat, and, in the Account of his of Providence any longer with men. These Travels, he makes this remark, pointed accounts awake sentiments of admiration against Genesis, which has been repeated and of reverence for that Great Being by many unbelievers; that the dove who once moulded and fashioned thein could not have found olive-trees on that into life; it reminds us of our own inmountain, for they could never have sufficiency, and of that comparative point grown there, on account of the cold. only of linie, that circumscribes the short But I have answered, and nobody has journey of man. replied: That, the deluye having been T he following is a plain unvarnished produced by the sea rushing over the account of a most surprising bone that sunken former continents, the atmo. was found about ten days ago in the sphere followed them in their descent; lime- works of Mr. Wallon, in the pas and that its warmest part, which is al- rish of Newbold-upon-Avon, near Rugby. ways at the level of the sea, having thus It lay at the depth of fourteen Teet been lowered, the highest, and thus the from the surface, below a layer of vry coldest, descended on the summits of sharp and dark-coloured gravel, and all the new mountains, which were no longer most imbedded in a lower one of very proper for the growth of some trees : strong clay, of about five feet thick ; be these, however, by degrees, propagated low which is a very solid and very valua. on the slopes and lower grounds, but ble lime rock. The workmen had been died on the suminito.

undermining a piece of clay to get what This appears at first to be only a conthey call a fall, when this bone came sequence of my system ; but in my above. down with it, and escaped being thrown mentioned Letters to Professor Blumen- away among their backing, by its stranye bach, I have proved it to be the fact by and prodigious appearance. After several many phænomena, and in particular by as strange opinions and some rude epis the progress of the ice on high moun. thets about it, they threw it upon the tams: Tbat progress is so perceptible, bank, where it lay two or three days that every generation has transmitied to without much notice, when one of them. the following, some passes through de- (an ingenious man in several respects. files, used by their predecessors, but named Thomas logram, of Church Lawa which had been since occupied by the ford, a village about a mile distanta ice. This is in consequence of the in. (thinking, no doubt, more about it than crease of thickness; but besides, having any of the others,) determined upon wash, often travelled on the Alps, my guides ing it, and on taking it home. It was have shown ine certain spots where the at his house on Friday last, the 16th in cattle had before grazed in summer, stant, that I saw it. It is the upper part though they were now covered by the of the head or scull of some prodigious advancing ice. This progress is even animal, but of what description I am so rapid, that it is one of the pronfs far from being able to determine : i per which I have given of the small antiquity haps will require the abilities of an ana. of our continents.

I. DE Luc. tomist, a naturalist, and philosopher, to Windsor, Aug. 1812.

determine this. I may venture my oyini MONTULY Mac. No. 234,

on, however, so far as to say, it undoubt that I think it highly probable the eyes of edly once belonged to some most noble this animal, ty a muscular motion, animal, but to such a one that has not, would turn so far back in their suckets, from the earliest period of our history, as to enable the creature to see with ever been described as a native of this a great facility behind it, as in any di. island. Neither of the lower jaw-bopes rection. The ear-holes, about one inch is yet found, nor are there any teetia and a half diameter, are nearer the now remaining in the upper one. There upper part of the bead, but somewhat were four when it fell among the workmen, lower nearer the jaw. There is little or but these, by throwing about and wash. no appearance of its having horns. I ing it, nave fallen from their sockets, but must not omit two round-ended knuckleare preserved. The thin shell bone, to like bones, projecting from the back part which the roof or palate of the mouth of the head, which evidently met corte. adheres, is likewise gone. But of the re- spondent hollows in the neck; and that maining part I hope to give a tolerable between these is a bole of little less than idea by describing its form, and the mea. two inches in diameter, through which sure of it in different places ; its weight; the spinal marrow passed. and other distinguishing particulars. In One of the four teeth mentioned, its form in front it most resembles, I weighs nine ounces; the other three about think, the scull of a horse, except that it eight ounces each: they were all fired does not narrow so inuch above the eyes in their respective sockets by four fangs, upwards. The length of this bone from or roots; are nearly of a square form; of the jaw, in which the fore-teeth were set, an inch and a balf each; and are a little is thirty-five inches; it measures across rough and uneven on their surfaces; and, the nose, at the lower opening of the nos. in length, are about three inches. These trils, nine inches; at the lower end of the all grew on the same side, and from that eye-sockets it is fifteen inches; and near part of the jaw which, in a horse, is the upper end of these sockets it is eighteen next beyond where the bridle-bit goes. inches wide. The bone at the nose, and So far is the account of all that was indeed all the way up the front, is ex- brought away by Ingram the first time. ceedingly strong, it falls from the nose up- On Thursday, the 15th, he brought wards into an easy hollow, and rises again home another tooth and a leg bone. The a little circular, from an inch or two below leg bone, I think, seems not quite pro the eye-holes to a little above them, portionate; it is, however, about three where it falls a little below a straight inches in its small part further round than Ime again; and from here to the top of I can span: the ends to which the tenthe lead it projected forward considerdons were fixed, swell to a much larger ably, and is in this part of amazing thicksize, the lesser one to hear four inches press, solidity, and strength: its colour each way, and the larger one to five or is dusky brown. The nostril-holes are more : it is about fifteen inches in length irregular ovals of about eight or nine (my pencilmarks being here effaced, I inches in Jength, by three inches in write from mernory, but believe I am breadth. The eye-holes (quite as large) correct). This bone is somewhat flatted are nearly of the same form : at the lower on one side, probably had a smaller one end of each of these, there is a little by it; appears more decayed than the round projecting bone, of about an inch in skull. The tooth brought away on the diaineter at its root, and an inch and a 15th, on its face or top, has but little unhall nearly in length, growing taper and evenners, yet appears to have been aa ending in a blunt point; these seem to enormous grinder; its form here is more have been placed as a guard for each oval tban oblong-the greatest length of eye, which no doubt were very large. I the oval five inches, and the greatest wish to observe that the eye-lioles do not breadth little less than three inches. It pass into the skuli at nearly right angles, has a number of dark crooked lines across as the eye-holes in the scull of a horse do; it, which lines curve at their ends, and but enter it (at their upper ends) in a meet two and two, which give the ap. very sloping direction, from towards the pearance of a nuinber of smaller teeth, top of the head ; so that, if a person with set within the large one: it is very close a gouge, were to chamfer a hole in a flat and firm, has only one great root or fang, piece of wood, the tool and the plane of curving more to one side than the other, that piece would form but a very small like a cornucopia; is little less than six angle with each other. This lengthens inches long; the hole at the point will their outward oval forin very much; so admit a person's thumb; and it is of the


astonishing weight of forty ounces. The While dejected under the loss of those skull, with these five teeth, weighs not we loved, we feel antipathy to mirth, less than forty-four pounds.

and may filly exbibit repugnance to it, One cannot, without emotion, reflect without harbouring a settled aversion. on the probable size of such a creature Antipai hy, though it leads to hostile as this, and follow it down through the feelings, does not imply them : between graduated scale of ani,nal existence, to the lewd and the austere, there is often, the almost imperceptible mite, and con- antipathy without aversion. That wbich sider that each has its organs, no doubt causes us to lose most of our time is the exquisitely suited to its nature, and in repugnance we naturally have for labour, the most wonderful manner." O Lord, - Dryden. how manifold are thy works!-in wisdom

Fatc-Destiny. hast thou made thein all," &c.

These are pagan terms for the ideas Rugby, SAMUEL Dalton. which our theologians translate by the Oct. 20, 1812.

terms necessity and providence. That P.S. I was yesterday informed that a tooth which is spoken (fulum) by the voice of of still larger size and of greater weight has

Nature is fate; that which is chained tobeen found; but this I mention from report only. gether (destinutum) by the hand of Jove

In the above account of the skull, where is destiny. In as much as a man's conI said it most resembled the skull of a horse, dition has resulted from laws of the ma. &c. &c. I did not intend to be understood that terial world, it is his fate; in as much as it had a near resemblance to a scull of that it has resulted from the ordainment of animal; it is indeed very unlike any bone I more powerful beings, it is his destiny. ever saw, but, perhaps, as near like what I Fate is blind. dentin

Fate is blind: destiny has foresight. mentioned, or rather nearer, than it is to aby

The atheist talks of fate ; the theist of other I could compare it with

destiny. The large tooth, I should have said, is six

In the following distich of Dryden, the inches long in its greatest bval length, and three in breath: its contents are sixteen super

word fate is employed, where destiny ficial inches on its face, or grinding surface.

would have been better placed.

When empire in its childhood first appears, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. A watchful fate o'ersees its rising years.

Circa Deos et religiones negligentior, quippe A S the circumstance occurs but once addictus mathematica, persuasionisque pleH in eight years and more, it may be nus cuncta fato agi. Suetonius. interesting to inany to know, that on the

Prælia non tantum destinatò, sed ex oc7th of December, and some days before

casione sumebat - Suetonius. and after, they may expect to see the

Excellence- Ercellency. planet Venus in the day-time. She has Both these words are variations of the tben her angle (as calculated by the il same term; ercellency being the older lustrious IIALLEY) of greatest illumina. form; ercellence, from the progressive tion, as seen from the earth 400. She abbreviation of utterance ihe more curwill come to the meridian 2h. 40' before rent. As highness not only signifies the the 0, with an altitude of about 35°, state of being high, but is also applied her declination being south.

as a personal title; so excellency not By White's Ephem.

only signities the state of invertopping, The Q 1 long. on 7 D. ?

(excellere, to outgrow), but is also applied 1 15° 18' 4-1"

as the title of ambassadors and gover. in 5° 31'

nors. From the habitual formality of Dif. 39° 47' 44"

ufficial address, the older form of the And on the 24th of this present month word is most usual as a tiile, and the Mars and Venus will be in conjunction, newer forin of the word in the general Troston,

Capel LOFFT. sense of surpassingness. November 24, 1812.

Hence, perhaps, an idea of natural

worth adheres to excellence, and an idea For the Monthly Magazine. of titular eminence to excellency. The CONTRIBUTIONS TO ENGLISH SYNONYMY. excellency of the poet laureac;--the ex.

Antipathy- Repugnance- Aversion. cellence of the poet Southey. ANTIPATHY(artı against, and grados Low-spiritedness-- Dejection MelanH feeling) is an interior sentiment of

choly. discordance; repugnance (re against, and Low-spiritedness is a common name pugnans fighting,) a transient opposition; both for the dejection cause I os nutirand aversion (a from, and versio turning) tune, and for the melancholy which is en acknowledged dislike

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Of an afflicted man we say, that he who is piercing, in his observations; be is low-spirited; and uf an hypochondrie is keen who has an interested purpose acal man, we also say that he is low. in making them. Acuteness announces spirited. Dejection is appropriated to penetration; sharpness, a! ungende the occasional sorrow over disappoint. temper; and keenness, a selfish rapacity, Inent. Melancholy is appropriated to Keenness is a quality of which we notice the habitual gloom of the ideal scenery the possession with more complacence within,

than the exertion : like a strong set of The reverse of dejection is joy; the teeth, we know it will tell in the long reverse of melancholy is cheerfulness; and ron; but it may snap at a plateful of the reverse of low-spiritedness is gaiety. our own. To End-To Finish-To Complete.

Soon-Quickly-Speedily. To end is to discontinue, to finish is Soon is an adverb of time, quickly of to work at for the last tiine, and to com- motion. That is to be done soon which plete is to end finishing.

is to be done after a short time; that is The end of a chapter; the finis, or to be done quickly which is to be done finish, of a volume; the completion of an in a rapid manner. Speedily is an adentire work. What is ended may not be verb both of time and motion, uniting finished; what is finished may not be the ideas soon and quick. That is to be complele; but whatever is finished or done speedily which is to be done after complete is ended. The author of the a short time and in a rapid manner. The Prolepsis Philologia Anglicanæ seems to reverse of soon is late: the reverse of have ended his dictionary at the letter quickly is slowly: and the reverse of A. Dictionaries may be completed by speedily is leisurely. interpolations; they are finished at the last letter of the alphabet. According To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, to the Millenarians, at the end of the SIB, 'world, this earth is to be finish'd up UTAVING seen in your Magazine se into one vast terrestrial paradise; where 11 veral methods described for driving the wise and good of every nation and bees, some of which have been much age are to assemble in lasting commu- controverted, I beg to send you the folnion; and, by dwelling together a thou- lowing, which we have tried with compleat sand years, are to refive and purify each success. other for that superior station of felicity, About nine o'clock at night, when the the completion of which is reserved for bees were all at rest, we took the bire the eternal heavens.

they were to be driven out of and turned Keenness-Sharpness - Acuteness. it upside down, letting it rest on a large Keen (German kühn) is etymologically basket, but a hole in che ground will do connected with the Icelandish kinn, the as well. We then placed the hive they jaw, the grinders, (in Saxon cin-teth,) and were to be drove into on the inserted with the English chin : it originally sig- bive, bringing the bottoms of both bires nifies strong of jaw, able to bite, hungry, together, and round the part where they voracious. The keen shark. A keen joined we wrapped a cloth to prevent stomach. Metaphorically it is applied any bees getting out, and then tied the to those who kuow how to get their bread two hives together to prevent their slip in the world; who possess a somewhat ping asunder: after this we struck on the eager appetite for the means of mainte-, lower hive for a quarter of an hour with a Dance; and exert a dangerous skill in stick, which roused the bees, and they providing for themselves. Junius, and left their own bive and went to the opper Johnson, and Adelung, have mistaken one, after allowing them an hour to comthe meaning of this word. As a poetical pose themselves, we took off the upepithet, it answers to biting: The been per hive with the bees in it and placed it blade, the biting blade; the keen blast, where it was to stand. the biting blast.

Finding that only half the bees had Sharp is etymologically connected with gone into the upper hive, we repeated share, the cutter of a plough, and shears, he operation the next night, and almost large scissars, and signifies having a cut- all of them went into the upper hive, ting edge: in Saxon mylen-scearp means, which, however, was not the same as had sharpened with a grind-stone, A sharp been used before. We placed it by the sword, but an acute dart. Acute, from other, and the next day all the bees went acus a needle, signifies having a subtile from the other bive last used to that first thorn-like extremity, pointed.

used, and have worked and done well He is sharp who is cutting, he is acute ever since.


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Blair's admirable Class Book, has reSIR,

cently been published. Every tutor of IT is the fate of every inventor to be good taste and correct feelings, would I robbed of the best fruits of his in- have excluded such a work from his sea vention, by base imitators. It seldom minary, and no young female could be happens that an imitator has the merit allowed to read it ; but it so happens, of its original, but, devoid of moral that, owing to solicitation, inadvertency, feeling, the imitator practises every good nature, or some foolish or bad pastrick of empiricism, to draw attention sion, nearly one hundred schoolmasters and force patronage. It seldom hap- and schoolmistresses have formally lent pens, however, that men of correct cha. their names as patronizers of this gross, racter are found to lend themselves as vulgar, and inadequate imitation. They avoued patrons of a base imitation of an are in fact made the vouchers to unsus, other inan's invention; yet a case of this pecting persons for trash that not only disa kind has recently occurred, which de graces language, but even human nature. mands notice and exposition. It is solely and I am convinced, from what I know an affair of the press, and therefore is of some of them, that they have not cognizable in your monthly Court of weighed what they have done; or are Equity.

not aware of the indisereer manner A few years since a work was com- in which they have thus committed their piled from our best authors, consisting of moral and literary character. Lessons for schools, appropriated to the Under such circumstances it would he days of the year, on a plan which united cruel to publish any of the names thus elegance of language with perspicuous abused; invidious to desiguate the book instruction, on three hundred and sixty- by its title; and most disgusting to select five important subjects: it was called passages in proof of the justice of these " the Class Book, by the Red. D. Bluir." remarks. Ic appears to me, however, As it had super-eminent merit, as well in that no schoolmaster or schoolmistress its plan as its execution, it obtained ge- ought lightly to lend their names to give neral currency in our schools, at least in countenance and currency to what they schools which preferred merit, unaided evidently have not seen; even had the by personal interest, and which were un work in its general features not been a influenced by conceits and prejudices base imitation of a literary project, usethat are alien to all improvement. Qifully, unexceptionably, and ably filled course, the author's plan was followed by by its original inventor, a tribe of imitatorgin' Junior Class A FRIEND OF Blarn's Class Book. Books Poetical Class Books--&c. &c. Nov. 7, 1812. Yet, as “ Blair's Class Bookmet with great and rapid encouragement, and the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, world is wide enough for originality and SIR, fair competition, the compiler of the ori. A LADY at Camberwell observed from giaal work felt the compliment paid him A her drawing room window two sparby servility, more than he suffered from rows building a nest in a cavity in a wall the meditated injuries.

opposite; about the same time two pie As those who cannot invent, very sel. geons hovered around for several days, dom improve, and generally deteriorate and at last drove the poor sparrows away, what they meddle with ; notice of base enlarged the nest, and the Poll Pigeon reimitations are seldoin necessary to insure mained in it, while the Tom carried proultimate public contempt; but a manæu. visions regularly to her. At length the fee vre has lately been practised, exceeding male was seen coming out. The lady, out the ordinary tricks of piratical imitators. of curiosity, sent a servant to examine the A wretched compilation of three bundred nest, where were found just hatched two and sixty-five lessons, full of vulgarities pigeons and two sparrows. The servant and indecencies devoid of good morals brought the nest into the house, then and good taste-defective in its concepe carefully replaced it; but the birds no tion of objects of instructiun, and in its sooner returned than they found their mode of treating the full of con- mansion had been disturbed, they flew troversial and polemical disquisitions, away and never returned, deserting their

possessing no quality, besides its base young, which of course soon perished. initation of the external features of


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