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lations: with respect to the others pre- many Acts in the period subsequent to vious to 1 Edward III. it agrees in ge- Henry VII. Further it is to be observed, neral with the second edition of Fer. that the several printed editions differ rers's translation; and Cay, in the pre materially from each other in the text of face to his edition of the Statutes, con. the statutes previous to Henry VIII. jectures that the whole of the translation The copy of the statute of Gloucester, 6 in this edition was made by Ferrers. No Edward I. in the editions printed by translation of the Statuta Wallia, 12 Ed. Tortell in 1556 and 1587, and by Lord ward I, is given either by Ferrers, or in Coke in his Second Institute, varies most any subsequent edition: several other materially, not only froin that in the ear. statutes also have been always printed lier printed editions by Pynson in 1508 without translations.
and 1514, and by Berihelet in 1531, but “ The Great Boke of Statutes," com. also from that in the edition by Marslie mences with 1 Edward III, and ends in 1556, the same year in which the first with S4 llenry VIII. It is entirely in edition by Toltell was printed. The copy English. It appears to have been pub of this statute, printed by Hawkins froin lished at different times, in separate the Statute Roll in the Tower, varies as parts; and it seems not unlikely that the well froin those printed by Tottell and earliest part may have been published Lord Coke, as from those by Pynson), previous to the English edition printed 'Berthelet, and Marshe. This instance is by Berthelet in 1543, from which it difo mentioned, as the statute of Gloucester fers in some particulars : of such dif- is the earliest now existing on any Sta. ference one instance is the insertion of tute Roll. Many other instances occur, Cap. 7, of 2 Richard II. stat. 1, re. even in cases wliere the necessity of corspecting Pope Urban, which is omitled rectness was most peculiarly requisite: in Berthelet 1543, and subsequent edi. such are the ancient statutes relating to tions; from whence it seems probable the assize of bread, the composition of that this part was published before the weights and measures, and the ineasuring severe prohibitions, by the Acts of Henry of land: in all these the calculations in VII. against acknowledging the Papal the several printed copies vary from each power.
other, and are all incorrect, some in one Upon the whole it is ascertained, that particular, some in another. It may be no complete collection has ever been noted, moreover, that many verbal variaprinted containing all the matters, which tions occur between the several editions at different tiines, and by different edin which appear essentially to agree wiila tors, have been published as statuies. each other. Thus the copies in Tor. The earliest editions of entire statutes tell 1556, 1587, and the Second Inwere printed at the latter end of the fif. stitute, though generally accordant, teenth century, and began with the sla. are not precisely so: and the same tutes of Edward III. in their original' observation applies to the editions language; the statutes of Henry III. Ed. by Pynson, Berthelet, and Marshe. ward I. and Edward II. were not printed These verbal variations may be said 10 entire until the beginning of the sixteenth be innumerable, and, though for the most century, and then in small collections by part minute, they are occasionally im. themselves in their original language: portant. After the commencement of and none of these printed copies quote the reign of Edward III. a greater den any record or manuscript as an authority gree of correctness and uniformity prefor the text which they exhibit. Later vail; but, so late as the reign of Henry editions of the statutes, which combine VII. some instances of material variation the period previous to Edward III. with continue to be met with. The Acts of that of Edward III. and subsequent Richard III, were printed in French, kings, omit the original text of the sta- first by Caxton, and afterwards in Pyn. tutes previous to Henry VII.; giving son's edition of the Statutes from the translations only of those statutes, and commencement of the reign of Edward the subsequent statutes in English; and III. In the editions by Berthelet, Barthe most modern edicions which, in some ker, and others, these Acis of Rich. III, instances, insert the original text of the printed in English, agreeing in substance statutes previous to Richard III. from with the French text: but in the edi. the Stature Rolland ancient manuscripts, tions by Pulton, and subsequent editors, omnit the translation of many parts of there are essential variances in the transa them; and in other instances give a trans. lation, not only from the sense of the lation without the text, and also oinit French text, but also from the foriner
X X.? English
English editions: and even of the statutes were printed from the Charter of Inspex. of Henry VII., though always printed in imus, entered on the Statute Roll of 25 English, the copies in the editions by Edward I.: but in no edition hitherto Pulton, and subsequent editors, differ in have they been printed immediately from several instances from those in the earlier any charter of 9 Henry III. ; and it is printed collections.
noi kuown that any Statute Roll of that It is moreover ascertained, that no one date ever existed. In the present col. complete printed translation of all the lection these charters are inserted accor. statutes previous to Henry VII. exists: ding to their place in the above series, some which are omitted from Berthelet, and are printed from charters under the 1543, and the other early editions, in- great seal : they are also printed again cluding that called Rastall's 1618, are in- amongst the statutes 25 Edward I. from serted in Pulton 1618, and in editions the entry on the Statute Roll of that year, since published : on the contrary, several being the earliest parliamentary record parts of the statutes from 1 Edward III. upon which they have been found. to 1 Henry VII., translations of which . For the purpose of examining all the are inserted in Berthelet, Rastall, and cbarters, and authentic copies and enother editions, are omitted, and merely tries thereof, and also of searching for abridginents thereof given, in Pulton ancient copies and entries of statutes, and subsequent editions. All the sta- and instruments not now to be found on cutes therefore which have been bitherto the Statute Roll, two sub-commissioners translated, can be found only by uniting were employed during the summer of Pulton 1618, and Rastall 1618, together 1806, in making a progress through Enwith Rastall's English collection, and the gland and Ireland, to every place where English editions by Berthelet, Middleton, it appeared from the returns to the Reand Barker. Many errors and incon- cord Coininitiee of 180o, or from other sistencies occur in all the translations, intelligence, that any such charters, co. resulting either froin misinterpretation, pies, or entries, were preserved : and or from improper omissions or insertions; searches have been made successively and there are many ancient statutes of at every cathedral in England which was which no translation has ever yet been known to possess any such charters, coprinted.
pies, or entries; and also at the univerOf the Charters prefired to this Collec- sities of Oxford and Cambridge ; at Trilion of the Statuies ---A Series of the nity College, Dublin; at the Courts of Charters of the Liberties of England is Exchequer, and other public offices in prefixed to this collection of ihe statuies: Dublin; and wherever else information namely, Charters of Liberties; i Henry could be obrained on the subject. The 1. A.D. 1101: 1 Stephen A.D. 1136: of results, so far as relates to the charters, Stephen and Henry II. without date; may be thus briefly stated. Charter for free Elections in Churches: in Rochester cathedral is preserved 16 John A.D. 1214: Articles or Heads the Terlus Roffensis : this is a chartaof Magna Carta; 17 Jobu A.D. 1215: lary, or collection of charters and inMagna Carta; 17 John A.D. 1215: 1 Struments, compiled by Ernulf, who was Henry III. A.D. 1216; A.D. 1217: 9 bishop of Rochester from A.D. 1113, te Henry III. A.D. 1924-5: 36 Henry III. A.D. 1125. In this chartulary is an A.D. 1251-2: Carta de Foresta; 2 llenry entry of the Charter of Liberties, granted III. A. D. 1217: 9 Henry III. A.D. in the first year of King Henry 1, A.D. 1224-5: and Charters confirming Niayna 1101. Carta and Carta de Foreita: 21 Henry In Exeter cathedral is preserved an III, A.D. 1236-7: 49 Henry III. A.D. original charter, granted in the first year 1264 5: 25 Edward I. A.D. 1297 : 28 of King Stephen, A.D. 1156. De ti. Edward I. A.D. 1300: 29 Edward I. bertatibus Ecclesie Anglie et Regni.' A.D). 1900 1.
In Canterbury cathedral are several Magna Carla and Carta de Foresta, chartularies, or registers, of rory ancient granted in the 9th year of King llenry date. In these are entered the charter III. have, in every collection of statures of King Stephen, of which an original is which contained ihe statutes previous to in Exeter cathedral; and the charter of 1 Edward III. been printed as the first King Jolin, granted in the sixteenth year in order. In all editions previous to of his reign, for free elections of prelates, Hawkins's, they were printed as from &c. in churches and monasteries. Charters of Inspeximus of 28 Edward I.: In Lincoln cathedral, an original of the by Hawkins and subsequent editors they Great Charter of Liberties, granted by
King John in the seventeenth year of his stone printed the copy in his edition of reign, is preserved in a perfect state. the Charters. Two of the Great Charters This charier appears to be of superior of King John, one of 36th Henry III, authority to either of the two charters of and the Charter of Confirmation granted the same date, preserved in the British by King Edward I. at Ghent, in the 255h Museum. From the contemporary in. year of his reign, are also preserved in the dorsements of the word Lincolnia, on same repository. two folds of the charter, this may be On the Statute Roll of 25 Edward I. presumed to be che charter transmitted are entered Charters of Inspeximus of by the hands of llugh, the then Bishop that date, reciting and confirming Magoa of Lincoln, who is one of the bishops Cárta and Carta de Foresta of 9 Henry named in the introductory clause; and it III. Entries of similar charters, dated is observable, that several words and 28 Edward I. are inade on the Charter sentences are inserted in the body of this Rolls of that year ;--the only difference charter, which in both the charters pre- between these several Charters of Inspexserved in the British Museuin, are added, imus is, that those of the 25th year are by way of notes for amendment, at the tested by the King's son, and those of the bottom of the instrument. '
28th by the King himsell. Original In Durham cathedral, several charters charters of Inspexinus of these respective of the liberties of England are preserved dates, agreeing with the entries on the with great care ; namely, Magna Carta, statute and charter rolls, are still in ex12 November, 1 Henry III.-Carta de istence. Of these charters, one of 25 Foresta, 2 Henry III.- Magna Carta and Edward I. confirming Magna Caria, is Carta de Foresta, 9 Henry III. The in the town.clerk's office, London. Others Carta de Foresta, 2 Henry III. is the of 28 Edward I. confirming Magna Carta, earliest Charter of the Forest; the ori are in the same repository, is also in ginal, and all authentic records of which Durham cathedral, Westininster collewere supposed by Blackstone to be lost, giate church, Oriel college, Oxford, and It is remarkable, that in this original is in the town-clerk's office, at Appleby, in inserted a clause which occurs in an Westmoreland. Others of the sand entry of this charter on a roll, formerly date, confirming Carta de Foresta, are belonging to the Abhey of Hales Owen, in Durham cathedral, and Oriel college, in Shropshire, communicated to Black Oxford. stone by Lord Lyttleton; and which is from these materials, and others prenot inserted in the Carta de Foresta, viously obtained, transcripts and colla. Henry III.
tions were made and accurately examined A charter of the date of the 121h of by the sub-commissioners. The text of November, I lienry III. was transmitted the several charters inserted in the preto Ireland ; and an entry thereof is pre- sent collection is printed from these served in the Red Book of the Exchequer transcripts; an attentive and strict cola at Dublin.
lation of the printer text with the crao. In several other cathedrals are chartu- script, has been made by one of the sublaries, registers, or collections, of ancient commissioners, who himself assisted in date, containing entries of the great char- making the transcript, and in examining ters and charters of the forest. The it with the original; and, where an en. most valuable of these are at York, Glou. graved copy has been made of any chara cester, and Christ-Church, Dublin. ter, the printed text has also been col.
The Magna Caria of 9 Henry III. un. lated with such engraved copy. der seal, from which Blackstone printed Of the Original Language of the Char. a copy in his edition of The Charters, and ters and Statules.---The language of the which he suggests was the charter de- charters and statutes, from the period of signed for the use of the knights or mili- the earliest charter now given, 1 llenry.t. tary tenants of Wiltshire, is still pre- to the beginning of the reign of Henry served by the family of the Talbots, of VII. is Latin or French. From that Laluck Abbey, in that county.
time it has been uniformly English. The In the Bodleian library at Oxford are petitions, or bills, on which the statutes Magna Caria, A.D. 1217; and the Char. were founded, began to be generally in ters of Confirmation 21 llenry III.; and English early in the reign of Henry VI. 29 Edward I.
All the charters of liberties, and of the In the British Museum is the original forest, from 1 Henry I. to 29 Edward I. of Articuli Magne Carte, under the (with the exception after mentioned,) are seal of King Juan, from which Black in Latin ; buc translations of some of them into French, are found in various use of the English language in any par. collecuons. In D'Achery's Spicilegium, lamentary proceeding, is in 36 Edward there is a French translation, as it is III. The style of the roll of that year is called by Blackstone, of the charter of in French as usual, but it is expressly king John; for it is doubtful whether stated that the causes of suinmoning the that charter was ever promulgated in parlainent were declared "en Englois; French in this kingdom. Some early and the like circumstance is noted in 37 manuscripts contain French translations and 38 Edward III. in the fifth vear of of the two charters of 9 Henry III. and Richard II. The chancellor is stated 10 of the charters of Jaspeximus and Con- have made un bone collucion en Engleys' formation, in 25 and 28 Edward I. though introductory, as was then sometimes the these latter appear on the Statute and usage, to the commencement of business), Charter Rolls in Latin. The charter, though be made use of the cominou dated 5 November, 25 Edward I. is in French form for opening the parliament. French; as is also the duplicate of that Aperition from ihe “ Folk of the Mer. charter, dated 10 October, and entered cerye of Londou", in the tenth year of on the Statute Roll 25 Edward I.
the same reign, is in English; and it apThe statutes of Henry III. are almost pears also, that in the 17th year the Earl entirely in Latin. Some legislative mat- of Arundel asked pardon of the Duke of ters, not in the printed collections, are Lancaster by the award of the king and entered on the Parent Rolls in French. lords, in their presence in parliainent, in • The statutes of Edward I. are indis. a form of English words.' The cession criminately in Latin or French; thugh and renunciation of the crown by Richard ihe former language is most prevalent. 1. is stated to have been read before the But the statute of Gloucester, 6 Ed. estates of the realm and the people in ward I, which on the Statute Roll is in Westminster Hall, first in Latin and alFrench, appears in many contemporary terwards in English, but it is entered on manuscripts in Latin. In several manu- the Parliament Roll only in Latin. And scripts, particularly register A. in the the challenge of the crown by Henry IV. Chapter-house at Westminster, this statute with his thanks after the allowance of is given at length both in Latio and his viile, in the saine assembly, are re. French. On the other hand, the Statute .corded in English; which is termed hus of Westminster the second, 13 Edward I. maternal tongue. So also is the speech which is in Latin on the Roll, appears in of Sir William Thirnyng, the Chief Jus. many manuscripts in French; and chap- tice of the Common Pleas, to the late ter 34 of this latter statute, as to vivience King Richard, announcing to him the against women, which on the roll appears sentence of his deposition, and the yield. in French, is given, like the rest of the ing up, on the part of the people, of their statute, in Latin, in several manuscripts. fealty and alegiance. In the sixth year The French chapter, 49, as to champerly of the reign of Ilenry IV. an English anby justices, is omitted in the Tower swer is given in a petition of the ComRoll, and in many other copies, which mons, touching a proposed resumption of give the statutes in Latin, but is found in certain grants of the crown, to the intent the copies which give the statute in the king inight the better live of his own. French
The English language afterwards appears The statutes of Edward II. are, like occasionally, through the reigas of Henry those of Edward I. indiscriminately in IV. and V.
Latin or French; but the latter language In the first and second and subsequent • prevails more than in the statutes of Ed- years of Henry VI. the petitions or bills, ward I.
and in many cases the answers also, on The statutes of Edward III. are more which the statuteswere afterwards fiamed, generally in French than those of any are found frequently in English; but the preceding king: yet some few are in statutes are entered on the roll in French Latin. The statutes of Richard II, are or Latin. From the 230 year of Henry almost universally in French; those of the VI. these petitions ur bills are alıpost sixth and eighth years are in Latin. The universally in English, as is also somestatutes of Henry IV. with the exception times the form of the royal assent; but of chapter 15 of the statute 2 Henry IV. the statute continued to be inrolled in which is in Latin, are entirely in French; French or Latin. Sometimes Latin and as are those of Henry V. with the exceps French are used in the same statule, as tion of the short statutes 5 and 7 Henry V. in 8 Henry VI.; 27 llenry VI.; and 39 which appear in Latin.
Henry VI. The last statute wholly in The eashest instance recorded of the Latin on Record is 33 llenry VI.; the
last portion of any statute in Latin is 39 printed, with the inrolment in Chancery Henry VI., chapter 2.
at the chapel of the Rolls. The petitions The statutes of Edward IV. are en. and bills in Parliament, during these two tirely in French. The statutes of Rich- reigns, are all in English. ard I11. are in many manuscripts in The statutes of Henry VI), have al. French, io a complete statute form; and ways, it is believed, been published in they were so printed in his reign and English; but there are manuscripts conthat of his successor. In the earlier taining the statutes of the first two Par. English editions a translation was in. liaments, in his first and third year, in serted, in the same form ; but in several French. From the fourth year to the editions, since 1618, they have been end of his reign, and from thence to the printed in English, in a different form, present time, they are universally in agreeing, so far as relates to the Acts English.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL;
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign. *.* Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received. TT is a problem at once useful and cing a fair average proportion. The num
I amusing to determine the propor- bers regularly used then, by this House, tionate circulation of the various periodic stand as under: cal publications. At present, very con The Monthly Magazine - 850 fused and contradictory ideas prevail on
The Monthly Review
550 the subject. It is little suspected by the
The Gentleman's Magazine public at large, that, on the last afternoon
La Belle Assemblé
500 of every monti, nearly 40001, is received
500 in a few hours, by proprietors of Maga
450 Lady's Museum
325 zines, Journals, and Reviews. It is this
275 regular periodical and recurring circula.
250 tion, however, which confers so effective
250 an impulse on literature in England. Eclectic Review
225 French literature has many advantages Military Chronicle
200 from its foreign trade in books, arising Antijacobin Review
125 from the universality of the language. The Literary Panorama
125 Germans depend on their half-yearly fairs Philosophical Magazine 100 at Leipsic. But the English book-trade
Critical Review - 100 enjoys the advantages of a monthly Fair,
General Chronicle - 50 when every bookseller in the empire, (abore 1000 in number,) writes to his
Such is the prodigious sale of periodical London correspondent, at once, for his
works---such is the vast trade of one periodical publications, and for all mis.
house and such our readers will be gra. cellaneous orders which the month has
tified to perceive is the pre-eminent sta, accumulated. This branch of literature
tion of the Monthly Magazine !*
Mr. G. TOWNSEND, of Trinity College, is, consequently, the life and soul of the whole, and is the occasion of twice or
Cambridge, has at length finished his thrice its own amount being sold twelve
long promised Poem of Armageddon, in times in a year. Various causes have
twelve books. always rendered it difficult to ascertain
Professor Vince, of Cambridge, has the precise sale of each of the monthly
prepared for the press, a new edition of publications; a close approxiniation may,
the first and second volumes of his Asa however, be inade by means of a list which lately appeared in a Dublin paper.
* An abstract of the above list having apThis list professes to exhibit the monthly
peated in Bell's Messenger, another list of the sale of the great bookselling house of Long
numbers consumed by a house of the greate.t
London trade, that of Sherwood and Co., was man, Hurst, and Co. in Paternoster-row,
published in Bell's subsequent Messenger, as London, who vend, at least, a fifth of
follows : Monthly Magazine 750, Monthly all the books published. We know it to
Review 600, Gentleman's Magazine 600, be accurate in regard to several of them, Belle Assemble 500. and.
Belle Assemblé 500, and some others in and presume, therefore, that it is so in re- decreasing proportions. Both lists it will, gard to the others; and the universality of however, be seen do similar honour to the their trade may be considered as produ, Monthly Magazine.