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crets, l'auteur d disparu, et on ne le upon it. It seems to me a very forced trouve ni lui, ni sa drogue, aur differens application of the term. Agriculture is domiciles dont il avoit successivement employed in raising living natural prodonné l'addresse. Je dois vous ajouter, duce, vegetable and aniinal, for the use d'après les informotions que l'intérêt of man; while Manufacture is employed que vous y prenez m'a engagé à faire, que in converting dead natural produce to cette cau, pretendue antigouleuse, est un bis use. The distinction is sufficiently purgalif aciert très violent, qui a pu être obvious: one seconds nature; the other utile à un petit nombre de malades pitui- gives forms and combinations, and powers teur; mais qu'il a produit les plus mauvais and effects, which arise from the new ar. cffets chez la plupart de ceux qui en ont rangement which is given to the mate. usé. J'ai cru ne devoir pus différer à rials. It might as well he said, that mavous communiquer ces instructions pour nufacture is a branch of agriculture; as vous prouver mon zele ; ce qui ne m'empe being a method of employing the soil, or chera pas de continuer mes recherches pour its produce. vous donner, s'il est possible, plus ample Both theoretically and practically, saiisfaction.
agriculture and manufactures form the Votre très humble et très obéissant two great clear and perfectly distinct serviteur,
divisions, in the exercise of human in(Signé) MENURET, Med. dustry, for human comfort and improveTRANSLATION.
ment. There is room and occupation Sir, I eagerly embrace the opportu. abundantly in this island for both. And nity of communicating any thing which it is not the business of politics to favour may afford you pleasure. I have made, either in prejudice of the other. buť without success, every possible in. There is still another and important quiry to discover the author and the de- distinction. Manufacture contributes pot of the Eau medicinale d'Huson, which nothing directly to the food of man, any vou desire for your gouty friend. Whe- more than agriculture does directly to iber from the well founded disrepute of his clothing, Manufacture gives a the medicine, or from the intentions of value to commodities, which, or the mogovernment against unknown medicines, ney which they obtain, may be exchanged The author has disappeared, and neither for food. Agriculture encourages and he nor his medicine is to be found in the improves the materials which may be various houses from which he has suc- converted into clothing, or the produce cessively announced them. I ought to which will purchase clothing. But, die 'adu thai, (after the inquiries which, from rectly, agriculture feeds,-inanufacture the interest you take in them, I have clothes and lodges, us. been induced to make,) ibis pretended As to the question of profit, the conyout medicine is a sharp and violent pur parison, in a wational view, cannot be Pative, which has been of use to some duly made without considering the prinjew phlegmatic persons, but has produced ciples and nature of public national pro. the most pernicious effects to the greater fit. It is noť that which brings the part of those who have used it. I have greatest sum to an individual, which is thought it right not to delay como uni. Therefore necessarily the most profitable cauing this information, in order to prove to a community: it may even be abso, muy readiness to serve you, and nothing lutely the reverse. As Rousseau, who shall hinder nie from continuing my ill. excels in every thing, has stated, the quiries, to give you (if possible) more price of absolute necessaries can never unpie satisfaction,
be permanently very high: for it has its Your very humble and obedient natural limit in the general ability to servant,
purchase them. But the profit of a na. (Signed) MENURET, Physician. . tion, in true politics, consists in food for
the body, together with its other neces. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Siry provision of fire and clothing; food SIR,
for the mind in the arts and sciences; T TUINK your correspondent (p. 106, and those pleasures which contribute to
vol. 31) has not done justice to agri. the personal happiness of the individual, culture: I hope to do no injustice tu ma. and to social well-being. Nothing is nufactures and commerce,
national wealth farther than it promotes As to the verbal argument, that agri. some of these objects. The mines of culture is a branch of manufacture, I do Mexico and Peru might pour into & But think it necessary much to dwell nation, and yet it might be in a state of
* the most abject poverty and wretchedbenefit which it produces. National Hess,
wealth is that aggregate of ineans, rightly It is certainly a great commendation employed, which subserves to the well. peculiar to agriculture, that it direcily being of a nation. supplies food: but, in a prosperous state It is neither gold nor Bank.notes; it is of society, population will outrun, and neither wares nor soil; it is industry be. ought soon to outrun, any possible agri- neficially applied. cultural improvement on a given space. Hence, the most prosperous war cai). Indastry, therefore, must send forth its not be the proper permanent state of any produce to supply the deficiency. And nation. It is a great advantage of mait is idle, and worse than idle, to attempt nufacture ibat it ministers to the arts and
either to check population, positively or sciences; to the elegancies and exalted - negatively; or to speak, in the state of enjoyments of human nature; but it is a society at which we have long arrived, minister very liable to become corrupt either of agriculture or manufactures as and vitious, and to desert these ends for independent on each other.
narrow, and sordid, and destructive A nation which is neither agricultural ends. The guard against this mischief nor commercial, can live only, as a bare must be in the general diffusion of useful barous state, by plunder. A nation that knowledge; which promises the estais, would perpetually improve its means blishment of a new and permanently of subsistence, were it not that its own blessed era in human society. The happiness lets in those evils which pro- great advantage of agriculture is, that it gressively undermine and destroy it. favours in its nature, health, strength,
That the objects of agriculture are energy, the corporeal and moral good, of rapidly consumed, makes nothing against man..
CAPEL LOFFT. it while they are as rapidly reproduced. Troslon, Sept. 0, 1812. The wealth is not in the dead possession of an identical produce; but in the active use and enjoyment of that or similar
For the Monthly Magazine. produce.
CONTINUATION of the ACCOUNT of the The national wealth from land under . BRITISH MINERAL STRATA; cultivation, consists wholly in the aggre. By JOHN MIDDLETON, of LAMBETII. gate of national health, energy, and subsistence, which is sopplies or the ques. 8ih. THE Fullers-earth sand, or her. tion, what centage it raises in the shape
gute Sand, Tbis formation lies of interest to the owners upon a given
next below the blue marl last described, capital, is quite immaterial; or rather,
and it generally rises to the surface with if the profit in this view is very high to
in a mile of the precipice of chalk hills; the owners, it proves a deficiency of na
it is seen to do so on the south side of tional subsistence.
such hills in Surrey and Kent: and the The comparison appears to me to be
north border of the dowiis in Sussex is in very ill applied, which endeavours to ex.
every respect similar; for there this sand alt the manufacturer above the agricul.
lies under the same marl, and that is turist, by considering the latter is em
crowned with chalk. These strata are ployed on the raw materiais; the other
in the same relative situation in the Isle on the refined. And it is inconsistent
of Wight, and in Dorsetshire, in Hertfordwith the very argument itself, which
shire, and other places. This sandy de. treats agriculiure as a species of manu.
manu. position may be thus specified, facture. If so, then the agriculturist is 1. Sand, of a chesnut colour, conattendant on a much higher, more com. taining ironstone in layers - 35 feet,
different tint plex, and refined specification than the 2. Sand, of,
imperectly mixed with peat miller; when he attends to the growth of mis corn, from the seed to the leaf. tbe and some earth of a yellow
colour - - - 15 feet. stalk and the ear, till it finally re-appears S. Sand, more yellow than the last 15 feet. multiplied as seed again.
4. Sand, of a ruddy hue, and conAs to the comparative honour of the taining iron-stone - - 15 feet., two employments, the honour of any oc- 5. Sand, the colour of pretty good cupation consists either in tlie powers of moist sugar
15 feet. mind which it worthily employs, or in its 6. Sand, in four more beds of difdirect immediate utility, or in the ag- ferent tinis, each of about 15 gregate of both: the national utility or fect, is . ..
60 feet. profit of it consists in the national ?. A bed of black shiver - 8 feet,
8. Sand, in many beds and of di
Wherever the sand stratum which lies vers colours, such as dove, yel
under chalk is found to rise to the sur. low, and red. These are divided
face, (and it always does so within a mile from each other by about four
or two of the chalk precipice), there fullers' Jayers of black shiver - - 250 feet. earth may be expected.
By the addition of these figures we Oth. Next under the above are the find that this formation, which is princi- Aluminous or Weald Mcusures, wbich pally sand, is nearly 413 feet thick.* come up to the surface, and, in a state This stratum contains fuliers'-earth of of decomposition, form the soil of the two or more colours, whereof one is weald of Surrey, Sussexy and Kent. brown, and another is a full blue, which These are, are dug for the use of our manufactures 1. Black shiver and stone containand household purposes at Nutfield, in ing alum . - - 60 feet. Surrey, in some parts of Kent, in Bed. '2. Clay, of different colours, so fordshire, and other places. I found it much disguised by slips, and beon the south side of the Isle of Wight, as ing washed by rain, that I could well as in Alum bay, and at Swanage.
not describe them, but they mea-
100 feet. * Strata below chalk in the Isle of Wight, seen in the cliffs in Blackgang Chine and
Carried forward - 160 feet, Compton Chine. 1. Blue marl or clay well defined,
2. Coal, very sulphureous - 2 feet. 15 feet, whereof the lower part
3. Clay, coloured with sulphur or
S feet. ie shiver, 2. Another 15-feet stratum of a
4. Clay, of a dove colour
5. Clay and shells, or marl of a simila- soil, but mixed with sand, $0 much as to render it rather
8 feet. of a lighter colour than Number
6. Clay in two layers, the upper
one of a chesnut, and the other ene, and give it somewhat a dif
of a lead colour. The lower bed ferent appearance, making together a thickness of - - 30 feet.
is very fine, and probably fit for 3. Sandstone, in compact rock and
porcelain - -
20 feet. of a chesnut colour
7. Sand, coloured like the very
. . 4. Blue clay, much like Number
best moist sugar
9 feet one, but containing alum, which
8. Sand in three layers, a little appears on the surface of the
stained with iron
8 feat. section (cliff), of a fine yellow
9. Sand, white as snow, of which colour - -
10 feet it is said that much is shipped 5. Sand or sandstone, the colour
to London, Bristol, and Worcesof good moist sugar, 20 feet; in
ter, for the manufactory of glass cumbent on sand perfectly whice,
and the best porcelain • . 30 feet.
Together these strata are 87 feet thick ; they 20 feet
- 40 feet. 6. Sand and sandstone in many
are arranged horizontally, and are situated beds, containing layers of iron
on the north side of the Chine. The strata stone, and varying in colour
between that place and the chalk mountain from wbite to brown and blue,
are in a vertical position, and of beautiful upwards of 120 feet. ' All the
prismatic colours, but so disguised by slips, low, level, and productive land
and being washed by rain, as to prevent my along the coast near Brixton is
describing them. formed of this stratum - 120 feet.
Memorandum of strata in a brick-field, a few 7. Clay and sand in many layers 70 feet.
hundred yards on the north-east side of Lys
mington, Hants : Together - $15 feet.
1. Gravel, of considerable thick.
ness. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and the upper
2. Clay, of a dove colour, about 10 feet.
3. Sand, a fine white half of 6, have been washed off the low land
5 fcet. between Chale and Freshwater. They re
4. Sand, the colour of good moist
sugar sume their places near Compton Chine, and in
5 feet. a rapid dip pass under the chalk. A distinct" 5. Sand, more brown and rather
loamry view was obtained of these strata below the
- - S feet.
6. Clay, of a pale lead colour, chalk to the depth of 315 feet. A memorandum of strata in Alum bay, at
said to contain the boxes of the west end of oh Isle of Wight: .
10 or 19 fecta
7. Sand, very white, dug to the 1. Gravel and other loose ma
depth of 8 or 10 feet, but not teriale . :. : 4 fect. through it."
Brought forward - 160 feet. I had a full view of them in the S. Sand, of various shades, but all
cliffs, and estimated the thickof a light colour, and containing
ness of them at
- 80 feet. iron-stone, about - . 100 feet, 2. Leaning Vien, a bed of very pe4. Black shiver, containing alum 30 feet. rishable stone, abounding with 5. Sand and sand-stone . 40 feet. small shells, raised and shipped, 6. Aluminous shiver, as before,
at Swanage and Durlstone bay, but with a layer of sulphureous
to London for flag pavement - 7 feet. ligneous coal. I traced the coal
This seems to be the stratum which for some distance; it did not
near Petworth has obtained the name of seem to prevail uniformly, but rather in detached pieces - 12 feet.
Sussex marble. Their exterior appcar. (7. Various mixtures of clay, sand,
ance is the same, and the shells are of si. and sand-stone
milar size in each. In Sussex this stone 8 Clay
is quarried three or four miles north of 9. Sandstone •
Petworth, between North Chapel and 10. Coal, of an inch or two in thick
Kirdford, about two iniles east of the road. ness
It is a mass of small shells, cemented to11. Aluminous shiver, as before 5 feet. gether by clay of a dirty grey colour. It 12. Sandstone
- 10 feet.
has not been dog for many years in any. 13. Various layers of sand and
greater quantity than a block or two at a stone about - - 50 feet.
tine. The rock lies eight or ten feet be
low the surface, and it has heen much Together - 457 feet.
dug formerly to be burnt to line; in which A section of all the foregoing strata
manner it is supposed a block of superior may be seen and measured in Swanage
stone was occasionally met with, and that bay.
was set apart for the mason. The preThe foregoing several thicknesses of
sent Mr. Burgess, a mason at Pet wortii, blue mari, 30 feet; Reigate sand, 413
has made several chimney pieces of this feet; and weald measures, 457 feet,
stone, but he did it by cutting up large being added together, exhibit strata to
old mantles and jambs, not from stone the depth of 900 feet below chalk.
recently raised from the quarry. Lord They are similar to the vertical and other
Egreinont had a small cart-load of it dug strata in Alum bay, and to those near
in the summer of 1812, and it now lies Blackgang Chine, St. Catherine's, Isle of
among other building materials near bis Wight, as well as to the inineral earths in
lordship's house at Petworth. This stone Lulworth Cove.
is known to be so much in layers, and so The several beds of aluminous sbiver
liable to break, that it is difficult to make contain sulphureous coal an inch or two
it into any thing that is not rather bulky; thick, in many layers and patches.
even in sawing it frequently breaks off Such of these strata as contain alum
and falls to pieces. The quarry is eight probably have it in sufficient quantity for
or ten miles north of the South Downs, the profitable establishment of its manu
and if the stone was of any value it may factory. The alum appears on the face
probably be met with not much under of such cliffs as contain the proper earth
the surface near Handcross, and in a line in the form of a bright yellow efflores.
east and west of that place. cence.
3. Stone, not esteemed of any va. Immediately under the aluminous or lue, and black shiver in many weald measures lie a succession of
60 feet strata which rise to the surface in Purbeck,
4. Freestone, raised and shipped at and in a state of decomposition forin
Swanage and Duristone bay the soil of that part of the county of
to London, in Purbeck squares 5 feet.
5. Various beds of stone, in low Dorset,
estimation, and black shiver 11 feet. 101h. The Purbeck strata are,
6. Downs Vien, raised, squared, 1. Various beds of stone brash,
and shipped, at Durlstone bay for black shiver, and compact rock,
London - - - 3 feet. is alternate layers. These are
7. Various layers of stone, in low supposed to rise and form the
estimation and black shiver - 20 feet. surface near Handcross, and in a
8. New Vien, a bed of good and line east and west of that place
free-working stone, raised and in Sussex, and also from Swa
shipped at Durlstone bay tor hage to Durlstone bay, in Dor
- - 5 feet. fetskirc. At çhe latter place
In Durlstone bay the quarries are only
worked to this depth, owing to the fol- tleman much satisfaction to learn, that lowing beds of stone lying under the thirteen out of the eighteen errors be sea at that place. But a little more enumerates (for I do not conceive wagons westward is Hawcomb, nlias Tilley for waggons of any material consequence, Whim Quarry; and, as the strata ascend even if it can be termed incorrect,) were in that direction, we there meet with the detected after a few copies only had been following additional layers :
distributed, and that they were immedia 9. Many beds of stone, in low esti.
ately corrected. If therefore Mr. Copsmation, and black shiver, lie un
ley refers to any subsequent edition of der the New Vien. These the
the Oxford stereotype, he will find the quarry-men call ragstone, and
volume contains only one error of consethey are in thickness about • 100 feet. quence, this is at Proverbs, c. vi, v, 11,
Purbeck strata continued, but the fol. travelleth for travaileth, and I have no lowing five numbers are equally applica
lica doubt but this also will be rendered corble to the Isle of Portland:
rect in every future impression.
Few volumes are more carefully printed 10. Cinder at Purbeck is the same
than those which issue from the Oxford rock as Roach at Portland. This is a stratum uf marine shells,
press; nor can one error be considered mostlyfragments of oyster shells,
as a proof of any very great negligence in in a state of hard and heavy
a volume containing eleven bundred and stone - - 10 or 12 feet. sixty closely printed pages. A. W. 21. Purbeck Portland, or Portland stone, in two or three beds,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, whereof the lowest is generally
SIR, the best ; of this stone great
IN a late number of your variously numbers of rick-stands and
I instructive work, are some new, and troughs to hold water were be
certainly well meant, reinarks on some ing prepared at Purbeck in the
of che Londou charities. I shall make summer of 1812, froin S0 to 40 feet.
no apology for troubling you with a few 12. Many layers of similar stone,
thoughts which have occurred to me on bat so much cumbered by flint
as to be of no use
fost 25 feet.
the perusal of them; for such specula13. Blue hard stone, not raised for
tions, beside instruction in the practice sale, and at Tilley Whim Quar
of rational philanthropy, afford also ry it is mostly under the sea 22 feet. Inore easy and impressive lessons in the 14. Freestone, or a cream colour, but
science of morals and political economy, not used, about
- 20 feet. than the laboured effusions of pure diThis stone in 1812 was set thickly with dactic philosophy. nipple shells, and great numbers of them . In the hrst place, I join my most earrecently emplied of their fish, were seen nest wishes with those of several of your in the pastures above the cliffs, by which correspondents, that some method were it is made manifest that the sea-gulls are
are devised to save the lives of seamen partial to such food.
wrecked in the neighbourhood of land. Together, the Purbeck strata are 410 to give my own opinion, the proposal of feet; or from the top of Leaning Vien the cork belt, though a simple contrive (Sussex marble) to the bottom of these ance, by Conimon Sense, and the reformations of stone is 330 feet.
commendation of the life.boat to be kept Several of the lower strata of those beds in every ship, by W. N., seems really of stone contain numerous impressions of more likely to attain this desirable end, the Cornu Aimonis. .
than the complicated and difficult maThis No. 14 is the lowest bed of chinery for which Captain Manby was stone above the sea in the two islands of so liberally rewarded by Parliament, Purbeck and Portland, therefore at this wilich has never yet been of any real use, place I shall make a few cursory observa
and will not likely ever be put in prac tions on Portland and its quarries.
tice. * It is indeed surprising, that every
great ship, at least, should not be pose To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
meble Mounine sessed of a life-boat, and not absurdly SIR, A
Mr. Cleghorn, inventor of the ice lifeT page 298 of the last Monthly Maga• boat, in a late pamphlet, advises the use of A zilie, is a letter from a Mr, D. Cops- air-tight casks, which are always to be found Jev, pointing out a considerable number in every ship; these, though rather unof errata in the Oxford 8vo. stereotype wieldy and unmanageable, may, no doubt, Kible. I will doubtless afford that gen ofteu answer this imporcant purpose.