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MEMOIRS of the life and works of Hoo-chee, is sometimes rendered as a CONFUCIUS.

proper name where it occurs as an ap(AMONG other literary gratifications which pellation of the sage, although it real

have resulted from the recent cultivation ly means the great master or teacher. of Oriental Literature may be named, the Khoong-chee is the sage's most common publication of the original Text of the appellative. Works of CONFUCIUS, and of a transla-When anite a child. Confucias tion of the same by Mr. JAMES MARSH

*: modest, grave, and courteous in his deMAN. Nor is it the least interesting fact attending the appearance of this work. P

portment, and delighted in imitating, in that it was printed at SERAMPORE, in

in his puerile way, the ceremonies of worBengal, at a printing-press set up by the ship used in the temples. He was also ENGLISH MISSIONARIES. We treat it exceedingly fond of inquiring into the therefore as a foreign work, although print- nature of things, which inquisitive temed in the English Language, and presume per is said to have exposed him, on a we shall gratify our readers by presenting certain occasion, to censure, when inthem with the prefatory Memoirs of this quiring about the nature of things in his great philosopher as they are read and se. paternal temple. At the age of fifteen ceived among his countrymen.]

he gave himself up to more serious stul. THE See-khee says, that Khoong- dies, making the maxims and examples

I chee's proper name was Hyaon, and of the ancient sagey the constant subLuis literary name Choong-ni. His an- jects of his contemplation. He acknow. cestors were originally of the Soong ledges, that in his youth he was reduced country; but his father, whose name to great straits, and that this gave occawas Sook-leong-guit, was a mandarine sion for his acquiring skil) in horsemanof considerable rank in the kingdom of ship, archery, and various other arts. · Lov. His mother's name was Gnan- When he was little more than twenty, see. In the twenty-second year of he was appointed to superintend the disSyong-koong, the sovereign of Loo, tribution of grain; and afterwards made (the forty-seventh year of the cycie,) superintendent of cattle, in which emwas Khoong-chee born, in Chlong- ployments he acquitted himself with peng, a town in the district of 'Chhoa, great reputation. After some time, ut wbich his father was mandarine. however, he went into the Chou counThis, according to Du Halde, was in try, to profit from the instructions which the reign of Ling-wong, (or rang, as he Laou-chee-tou-kwun, an aged and celewrites it,) the twenty-third emperor of brated teacher, then gave on manners the Chou (Tcheou) dynasty, and 551 and morals; and, on his return to his years before the Christian era.

own country, soon found himself surThe paternal name of the sage was rounded by a great number of disciples. Khoons, and his proper name Hyaou, Chee-koong, the son of Syong-koong, (or Haou--for the Chinese, through re- being compelled, in the twenty-fifth year Spect, forbear to pronounce the real of his reign, (and the twenty-first year of name) Chee, properly a son, is a term the cycle,) to fly to the Chbi country, of respect originally applied, accordiog because his own kingdom Loo was in a to the Imperial Dictionary, to a man state of insurrection, Khoong-chee hinrmossessing real virtue; when added to self, who was now thirty-five years of Tuun, a ruler, &c.; it forins the appel- aye, left Loo, and went into the Chhi Jation quun-chee, which, according to country, where he was employed by the same authority, is applied to a man Kou-cheu-chee, a mandarine of the seeminent or complete in virtue; and, is cond order; and at length introduced to translated, the honourable man.' Hoo Kung-koong, the petty sovereign of or Fhoo, lord, chief, &c. prefixed to chee, Chhi. This prince wished to bestow on forms an appellative usually given to a Koong-chee a place of high trust, but, teacher, and applied to Confucius by way An-yun, his principal minister, dissuada of eeninence. “Khoong-fhoo-chee, there- ing him from it, he laid aside his design. fore, or Con-fu-ci-us, is literally, “The Yet Khoong-chee praises this minister, as master, or teacher, Khoong. As this a man truly virtuous, inasmuch as he was title. incorporated with his jaternal constant in his attachment to his friends. animé, is now current among Europeans After an absence of more than seven as the saye's proper name, Fhoo, or years, Kboong-chee, in the first year of


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Tang-koong, and the thirty-ninth vear of parts around. The sage was soon adthe cycle, returned to his own country, vanced to a higher station, and quickly Loo. He was then in his forty-third after to one still superior. In the thirtyFear.

eighth year of the cycle, he concluded a We may here begin the second period treaty of alliance with the chief of the of the sage's life, which extends to his Chhi country, who, in consequence, revoluntary exile in the fifty-seventh year stored all the places he had taken from of his age, and embraces a period of Loo. . thirteen years. During this time he had In Tung-koong's fourteenth year, Conto contend with a wicked and powerful fucius, who was now fitty-six years of faction in his own country, over whom age, accepted the office of chief minister his virtue and wisdom at length com- of Loo, and discharged the various duties pletely triumphed, and placed him at of his station with such ability, diligence, the head of affairs, dispensing happiness and impartiality, that, in three months, around as a father and benefactor. Quin the affairs of Loo assumed a totally differsee, the youngest of three brothers, and ent aspect; peace and tranquillity were a mandarine of the same rank with the restored throughout the whole country, sage's father, bad at this time usurped and every thing wore the appearance of all authority; and, some time after, prosperity and happiness. his minister, Yong-fhoo, raised an in The petty sovereign of the Chhi counsurrection, set up for himself, and for a try, beholding the prosperous state of considerable time managed affairs in the Loo, was filled with jealousy and envy; most unjust and oppressive manner, and, at length, collecting a number of This Qui-see, or more properly Qui- dancing-girls, versed in all the arts of suen-see, and his two elder brothers, allurement, sent them into the country Mung-suen-see, Sook-suen-see, formed of Loo. The dissipated Qui-see, the an

be three houses whose pride the sage re- cient enemy of his country, and of the probates in the third book of the Lun- sage, gladly received them, and intrognee. With the vanity, extravagance, duced them to the court; and feasting, and folly, of these three brothers, the excess, and riot, quickly turned the atsage seems to have had perpetually to tention of both prince and people from contend.

the instructions of the sage, and the duIn this state of things, Khoong-chee ties of morality and religion. Every atdeclined all share in the management of tempt to stem the torrent of vice and public affairs; and, retiring into obscu- dissipation proving fruitless, Khoongnity, employed himself in revising, cor- chee at length quitted the scene; and recting, and arranging, the See, the Sew, sought, in the neighbouring provinces of and the Ly, three of the five king or China, those who would lend a more classical books, held in the highest ve- willing ear to his instructions. beration by the Chinese, and, by Du This introduces the third period of Halde, termed their “Livres Canoniques Confucius's life, in which we behold the du premier Ordre.” Disciples, however, venerable sage wandering from province fucked around him again in multitudes, to province, for the space of nearly wbom he instructed with the utmost di- twelve years, exposed to poverty and ligence and condescension. In the ninth insult, and often in the most imminent year after his return, the thirty-seventh danger of his life. He first went into the year of the cycle, and the fifty-first of his Wy country, where he remained for age, Koong-san-put-gneu, a mandarine some time in the house of Gnan-chokof Pay, raised great disturbances in Loo; chou, the brother-in-law of Chee-loo: upon which Qui-see called the sage to from thence he went into the province assist him with his advice and talents. of Chun, where he found every thing so The philosopher felt a strong desire to inimical to his views and wishes, that he lend him bis aid in this time of distress, quickly passed from thence to that of notwithstanding his past conduct; but Hong. Here, however, the men of Chee-loo, his disciple, opposed it so Hong imagining hin to be Yong-fboo, strongly, that he laid aside his design. the iniquitous minister of Qui-see, whom

Soon after this, Tung-koong, the king he very much resembled in countenance, of Loo, appointed Confucius mandarine detained the aged sage in confinement, of Choong-too, a small district; and, and threatened to take away lois life. within a year, a reformation of manners It was on this occasion that he supported was visible among the people in all the himself with those reflections on Divine

12 Providence

Providence which occur in the fifth hook Chhoo, venerating his age and his wise of the Lun-gnee. The men of Hong, at dom, wished to give him a quiet asylum, length, perceiving their mistake, dis- and employ him to instruct his people. pissed the philosopher unhurt.

The envy of Chee-si, however, one of Confucius, after this, returned to the his principal officers, prevented his give Wy country again, and remained for ing Confucius the encouragement due to some time at the house of Kheu-pak-yok, his merit, and constrained him at length a mandarine of the second order. It to dismiss him; on which the venerable was here that be, at her earnest and re- and aged sage departed again for the Wy pented request, visited Nam-chee, the country. wife of Lung-koong, the sovereign of that Lung-koong, the former sovereign of country. This was the woman, respect. Wy, was now dead, and Chup, his ing whom Chee-loo, his faithful and af- grandson, had taken the reins of gofectionate, but rash and precipitate, pu- vernment. This young man was greatly pil, was so displeased with him, that the attached to the sage, and wished exceed sage was constrained to attest his inno- ingly to detain him in the Wy country, cence by appealing to heaven.

in order to obtain his assistance in goFrom Wy he departed to the province verning. But, about this time, a war of Soong, from whence his ancestors ori- broke out between the countries of Loo ginally came. Here Hoon-bhooi, a man- and Chhi, the management of which, darine, who hated philosophy and all Hong-chee, who seems to have succeeded knowledge, attempted to kill the vene- to the authority and influence of his farable sage; but was by some means pre- ther, Qui-see, committed to Nim-khou, vented. Destitute of an asylum, he, the disciple of the sage before menafter this, returned again to the Chun tioned. Nim-khou conducted the war country, and remained in the house of with such ability and success, that he, See-kun-cheng-chee, where he continued in a little time, subjugated the Chhi three years, practising every virtue. country. This put an end to the influFrom thence, however, he returned to ence of the Chhi faction in Loo, and enWy, where Lung-koong would gladly abled Hong-chee to restore the sage to bave employed him in the mandarine- his own country again. He, on the first ship; but the jealousy of his other man- invitation, lett Wy, and returned to his darines would not permit him.

· native province, Loo, after an absence About this time the sage went west- of nearly twelve years. This event hapward, with the view of paying a visit to pened in the eleventh year of Oi-koong, Cheu-kan-chee; but, coming to the river and in the sixty-eighth year of the philowhich parted the two districts, he was sopher's age. unable to obtain a conveyance over it, Yet even, at last, the ruler of Loo did which compelled him to return again to not avail himself of the talents of the sage. the Wy country. Here he remained Such, indeed, was the state of things, that with Khee-pak-yok; till one day, Lung- Khoong-chee, after his return, felt no koong, the sovereign of Wy, asking the inclination to engage in public affairs; sage respecting war, he made no answer, but employed himself in completing the and the next day departed to the Chun Chinese classics already mentioned. country.

About the fourteenth year of Oi-koong, Qui-hong-chee, or Qui-see, who had Confucius wrote the Chun-chou, which conducted affairs so long in Loo, died is esteemed one of the five king. The about this time; but, before bis death, next year died, in the Wy country, Cheehe charged his son, Hong-chee, to send loo, the disciple much esteemed by his for the sage, and govern himself wholly master for his ardour of mind, and so by his counsels; but Ilong-chee, on the often blained for haste and inconsideradeath of Qui-see, found the dislike of tion; and the year after, namely, in the. his chief officers to the sage so strong, sixteenth year of Oi-koong, (in the fourth that he was unable to effect his recal. nonth,) bis beloved master followed He, however, sent for Nim-khou, one of him, in the seventy-third year of his age. the disciples of Confucius, a man some- He was buried in his own province, near what more to their taste. The philoso- the river, on the east side of the palace pher, about this time, went into the of Oi-koony. His disciples mourned for Chhi country; and from thence to Chhoo, him three years; after which they all rewhen he remained for some time in the turned to their respective places of abode, district of Ip. The petty sovereign of except Chee-koong, who, erecting a..


small house over his beloved master's Nim-khou, who was employed by Quitomb, mourned for him three years hong-chee, and who ultimately procured longer.

the recal of his master to his native proConfucius had one son, named Pak- vince.-Choy-gno, and Choong-koong.. gnee, who died before his father. His The conversation of the sage with these grandson, however, whose name was pupils, principally on the social virtues, Chee-see, closely imitated the example with their relation of his acts and sayo of his grandfather, and became almost ings, constitute the substance of the equally illustrious for knowledge and Luu-gnee; which might therefore, with wisdom. He was instructed by Chung- propriety, be termed, The Life and chee, the most eminent of his grandfa- Sayings of the Chinese Sage." ther's disciples, who survived him: he compiled the Choong-yoong, from hisW e now come to the works of Confugrandfather's papers, and had for his cius. As the sage, however, so frequently pupil the famous Mung-chee, whose refers to the classical books of the first work forms the fourth of the See-seu, or order, generally termed, by the Chinese, the second order of the Chinese classics. kung, or king, on account of their sup

His disciples amounted to THREE posed excellence, it may not be improTHOUSAND, among whom there were per previously to take a very brief view szenty-two who entered in the most in- of them, particularly as he himself was timate manner into the doctrine and the author of one of them, (the Chuuviews of their master. Among these, chow,) and, if he did not compile the Hooi, or Gnan-in, whose death Contu- Ly, the largest of the other four, he so cios so pathetically laments in the Lure modelled it, that it might be truly esgnee, appears to have possessed the teemed his own work. These king, or esteem of his master in the highest de- classics of the first order, are five in gree, on account of his superior profi- number; the first of which is, . ciency in virtue and wisdom. The phi- The Uk-king (by Du Halde termed losopher often commnends him for his do- the Y-king). This work contains the cility and attention, his love of learning Trigrams, or enigmatic lines of Fo-hi, aad virtue, and his conteinpt of poverty. said to be the first emperor of China After Hooi, the most eminent of the These consist of three lines, varied by sage's pupils was Chung-chee. He had one or more of them being broken the principal hand in compiling the in the midst. Two of these trigrams, lun-gnee; he also instructed Confucius's forming six lines, are placed in sixtygrandson, as before mentioned, and four different positions. In the first seems to have been considered, by his position, the two upper lines and the fellow-papils, as almost equal to the sage sixth are broken in two; in the sehimself. Several of his sayings, as well cond, only the fifth line is broken; int as anecdotes respecting him, are inter- the third position, the second, third, spersed in the Lun-gnee; which were and sixth, are broken; and in the fourth, probably inserted by Yaou-chee, his fel- the second and third only. After each low-pupil, who assisted in compiling position follows a short sentence, and this work.

then a comment by Confucius, deducing Among the other pupils of Confucius, from, or rather affixing certain ideas to, seven appear most prominent, namely, each of these positions. It is highly proChee-koong, who expressed such affection bable that these trigrams preceded the for the sage after his death; he appears to invention of the Chinese characters, and have been highly valued by his master that they were the first attempt to exCbee-loo, so much esteemed by the sage press, in writing, ideas relative to heafor bis ardour and sincerity, and so often ven, earth, man, &c. Only the triblamed by him for his rashness. lle, on grams, or broken lines, are inscribed to several occasions, served bis country, Loo, Po-hi; the sentences are supposed to be in a military capacity, with great repu- added by some one who lived prior to tation, although the envy of Mung-suen Confucius; and the explanatory obserSee, one of the three brothers with whose vations, which form by far the greatest, vices the sage bad to contend, prevented as well as the most intelligible, part of his rendering her that service which he the work, by the sage himself. The desired.-Yaou-chee, the coadjutor of work consists of three very thin octavo Chung-chee, in compiling the anecdotes volumes, and is comprised in 208 pages. and sayings of the sage, Nun-yaou, or The sage was extremely fond of it: his


observations, however, on what he con- which he judged of pernicious tendency. ceived to be the ideas conveyed therein, They are divided into six books: the probably constitute its most valuable first, which is the largest, contains a hunpart. One of Mr. Marsham's Chinese dred and sixty odes; the second, eighty; assistants said, that he fully understood the third, thirty-one; the fourth, a like it; but the only idea he affixed to it number; the fifth, only four; and the was, that, by studying it, persons may sixth, five. These six books, however, be able to detect thieves, and recover the Chinese have divided into thirty-one stolen goods.

smaller sections, the largest of which The second is the Seu-king (by Du contains twenty-one odes, and the smallHalde termed the Chu). Seu is the est four. They have further numbered term commonly used to denote a book. the stanzas in each ode, and even the This work is in reality a collection of re- lines in each stanza. There is a consicords relative to the first four dynasties derable diversity of measure in these ot' the Chinese emperors: it is comprised odes, the lines containing from three to in two sinall octavo volumes, which, to seven characters, which is the highest gether contain 214 pages. It is divided number of feet contained in one line; juto four parts; the first relates to the four characters in a line, however, is Gne dynasty, which includes only two their most comnion measure. A great emperors, Gneu and Sun; (the Yao and variety is also introduced into the stanzas; Chan of Du lialde;) the former is said to some consist only of two lines, some conbave reigned seventy years, and the lat- tain four, others five, and some include ter thirty-three. He was adopted by eight. In most of them a degree of Gneu, on account of his superior virtues. rhyine is observable, though greatly diConsiderations of the same nature in- versified; in some the first, third, and duced Sun to adopt Ee (the Yu of Du fourth, lines harmonize; in others, the Halde) in preference to his own children. first and the fourth; in others, the third This part contains twenty-four pages. and the sixth. Some of these odes are The second part treats of the dynasty of of a most curious structure, and must Ila, of which Ee was the founder. It is have cost the author considerable pains. comprised in twenty pages. The third In several of those which consist of three part creats of the dynasty of Syong, of stanzas, these three (which, in the Chi. which Thong was the founder; and nese mode, are placed in perpendicular consists of torty pages: this coneludes lines,) contain ibe same identical chathe first volume. The second voluine racters, varying only the third foot in . treats of the dynasty of Chou, founded the second line, (or the seventh in the by the fainous Moo-wong, the son of couplet,) in which, variation the point the Mun-wong, whom Contucius cele- and beauty of the couplet chiefly conbrated by the name of Chou, and pro- sist. To such a pitch is this carried in posed as a model for his own imita- some of them, that in au ode of three tion. This part occupies the whole of stanzas, each of which contains four the second volume, which contains 130. lines of four feet each, the whole twelve pages. The study of this book, and the lines, have no more than eleven different See, or the book of ancient poeins, seems characters! This work consists of four to have been the constant and delightful very thin volumes, all of which include employ of Confucius; and to have formed only S13 octavo pages. him, w a great measure, to that realThe Chun-Chou, written by the sage greatness of mind which appeared in the himself in his old age, forms the fourth whale course of his life.

of the king; Chun denotes the spring, The third is the SEE. This word de- and Chou autumn. Under these names notes poetry in general, and is probably the sage describes the affairs, both prosapplied to this work by way of emi: perous and adverse, of the different petty nence. The See is a collection of poems states of which China was then comand odes, written partly on men etninent posed, principally with reference to the for their virtues, or notorious for their kingdom of Lao. It embraces a period. vices, and partly on miscellaneous sub- of 249 years, giving a succinct account jects. The first book opens with an of twelve kings of Loo; the last of which ode in praise of the celebrated Mun- is Oi-koong, in whose fourteenth year it wong. These odes, which are in nun- is written. This work consists of two ber three bundred aur eleven, Confucius volurnes, and is comprised in 264 octava selected from a great puinber of others pages,

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