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I reached this island," says he, “I ad. other places, situated on the coast, where dressed a packet of letters to your ma- there were considerable gold mines: the jesty, in which I earnestly requested a last of these was Beragna, twenty-five ship and some money; one of the vessels leagues distant; he set off to discover I had with me was no longer sea-worthy, these mines, accompanied by his two Your majesty knows whether or not my guides, who entertained him by talking letter reached you; in your majesty's an. of the profusion of gold they contained, swer you forbid me from remaining on which was so great, they said, that he shore, or even from debarking." This ought to be satisfied if he could obtain news, it seems, caused despair amongst even a tenth part of it. He verified the the companions of Columbus. “The truth of their assertions, and returned danger was great, continues he,) and I well satisfied, still remembered the night when, the He was successively driven into the ships having been dispersed, we had no. ports of Bastimentos, Retrete, and Posthing to expect but death: each man togrone, where he procured provisions, looked his companion in the face and and afterwards sailed towards Beragna, gave himself up as lost! And who is where he arrived on the day of the Epihe, not even excepting Job, who would phany; he reconnoitered the island, and, not have died of despair: when under after meeting with several adventures, he my circumstances I was forbidden to find, sailed again, and on the 13th of May he for my son, my brother, my friends, and was off the country of Maga, and by the myself, a refuge in that very land, and in end of June at Jamaica. On this passage those very ports, where, by divine grace, also he was assailed by severe storms, Thad arrived, after unparalleled fatigues and his ships were no longer fit for sea. (Sudanda Sangue.)"

"I do not, (says he to the king,) here Columbus continued his route towards mention an hundredth part of my misJamaica, where he was surprised by the fortunes, as my companions can testify; violent currents, (occasioned by the if your majesty would be graciously trade-winds,) and, after eighty-eight days' pleased to send to our aid a ship of 64 suffering from storms and tempests, the tons, laden with 200 quintals of biscuir, Wind dropped on the 12th of September. and other provisions, this would be suffi. But, during these events. Columbus felt cient to bring us back to Spain. Jamaica as much for the misfortunes of others as is distant from Spagnola only twentie, for himself, and particularly on account eight leagues, but I could not proceed of the terrible experiment made by his there, even were my ships in good trim, son, scarcely thirteen years old, and his after the orders which your majesty has own brother, who had unwillingly fol. given me." lowed him in his perilous voyages : “ For Columbus then communicates to the I am so unfortunate, (says Columbus,) king the observations he made on the that, after twenty years of services and riches, population, manners, and customs dangers, I have done no good for myself, of the people he had seen, and particu.

bave pot a single place of shelter in all larly those of the isle of Beragna; he des. Castile, nor any other means of procu- cants on the utility of this island, and ning fund and rest than by living at an the case with which it may be taken; Inn, and even there I have seldom the “ There is, (says he,) more gold to be lucans of paying iny expenses. I had seen bere in two days than can be met also another cause for vexation, (says he,) with at Spagnola in four years. Gold in the case of my son, Don Diego, wborn (continues he) is the most precious of I left in Spain an orphan, without fortune metals; it is gold which fills all treasuries; of employment." 'On this point it ap- and he who possesses gold can do what pears Columbus relied on the liberality of he will in the world! In short, gold serves

to send souls into Paradise ! The inhaa He arrived at a country called Cariac, bitants of Beragna bury with their dead where he learned that there were gold all the gold they possessed while living, mines in the province of Ciamba: he such is their custom. They brought at took with him two of the natives, who one time to Solomon as much gold as Cunducted him to another country, named six hundred and fifty quintals, not inCarambara, the inhabitants of which cluding the quantity for the use of the went naked, and wore from the neck a seamen and inerchants, and that which

old rairror, which they would neither it was necessary to send in payment to kell por exchange. They told him, in Arabia, and each of these quintals weighthe language of the country, of many ed an hundred and fifty pounds."

Columbus

the king.

SIR,

Columbus proceeds to exhaust all his increase your grandeur. Given in the cloquence: he quotes Josephus, the Book Indies, at the island of Januaica, the 7th of Kings, and the Paralipomenes, in of July, in the year 1503." proof that the Ophir of Solomon and the The above is a brief analysis of a let. Aurea of Josephus, were the same as ter which contains thirty-two octavo Beragua (Veragua), where nothing but pages, froin which the reader may judge gold was to be seen. Columbus, through of its interest. It was written in Spa. out, does not wish to seize upon this nish, and, having been translated into treasure by main force, but is only anxi. Italian, it was printed at Venice by Simon ous that some means may be found de Lorere, 7th of May, 1505. It is this for transporting it to the coffers of the early translation, with some triling cor. king.

rections, that has been republished by the · Although entirely occupied with the Abbé Morelli, a librarian at Venice. He interests of his sovereign, Columbus is has added various notes, to explain difreduced to the necessity of imploring his ferent passages of the text, which would clemency and justice. " I asked your otherwise have been obscure. The dates majesty, (says he,) provided I succeeded in this letter will be useful to the histoini discovering these islands and this con- rian in des :ribing the events relative to tinent, to give me the government of them Columbus, particularly those of his last in your majesty's name. My request voyage in 1502 and 1503. was granted in the most solemn manner. I took the tide of viceroy, admiral, and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine goveroor-geveral; and my lipits were fixed at a hundred leagues beyond the KOULD the letter of F. S.S. page isles of the Artori, and that of Cape Verd. 26, of the Number for August 1813,

I remained seven years at your ma. be suffered to pass without a remark, it jesty's court, and every day this enter may be supposed by novices in the apiprise was spoken of, which, in the gene- arian line, that the whole natural hisral opinion, could be attended with no tory of bees is a fable, that Butler, thing but misfortune. At present, cour. Wildman, Heys, Bonver, Huber, Reautiers and fiatterers ask, as a favour, per- mur, and Swainmerdam, have laboured mission to set out on voyages of disco- in vain, or rather that they have de very, and, if your majesty were to comply ceived the world,--that the two latter with their solicitations, they would dis. writers, whose skill in dissecting insects cover nothing.--At the very time is, to most, a matter of pleasing astowhen I expected the ship which I en nishment, did not know what those Breated of your majesty to convey me were, which they denominated, parts of home, that I might do bomaye to your generation in the queen and the drone, majesty for my success and my riches, I that they made a false report when they was forcibly seized, and thrown into a say they found eggs in the ovarium of ship with my two brothers, plundered, the first, and the corresponding parts of loaded with irons, and subjected to the generation in the latter, which I need most infamous treatment; and all this not name ;-and that these learned and without having been either heard or con- indefatigable inquirers into Nature's demped! And who would believe that works, who could not perceive both in a poor foreigner would have been induced the common bees, which they examined to turn traitor here against your majesty, with great attention, and denominated without any motive, or without the en- neuters, were blind and stupid. After couragement of any other sovereign. I sketching out the natural history of bees, kave served your majesty for the space and representing a swarm to contain of twenty-eight vears, and have gained four drones for every one that was ever nothing but infirsnities.--I cannot be found in it, he assumes and " considers lieve that your majesty has sanctioned as erroneous" the whole, “ it being, acthe oppression which I have experienced. cording to him, contrary to Nature's Let ihen the authors of it be punished, laws; and consequently impossible for and give me back my property and my' any one species of animated nature to honour.--came here only to serve produce a different one; and equafiy so your majesty;---] intreat your ma for 16,000 out of 20,000 bees, contained jesty, if it be God's will that I am to quit in a hive, to be of no gender." I shall these parts, to permit me to go to Rome, not criticise upon consequences not couand to make other pilgrimages. May tained in the premises, but observe, that the Holy Ghost preserve your life and imperfect man does not yet seen to have

arrived at a complete knowledge of the any particular connection or caresses Bars of Nature in every case,--that there between the queen and the drone bee stil are mysteries, not yet developed, in the hive ; and Huber implies that it ai.d ibat his iwo theories, one opposing never does take place there, but such the ther, arenly brought forward to denly as they fly in the air, like some Oj pose what he assumes to be an crro. Other insects and flies. The extravagant neous natural history, without any proof, idea of your correspondent is, therefore. and not to inforın or satisfy others; they to be rejected with disgust. being net satisfactory to himself, or he With great attention have I watched would have adhered to one only.

the operations of all the bees in the disIn opposition to the confident theories coverer, and I have observed the queen of F.S.S. the above writers prove that bee laying thousands of eggs in the cells, the queen is the only female in the hive, within the last twenty years, but never Lihat, on dissection, they have found saw a drone or a common bee do it, or eggs in her ovarium-ihat the eggs on even attempt to introduce their postesome occasions have been dropped upon riors into the cells, which the queen does, their hands as she walked, that they in laying. Indeed, if they were full of have seen such eggs laid by her in the eggs, it would be impossible for thein cells of the combs, and watched their to reach the bottom rib of the cell, where advancements till they filled each its the egg is always deposited. I will not cell, and were then sealed in; and, that enter into an examination of the wild the young bee, from the same eggs, burst theories of your correspondent, lese I open the cerement in about twenty-one should exceed the coinpass allowed me, days, from the time in which the eggs especially as I trust I have said enough were deposited in the cells. But neither to show that he has no right to say, that ovarium nor eggs have been observed in “ the natural history of the bee is erro. the drone, or the common bee, nor, in neous.”

J. Isaac. the latter, any of the parts of genera July 8, 1812. ration. And we, who have kept bees for

P.S. That the queen does not lay eggs years in discoverers,* where all the which are to become queens in prepared Swarm is exposed to view, on one side queens' cells, as implied by F. S. S. but ia or the other of a single comb, when common cells, which are afterwards enlarged scarcely a motion can be hidden, are and made royal cells, I have proved in Nos. able to confirm the above facts from our 6 and 7, of the Transactions of the Apiarian own actual observation.

Society. But now your young correspondent assames the authority of declaring, that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, the whole is erroneous, without addu

SIR, cing a single fact or experiment, in proof of his assertion; and, perhaps, without

AS Walter Scott, esq. appears to have having ever made the apiary the subject 1 attracted the tribute of applause in of his scrious study. On such presump- this county, the following effusion from the tion, we can bestow some degree of pity pen of this justly celebrated poet, may proand contempt. I am not for crediting

bably not prove unacceptable to many of assertions which oppose the general plan your readers. As I am not aware that of the works of nature. I cannot admit it has ever appeared in print before, and them on sligbt grounds. But I suspect they will douhtless also receive additi. we have not yet arrived at certainty,

onal pleasure from being infurined that what that plan is in many cases; nor why

he is likely soon to publish a poem, on the connection between the drone and

the subject of whichi, probably, these the queen bee should sometimes occasion

lines laid the foundation, or at least gave the issue to be a male, or female, or

rise to the idea, as they were written by a neuter bee, or why one such connec

Gece him while on a visit to the chief. Having tion should produce 20,000 such bees,

myself, during the last autumn, made the which is actually the case, according to

tour of Scotland, and noticed its most the reasoning of some of the above. remarkable curiosities, I had the happi. mentioned writers, of whom none over

ness of an iviroduction to Ranald Macsupposed, as your basty correspondent

donald, esq. of Ulva-house, the chief does, that the queen is impregnated by

who here calls forth the muse's strain.) 4,000 drones. I believe no writer on

which I gladly availed myself of when on this subject pretends to have observed

my way to visit that stupendous work of

pature, Fingal's Cave, and those vene* Described in Isaac's General Opinion, rable ruins of antiquity at Scolmbkill. böld by Cadell and Davies, London.

(doubly celebrated by calling forth the

powers powers of Dr. Joboson's imagination). was intended. This method of executing The elegant hospitality and polite recep- the work, would have greatly reduced the tion I experienced from this gentleman, quantity of excavation, as well as of during my visit to him, would be more spoiled land, and have proportionally than a sufficient inducement to me to lessened the expense of the undertaking. diffuse the following tribute to his praise, But, unfortunately for the subscribers, which is su justly due, as widely as possi- as well as for the public, the foundation ble; and, as I am a constant reader of was broken up, and of course the building your valuable Magazine, I think that this fell down. The workmen are now (Sepcannot better be accomplished than tember, 1812) employed, day and night, through its medium.

in raising the road to ascend to a greater Staffa ! sprung from high Mac-Donald,

heigbt, under Horosey-lane, than was Worthy branch of old Clan-Ranald.

necessary for the safety of the work by Staffa! king of all kind fellows,

the other method. Well befall thy hills and valleys,

The bottom of the excavation which Lakes and inlets, deeps and shallows,) failed under Hornsey lane, is not many Cliffs of darkness, caves of wonder,

feet above the stratum of chalk. - Echoing the Atlantic's thunder;

6. Chalk. This formation is the next Mountains which the grey mist covers, older stratum, and that it is a marine Where the chieftain spirit hovers,

sediment is proved by its containing the Pausing while his pinions quiver,

shells of oysters, muscles, cockles, sharks' Stretch'd to quit our land for ever.

teeth, and upwards of fifty other fossils. Each kind influence reign above thee, The state in which these fossils are found, All thou lov'st, and all that love thee, prove, says the accurate Mr. Parkinson, For warmer heart, 'twixt this and Taffa,

is the matrix in which they are imbedded, Beats not than in the breast of Staffa.

was formed by a gradual deposition from Trowbridge, J. T. Mayne. the surrounding fluid, which entombed August 2012, 1812.

these animals while living in their native beds.” The stralum is now of various

thicknesses, up to eight or nine hundred For the Monthly Magazine. feet; soon after its formation, or before OHTLINES of the MINERAL STRATA of it was fully compressed, it must have ex. GREAT BRITAIN;

ceeded a thousand feet in thickness. It by JOHN MIDDLETON.of LAMBETH. is porous, loose, and dry, near the top, but

at greater depths it is compact. At twoGeneral Observations.

thirds, or three-fourths, of its depth, is THE excavation at Highgate, for the obtained hard chalk, tinted brown ; which

1 archway, or tunnel, passed at so is broken and burnt into the substance great a depth in the London clay, as to called Dorking lime. This lime has long cut through it, and break up the marine been used in London, in the composition

bed which lies under the clay. In this of mortar for superior cement. The · marine bed were found many fossil oys. Jower beds of cbalk, like most other

ters, lobsters, sharks' teeth, mackerel, strata, increase in hardness, in proportion muscles of one inch in length, and masses to their greater depth, until it becomes of other perfect she'ls, one-fourth of an stone. Within a few yards of the bote inch in diameter. The two last sort of tom of this forination, there are one or shells were in some instances cemented more beds of it so hard, as to be nearly to the clay-balls, called septaria. It was equal to the best Portland stone. I bare a great mistake in the conductors of this seen one of these layers of chalk-stone archway, to break up the marine crust; emit fire from the blow of a pick-axe. ibeir doing so, left them no other foun. But, as an exceprion to the usual order dation than the Blackheath sand. At of things, this hard stone, in Mersthamn that elevation, this sand inay perhaps be Quarry, lies on a bed of soft easy-worke dry, but it is more frequently full of ing sione, called fire-stone, which is water; a quick-sand could not be ex- three or four yards in thickness. This pected to support the arch and its supere stone is calcareous, and of a deep cream incumbent load; this danger might have colour. It is dug and squared at Gatton, been foreseen, and the mischief pre- Merstham, and Godstone, at per cubical venter, by boring in a sufficient number foot, for the London masons, who use it of places; these would have shewn the in fire-places. The softness of this stone, necessity of keeping the road under and the ease with which it can be work Hornsey-lane, about ten feet higher than ed, are the insuficient reasons which

induced

Induce masons to use it, in preference to saved, by the easy operation of boring a' the much harder and better parts of the few yards in depth, through the subsoil guarry. The upper parts of the chalk stra. of blue clay, into the sand which lies tum, to about six hundred feet in thickness, under it. This culvert drains the water contain layers and nodules of black glossy off in such a manner as to enable hiin to Aint; and the lower beds of it, which raise the lower beds of the chalk stratum; are two or three hundred feet in thickthese consist of chalk stained with iron, ness, contain flint of an ash-grey colour. to burn for Dorking lime; of a stone

The Foreland, between the bays of which is supposed to be nearly equal to Studland and Swanage, in Dorsetshire, Portland-stone; and fire-stone lying imshew a pretty good section of the chalk mediately under each other, without any stratum; in that place, three of us esti intermediate matter, and in the order in unated, with an attention that was little which they are mentioned. The chalk less accurate than measuring, the chalk stratum passes under London, at iba, with black flints to be six hundred feet, depth of three, four, or at the most and the lower beds to be two hundred within five, hundred feet. It is said, that feet in thickness. High-down, at the the chalk stratum was found at the depth south-west corner of the Isle of Wight, is of one hundred and eight feet, in sinking all of the chalk formation, and it rises a well at the Victualling-office, Deptford, 700* feet above the sea. This chalk moon. It gradually rises to the surface in about tain has been rent from the horizontalchalk ten miles, as at Croydon and other stratum; on that occasion, one edge of it places; it then lies immediately under a has been turned up, and the other down, thin vegetable mould, and continues to until the strata settled in a vertical position. ascend for eight or ten miles more to the This movement included two beds of clay, south; there it has attained its greatest and many of sand beneath the chalk; height, and forms a range of stupendous these are vertical, and exhibit all the hills on the north side of the towns of colours of the rainbow adjoining the Folkstone, Ashford, Maidstone, Wroa Down in Allum Bay.

tham, and Westerham, in Kent; GodThe lower beds of the chalk formation, stone, Reigaie, Dorking, Guildford, and and every fissure in them, are, with few Farnham, in Surrey; as well as on the exceptions, completely filled with water. north side of the South Downs, in Sussex; All the rain and snow which fall upon and above all the precipices of challa chalk, percolate downwards to its base, stratum in England, where the water is stopped by a subsoil Indurated chalk stained with iron for of blue clay; and that occasions it to ac- Dorking lime, (a rock whiel is supposed cumulate in the chalk, until it rises to to be nearly equal to Portland-stone, such a height as doth enable it to flow and fire.stone,) may all be obtained over the surface of the adjoining land. wherever there is chalk. Where that In this manner are formed the springs stratum rises into high precipices, these and rivulets which issue near the foot of things may be obtained at the easy rate every chalk-bill. In the Cove, at West of quarrying near the bottom of such Lulworth, fine fresh water streams from steeps; and in all other parts of the the base of the adjoining mountain of chalk stratum, by sinking a mine to the chalk, just above the level of the sea. place where they repose, near and at the The water which issues from the chalk at bottom of it. Some persons have sunk Croydon, Beddington, and Carshallon, to an equal depth in chalk for water, and forin the river Wandle; and the same have obtained it. There are many places, thing happens at Ewel, Merstham, and as Clifton, near Maidenhead, on the other places.

Thames, and others between that place Mr. Hilton Joliffe made a culvert se. and Henley, in which the raising these veral hundred yards in length, from a stones would be a profitable undertaklevel so low as to pass through his works ing, especially to the owners of the soil. in the chalk at Merstham, by which a Ac Denbys, near Dorking, Surrey, Mr. rivulet of water, sufficient to turn a mill, Jonathan Tyers sunk such a well, on the is constantly running oil. This culvert top of that high hill, to the depth of four cost a considerable sum of money, all hundred and forty feet, and there ob. which, it is believed, inight have been tained a full supply of fine water; if the

object of Mr. Tyers had been stone, he * This height is on the authority of the would have found it at the same depth. person who had the care of the light-house on

7. Clay of a deep blue colour, and cal. High-Down, in August, 1812, which he said careous as chalk. -A section of this clay, was corrected by three several trials, well defined, measured Gfteen feet; toMONTHLY MAQ, No. 233.

Ss

wards

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