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increases rather than diminishes the evil. gold and silver coin, which is prohibited Itis currency, not security, that is wanted. from being exported; besides, coin has Exchequer bills are not currency; and, if an arbitrary value set upon it by yovernconverted into bank notes at the Bank ments, and is often alloyed. Specie tends, of England, have not the effect of adding therefore, to absorb gold and silver, and to the currency, but only change the se. the purposes of internal circulation seem curity in the Bank, from private bills to to be equally well answered by a coinage Exchequer bills. It is fit and proper of paper, or of land in the portable forın that the issues of the Bank should be re- of paper. It appears, indeed, to be of strained, and even reduced on commer. little consequence, whether a man carry cial bills, at a time when there is his bullion to the nint to be alloyed and ljetle or no legitimate trade; yet more stampt, of a given value, or whether he currency is wanted for other purposes, carry the titles to any estate there of and of course a new system of creating, equal amount, and receive stampt paper issuing, and securing it, is called for by of corresponding value. Nor could chere the public exigencies.
exist any preference in the community XVII.
in favour of specie, over such paper, as To prevent an increase of the mise, an equal amount of each would always ries likely to result from the threatened re- purchase an equal quantity of land. duction of labour and property, to the
XX. proportion of the currency, or to nearly The best and most important use of half their present nominal value ; and to the precious metals is, to equalize acenable the people to meet an increasing counts between merchants of different taxation, on which depend the powers nations. If Spain, for example, consumes and continuance of the government, it 100,000). more of the produce and mabecomes necessary to increase the amount Dufactures of Britain, than Britain conof the currency to such an extent, assumes of the produce and manufactures may be necessary, not exceeding its of Spain, the balance of trade is so much, amount between 1800 and 1807, and on in favour of Britain, and the 100,0001. such a plan as shall render such currency must be paid in bullion. A favorable the representative of real property pledged balance of trade always produces thereto government for future redemption, fore, abundance of bullion, and rice ard as shall enable the government, if versa. If a nation improvidently condesirable, gradually to lessen the circu sume the commodities of nations, which lation, and to substitute the precious take no merchandize in return, the supply metals in place of such paper.
is only to be obtained for gold and silver, XVIII.
Savage tribes can obtain no foreign A steady amount of currency is not luxuries, because they have neither suonly necessary to the public happiness, perfluous produce, desirable manufacfor the purpose of naintaining any ac. tures, nor gold and silver; but, if they quired price of labour and commodities ; have either of these, they economize and but an augmentation is demanded, wheno trade on principles, easily traced, like ever, from any causes, an increased cir- civilized nations. This reasoning proves,
culation has taken place. Currency is that the scarcity of specie is no ground · always required and appropriated in pro. for public alarm; nor would the scarcity portion to the increase of transactions affect the public prosperity, were it fortlin and circulation. Great crade, great culs with represented by a well fabricated tivation, or great taxes, therefore re- paper currency, issued on the security quire the ordinary circulation to be aug. of real property, under the faith of par. inented in amount, to meet the demands liament. of merchants, to supply capital to far.
XXI. mers, to make up for the balances of tax A valid Standard Currency should gatherers, and facilitate the operations of be issued in small notes, under parliaThe Exchequer.
mentary regulations, by a board of goxix.
vernment, in the way of loans upon real Since the discovery of the art of coin. sccurities, pledged or mortgaged. The ing paper, a currency of specie seems to borrowers should pay 25 per cent. intebe less essential to the convenience of rest, and the notes should have the presociety. It is true, that gold and silver sent legal value and effect of Bank notes. have an intrinsic and universal value, and The Law directing its creation should also serve as media of exchange between pati- restrict the issues of the Bank of England one, but this is not the case with our to the present amount of twenty-four mil
lions, and it should require country bank proved, or would he likely to prove, ers to give landed security for their respec. salutary to a country, and then to tive issues; and should claim of the Bank apportion public issues, or coinages, to of England, and of all such country the fluctuations which circunstances bankers, an equal rate of interest. As an might require. Such a provision is evi. experiment, three or four millions per dently witbin the power of governments, quarter might be created and issued for and its importance imposes it on thein twelve months, each loan redeemable as an imperious duty. Currency is an within two years; and the distribution artifice of society springing out of social Inight be made to counties in the propore convenience and convention; it ought, tion of their population and land-tax. therefore, to be an object of social re
gulation, and to be the instrument of go. In due time, when this standard cur. vernments, not the arbirer of their face, rency of the government was established, and the tyrant of society. and its security and validity understood
COMMON SENSE. and recognized, it might be expedient, as a means of controling and checking the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. issues of the Bank of England, to make SIR, it a legal tender for the notes of that pri- COMPLAINTS among tradesmen of vate company. The various calls and U losses sustained by forged bank. checks upon its circulation would also notes, has of late been so unusually enable the commissioners to replace part frequent, that I have reason to suppose of it with specie; and governurent, in double the quantity of what has been its changes and fluctuations, would be known at any foriner period, is at preable to control, direct, and regulaie it, sent in circulation. keeping in view the principles of its crea. From the great numbers of those gross tion, and consulting none but the public fabrications called Fleet- noles, which advantage.
have been imposed on the public, we XXIII.
may be convinced of the impossibility of The ruin of governments, and the wholly curing this evil. If that which decadence of empires, may be ascribed did not profess to be a Bank of England to a course of events something like the note could obtain a degree of currency, following:-an influx takes place of the as such we may easily suppose, that, in precious metals, which, as currency,raises spite of every precaution, and every the nominal price of all commodities; art, an exact imitation of thein may be and afterwards a departure of that curs made, which will impose not on the unrency, from some adventitious cause, tutored multicude only, but also on the leaves the nominal prices without cur- artist himself. In detecting base metals, rency to support thein. Hence, labour we are possessed of various easy criteria, and commodities, at their established such as weight, sound, &c. but by what price, can no longer be purchased by means a correct imitation on paper can the reduced (nominal) wealth of indivi. be discovered to be spurious I cannot duals; nor can the usual proportion of cure conjecture. The banker rests easy and rency be transferred as before to the gn- secure under the protection of his prie vernment; industry therefore languishes, vate marks, while the public who acthe people emigrate, the power of the cepts of them chiefly for his conveniency State is palsied, the bond of national must be subject to an irremediable evil. union, cemented by the common interest, As the substitution of so cheap a mabecomes void, and the country is con- terial as paper, in place of the precious quered or destroyed.
metals, must evidently be most advanXXIV.
tageous to bankers, though very little so The nature of currency and the prin to the public, I have thought it rather ciples of its circulation being therefore hard that the whole of the risque and so intelligible, it appears that a wise and loss of forgeries should be perpetually well ordered government should place it thrown on those who partake of none of uoder control, and not leave its flucture the profits. If bankers cannot secure tions to chance, nor suffer them to destroy os agajust forgeries, I deem it no unthe confidence and the energies of the reasonable demand that they, from whom people, It could not be difficult to deter. the evil originates, and who enjoy the enine on an amount lying between the advantages, should, on all occasions of maximum and minimum, which has fair trade, hear the half of the loss. Sucha
a practice would give no encouragement ing than a mere reference to the custom to forgers, fear of detection would pre. of using skins for mattresses. rent thein from making any application No. 4. An epitaph upon a Dog. I for redress. Beside, I would propose forget what nation it is which is men. that no furged notes should be thus ini- tioned by Plutarch, as building temples demnified, unless they could be satis- to dogs, and interring them, in particular, factorily traced back to their third pose with great pomp. I think it was a nasessor, which would operate also as a tion of Magnia Grecia; but the reader premium to detect the utterer or forger, will recollect Martial's Issa, &c. &c.
But the difficulty of distinguishing ge. No. 5. Juno crowned with a broad innuine from forged notes, is not the oniy lented diadem. Winckelmann very properplexity to which we are subject; perly notices the impropriety of applying often must they be taken at all bazards, the word diadem to the ornament of the when offered by strangers whose address lead, peculiar to goddesses, especially we have no opportunity of authenticating. Juno. This marble very clearly show's Nor is this ail, for, we are taught, by a what Homer ineans by Bowtis, the eyes, very remarkable and important anecdote being those peculiar to the Queen of Ju. recorded in your Magazine for April, piter, are an obtuse oval, and are disthat we are not safe, according to the tinctly exhibited. The ornament of the strict interpretation of law, to accept of bead which characterises Juno is an inte them from a substantial well-known verted crescent, escalloped. See the neighbour, unless accompanied with the bronze head found at Herculaneum, Tom. formality of neutral witnesses.
vi. p. 261. I wish to inquire of those who are No. 6. A head of Cybele. Ileads of learned in the subtleties of law, whether Cybele are very rare : they are often conthis furmality might be dispensed with founded with personined towns or proif the name of the person from whom the vinces. ( Mongez Rec. – Antig. pars in note is received be indorsed in bis pre- p. 1.) The French Imperial collection sence, or wish his own hand?. W.N. has an exquisitely beautiful gem, wird Bedford Roa, lay 22, 1812,
the head of this goddess engraved in the
above work, pl. i. fig. 1. For the Monthly Magazine. No. 7. A Lion's heud from a sarcoACCOUNT of the TOWNLEY STaTues in the phagus. BRITISH MUSEUM, by the REV. THOMAS
No. 8. A granite bason.
No. 9. A mask from a sarcophagus, DUDLEY FOSBROOKE, M.A. F.A.S.
The masks fixed avainst the wall at (Tenth Room.)
Pompeia, by some sepulchres, are well N 0. 1. A head of Adonis, covered known. Masks were very commonly W with the pyramidal hood. The figured upon sepulchral stoncs, and they lower part of the face and neck is covered have been found included in tombs, as with drapery. It is very fine, and, if in that of a child, in the gallery of S. Ig. correctly appropriated, is, I believe, nacius at Rome. Winckelmann observes, Adonis in inferis.
upon this subject, that the ancients took No. 2. i piece of marble, ornamented impressions in clay of the faces of the with branches of the olive and the dine. dead, and put this kind of masks in tombs,
No. 3. Cupid sleeping upon 6 lion's by the side of the bodies. According in skin. Mr. Dallaway savs, of another Pachichelli, (de Mascheris seu Larvis,) Cupid in this collection, (Art. p. 390,) masks of saints are shown in numerous Mr. Townley has a Cupid, small lile, churches, as for instance, that of a Theahending his bow, as Cupid, conqueror of tine religious exhibited at Naples, In heroes, expressed by the lion's skin on the cabinet of S. Genevieve is a plaister the trunk, -alluding to the spoils of ller mask moulded upon the face of a fainous cules. This is one meaning of Cupid criminal after execution: but the marks and the lion's skin. He is here, however, upon tombs are presumed by some wrie sleeping upon a lion's skin. The anci. ters to denote the sarcophagi of come. ents used skins for mattresses, covers of dians, the mask referring to the charac. seats, &c. (See II. A. v. 342.) and priests ter in which they most distinguished used to sleep upon skills of the victims themselves. This is very unsatisfactory: in temples, in order to divine by their masks were usual in many religious ceredreams. Cupid sleeping upon a lion's monies, especially those of Bacchus : and skin may therefore bear no oilier ineulis Pausinius pa: ticularly shows their use in
funeral pomps. Upon a gem in Stosch, man ladies, says Winckelmann, have Lachesis, one of the Fates, siis upon a coeffures of false hair. Thus the statue comic mask, and has before her a tragic of Lucilla, wife of the Emperor Lucius mask; she winds upon a distaff the Verus, preserved at the Capitol, has destiny of man. The tragic mask is the hair of black marble, made in such a symbol of the fate of heroes, as the comic fashion, as to take off or on, at option, is of the private life of simple mortals. (Hist. de l' Art,) Ovid, Martial, PeThis.gem shews that the inask hus a meun. cerius, and Tertullian, speak of the false ing, and I am far from thinking such as bair in the manner of wigs, &c. worn by has been just assigned. It is annexed women. to a figure of a Face who is winding up No. 25. A small head of a young man, Destiny; the bitter and sweet of huinan covered with a helmet, which is ornga existence seem to me to be alluded to in mented with the horns of a ram. Plutarch the tragic and comic mask. After all, (in Pyrrhus,) says, that the helmet of however, the inask here may be a mere Pyrrbus, king of Epirus, was ornamented ornament, though, from the passages with ram's horns. Lysimachus has ram's quoted, it is evidently not considered as horns fastened to his diadem, not as son such by our greatest antiquaries.
of Jupiter Aminon, but as a symbol of No. 10. An intoricated Fuun.
force and power. It is thus that the No. 11. A heud of Apollo.
kings of Asia wore them, Antigonus, No. 12. A laughing Fuun. Montfau. Demetrius, and Sapor, king of the Parcon quotes Horace for laughing satyrs, thians. (Amm. Marcell. L. 19, c. 1.) and has given from Beger a heud of a See the portrait of Lysimachus in the Fro. Fuun; (i. p. ii.b. i. c. 25.) There he has rentine Collection. (Gem. i. pl. 25.) The inouth wide open; but this is not the Ilelmets of barbarians with horns occur l'aun smile. “The mouth," says Winc- in the trophies of Herculaneum. kelmann, “is mostly a little raised at the extreinities, which gives them that sweet For the Monthly Magazine. smile, that soft and infantine aspect, which
" RULES for asCERTAINING by INSPECTION enchants us in the heads of Corregio."
or MEMOBITER the ROUT of any cuBE No. 13. A torso of a small Venus. It
NUMBER not exceeding 9 PLACES of is remarkably fine: the waist is very small.
FIGUREs, whose Root can be EXPRESSED No. 14. . Muse sitting upon u rock
in whole NUMBERS. und pluying upon a lyre. It is Terpsi
1o do this observe that if the root chore; see the Etruscan towb in Gori, T h e (Idscr. Ecrus. T. ii. pl. 39,) and a Cor: belian, Paste, &c. in Stosch.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 No. 15. A child with the breast naked. -the cube C is, · No. 16. A Diuna, with the hair drazen 1 8 27 64 125 916 343 512 729 up from the sides, und tied in a knot, at Nore.--For brevity-the figure in the place the top of the head, that is, the Corym of units will be called the “ units figure, bus, or uniform token of virginity. See that in the place of tens, che "tens figure,"
and so on. Mr. Dallaway's remarks on this coeffure in bis Arts i and the observations on No. 32.
To ascertain the “units figure" in root. No. 17 to 23. Liberas and Libers, or
This is done by simple inspection, for it simple Bacchuses. One of these is a will be seen by the foregoing table that double headl, joined back to back. The the
the units figure" in cube varies accorreason of these double heads, Janus
ding to the “units figure" in root; and, for fashion, is not commonly known. Count
the more readily remen hering this, mote Caglus (Rec. ii. pl. 26, n. 2,; positively
if the “units figure" in C ends in ascribes the invention to the Etruscans,
1, 4, 5, 6, or 9, the " units figure" in R who transmitted it to the Greeks and er
i to the Greeks and ends in a similar fiylire--the figures 2 Romans. Winckelmann says, that they
he aud 8 reciprocale in roots and cubes, and ofien formed the top of a door post, and
the like of 3 and 7,-thus, were doubic, in order to appear both
if C ends in ? Rends in 3 within and without.
2 No. 24. A small female head, the hair of which is formed of a distinct piece of marble, und is fitted to the head in the
Rule 2. munner of a wixMany heads of Ro. To ascertain the "tous ligure" in ront. '
There are 9 rules for this, each varying Now, as before observed, the 28 in the and depending upon the units figure" cube may occur from 62 or 12 in the in the cube-These rules are comprised in root, but then, as the nearest cube onder the following table:
640 in the places of millions and upwards If the " units f. Subtract from the Divide the remais. in the cube is 512, whose root is 8; it is eviBure" in cube is "teni figure” io cube der by
dent, that the diference, being 128 millions, could not arise if the “lens tigure" in root had been 1,-a very little experi. ness will suffice to see this in a inoment.
But a more serious difficulty (if it can be
called a difficulty) arises where the “ units and the quotient is the "tens figure" in root. figure" in the cube is 5; in this case the
Remark well, that in subtracting and "ens figure" in cube is always either 2 or in dividing you are to add to the "tens 7; if it is 2, then the “tens figure" in root figure" in cube so many tens as shall be is an even number; but, if it is 7, then the Decessary to enable you to subtract and “tens figure" in root is an odd number, divide without a remainder-thus, if the and therefore there will be 4 results froin cube ends in 23, the root must end in 47, the application of the rule 2, where the and will be found as follows:
“tens figure" in the cube is 2, namely, 2, By Rule 1, the units figure in cube being 3, 4, 6, or 8, each differing by 2, and 3 re
the units figure in root is 7. sults, each differing also by 2, where the By Rule 2, against figure 3 in first “tens figure" in cube is 7.-It will be ne, column, or the" units figure" in cube, you cessary therefore, in this instance, to be will find that you are to subtract 4, and able to judge more nicely from the amount divide the remainder by 7, then; the tens of the excess of the figures in the places of figure" in cube being 2, you must add to it millions and upwards in the cube, over the necessary number of tens, say one ten the nearest root under the precise number +22=12, then subtract 4 from iz leaves of“ tens” in the root. 8. to which add the necessary number of Althouglı these rules may appear onetens, in order that it may be divided withio rous, yet a very small portion of attention, out a remainder, 2 tens, or say 20+8=28, will shew that they may most readily be which, divided by 7, gives the number required, or 4.
I tried item upon my own son, a boy of . 3. Rule to ascertain the “ hundreds 10 and a half years of age, whom I look figure" in root. .
out for a ramble on purpose, and commitThis is very simple, it is only necessary ted them to him verbally in the course of a for this purpose to consider the figure or walk of an hour and a half; on his returns figures in the places of millions and upe he was put to find the cube root of three sewards in the cube, and the figure whose parate sets of 9 figures, on their being men. cube equals or coines nearest under such tioned to hiin, which he did each in about. figure or figures in the cube, is the one or two minutes, without so much as figure in the “ hundred place in the having the figures set down before him. rooithus, R- 347
These rules are the result of an invesC 41,781,923
tigation undertaken on purpose to ascer. The figure whose cube is nearest under tain them, having previously fully satis. 41 is 3, whose cube is 27-the cube of fied myself by reflecting on the subject, 4 being 64, would have been too much. that some such developement would arise.
Additional remark-applicable only to I have carried this principle into praccubes, whose " units figure" ends in 8, 4. tice in cases of cubes having more thar 6, or 2. Now, in each of these cases, the 9 figures, whose root I have thus ascerapplication of rule 2 for accertaining the tained on the figures being read off; and, "tens figure" in root, will give two diffe, if what I have written is considered worth rent results, thus a cube ending in 28 may notice, I shall probably send you- rules arise from a root ending either in 12 or in for solving such last-mentioned cubes, 62,but these results always differ by 50. i hus and other purposes. I remember to have 12+50=62; and it will readily be seen(by extracted, in the regular way, the cule the smallness or greatness of the amount of root of 9 frgures, in my head, as it is the excess of the figures in the places of called, in about six minutes, in a crowded Inillions and upwards in the cube, over the caravan stage-coach, and it was no small nearest cube under) which of the two re. exertion to me so to do; but by the above sults is the right one-thus, .
rules the root can be ascertained by a R- 862
child in one minute. • JOHN Evans, C 640 503.028
Danmark Hill, Camberwell, July 4, 1812.