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dissent from him, it may not be unne- We observe the same particles of mat cessary to premise, that I consider the ter capable, as in water, of being in a materiality of caloric as far from being state of fixity, as in lime; of crystallization, proved. The illustrious names that sup- as in ice; of liquidity, as in its natural port that theory, are far from being with and most usual state; of vapour and of out opponents of celebrity.
gas, as when resolved into its constiThe phenomena of water dilating when luent parts, oxygen and hydrogen; froin it sinks in temperature below a certain which it may be inferred, with all the point, and some corresponding circum- certainty so abstruse a point can be stances observable in the crystallization supposed to have, that the particles of of salts, and the cooling after fusion of which materiality consists, are capable some of the metals I bare, Sir, con- of taking an infinite variety of forms, so sidered these as strong arguments against numerous as to give reason to believe in ibe opinion, that caloric, by its inter. identity of its original nature. position between the particles of matter, We are not to conclude that we are is the cause of the increase of volume that acquainted with all the agents that exert mnost generally accompanies a rise of tem- themselves in producing the innumerable perature. When, however, we see the appearances and qualities that appear in same effect as in the instances above nature; several of those known to be mentioned, produced by a cause diame among the most productive of conse, trically opposite, the theory falls to the quences are but of comparatively recent ground; surely it is not easy to prove discovery, such as magnetisin, electricity, that water at 32' and 53' both dilated or, its more intense application, galvas by having received caloric.
nism. From these discoveries it may be Thus far, I believe, does my opinion inferred, others may be added to the coincide with that of your correspondent; stock of human knowledge, and perhaps but I consider that his attempt to prove many are fated to be for ever hidden from the increased volume at 320, and so human sagacity. continued down the thermometrical scale, It has been made apparent by the late is produced by the absorption of frigoric, discoveries of our illustrious countryman, as wanting far more of evidence than I Professor Davy, that chemical affinities observe he adduces to its support. If we are entirely dependent on electricity. allow that water has decreased ju tem. That bodies to decompose each other perature, and dilated by the presence of must be in separate states, which being frigoric, why should frigoric, which must artificially allered, the most powerful atbe equally present when mercury or al. tractions are overcome, and vice versa. cohol lose caloric, cause no dilatation in It is a known fact, that when fluids are them, but produce a contrary effect, viz, - produced from solids, a change takes contraction. I confess, I consider this place in their conducting powers : for objection as not easily answered; but my instance, ice, which is a bad conductor, assent to the theory would not completely by being changed to water becomes a follow, were that done; I should perhaps · good one; and siinilar effects take place ground my objections nearly as follow: by the same changes in sulphur and re
In the change that takes place in bon sin. This seems by no means unfavoura dies when they alter froin a state of so. able to the idea, that electriciry, or soine lidity to that of fluidity, or further to agent equally invisible, may dispose the vapour, a large portion of caloric is also particles of matter to a different power sorbed and becoines latent. Thus to be of attraction, and produce a change of rendered fluid, from a solid state, water volume, not unlikely that of water, which receives 140, bees.wax 175, or sperma. is the subject under our more impediate cæti 115, none of which is discoverable consideration, either in the temperature or increased These considerations are not affected bulk of the new compound. I unders by the theory of matter we adopt; the saud solidity to arise from the attraction causes of attraction and repulsion are that is exerted between the original par- never likely to be discoverable by human ticles of matter, which attraction is be nature; even these are but the effects of come weakened in the fluid state, and in the great First Cause, who is discoverable the gaseous is counteracted by repulsion; only in the power and wisdom displayed and that any extension, or contraction of in his works, equally so in the formation substance, is resolvable to these laws, of a particles of matter, or the law that which renders the mechanical idea of the directs the course of revolving worlds, interposition of caloric; frigoric, or any It is only for philosophy to trace the Ollier matter, unuccessary.
workings of nature near their source; and
the nearer we get to the cause, the more stepticism has so daringly aimed, in oppodifficulty attends the search; but, if we sition to the injudicious theory of abso. are the more convinced of our own in. lute inspiration, to level with the puerile abilities, the deeper we go, we see the cosmogonies of the Greeks, or the extramore of reason, to admire and adore that .vagant legends of the Hindoos, is the gegoodness, wisdom, and power, that gave neral deluge. This memorable catasJaxs to nature.
J. BENNETT.' trophe took place, according to the He. Greenwich, Sept. 25, 1812.
brew text, 1656 years, and, agreeably to
the Samaritan copies, 1307 years, subseTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. quent to the era of the creation. But SIR,
the Septuagint version declares it to have M HE following errata in the Oxford happened in the 2962d year of the world,
stereotype Bible, 8vo. ought to be a variance in chronology which no sagamade known to the public through your city can now hope to reconcile. The extensively circulated Miscellany." obscure notion of a universal deluge apOLD TESTAMENT.
pears to have obtained very extensive ch. Book Ver.
credit amongst the nations of antiquity; 43 Genesis, 30-for gjern” read “ yearn." and the Grecian story of Deucalion exbia 45 , 19—for “ wagons" read wag
bits a remarkable analogy to that of • gons."*
Noah, the second father of the hunian , 21- ditto ditto. 27- ditto a
ditto. 46 5- ditto
Berosus, a Chaldean historian, who
ditto. 98 Exodus, 25-for " other two end" read flourished about the reign of Alexander "other two ends."
the Great, and of whose writings some 19 1 Kings, 12--for " still a small voice" read fragments have been preserved, speaks of
" a still small voice." a tremendous food, which happened 23 2 Kings, 13—for “ from Milcom" read many centuries before, under the reign " for Milcom.”
of the good Xisuthrus, who, being ap19 1 Chron. 19- for « Haderezer”read "He prised of this event in a dream, built a darixer."
prodigious large vessel, in which his friends 16 2 Chron. 1-comma omitted after Asa. and family found a secure refuge, and 6 Proverbs, 11—for "travelletb" read “tra. he was afterwards received amung the
vailetb." 20 , &-for "settecb" read sittetb.: 8 of Eccles. 8-for " is his cyes" read " is
Sanconiathon, who compiled the hishis eye."
tory of the Phænicians at an era perhaps 28 Isaiah, 25--for " rie" read “ rye."
still more remote, deduces the origin of 56 , 12" shall be as tbis day;" mankind from a primæval pair, citing as
Cambridgestereotypereads, his authority the writings of Thout, a per
shall be as to-day." sonage much more ancient than himself, 5 Jeremiah, 28- for “ causread cause." and styled by him the inventor of letters; 32 , 17—for "fo thee" read “ for but this imperfect narrative, in its prethee."
sent mutilated state, makes no inention S Daniel, 29-for" dibedoego” read." Abed- of the flood.
Manetho wrote his account of EgypNEW TESTAMENT.
tian antiquities by command of Ptolemy 10 Matthew, - verses figured 25, 26, read Philadelphus. For the purpose of reflect26, 27.
ing the highest honour possible on his 14 Mark, 54-for "bim?f"read "himself."
" country, be enumerates no less than 18 Acts, in the argument for 2 read thirty dynasties of gods, besides deorie
12. 8 2 Corinth. 13--for “ burned" read “bur.
gods and heroes, who reigned in Egypt dened.”
before the flood, or the period assigned London,
D. Copsey. for that great event. But the more re Sept. 17, 1812.
cent and credible chronology of this
writer does not essentially militate against For the Monthly Magazine.
that transınitted to us by the Jewish leREFLECTIONS on the ORIGIN of ISTORY.
gislator. A MONG the greatest of those events
It has been observed by a celebrated A commemorated in the Sacred Ilis
modern writer, M. Voltaire, in Me Disa toric Record, which the Spirit of modern
course prefixed to his Essay on History, cop
“that many of the ancient oriental histoIn Ezekiel, 23 chapter, 24 verse, it is rians have spoken of a terrible inundation written Wagen.
in the days of Xexoutrou, who reigned
over Chaldea some thousand years ago. posed to be the country lying between Probably," says he, “the Tigris and Eu- the Tygris and the Euphrates, felt at plirates overflowed their banks more than length the necessity of separation; preordinary; but the Chaldeans could not viously to which, as this venerable inepossibly have known by any other means morial of historic antiquiry informs us, iban revelation that the whole habitable they resolved to build a tower, which earth was covered with water." The ve. should serve thein as a signal or centre of racity of Moses, however, and other ori- union, and occasionally of assemblage. ental writers, is sufficiently maintained, if To this reasonable motive they seem to the deluge recorded by thein extended it- have added a culpable sentiment of pride. self over what was at that period regard. “Let us," said they,“ build a city and a ed as the whole habitable world.
tower, whose top may reach to heaven," For many centuries subsequent to the as if in defiance of the divine power. general deluge we have scarcely any The idea of such a structure, allowing for guide but the scriptures of the Old Tes- the oriental extravagance of the figure, tament to assist us in our historic investie could not have originated but with a peogations: and the notices of events con- ple who had made great advances in the tained in thein are so concise as to afford arts of life and civilization; yet were their very jinperfect satisfaction. Nimrod, notions respecting the nature of the Deity descended in the third degree from strangely gross, and anthropomorphitical, Noah, is represented as famous on the For it is related that “God came down to earth, and a mighty hunter. In these see the city and tower which the children early ages the hunting and destruction of of men builded.” From this mode of exwild beasts, and the consequent clearing pression here and elsewhere used, it is and cultivation of land, would rank among evident that both materiality and locality the chief means of acquiring honour and where ascribed to the Supreme Being, renown. Babel or Babylon is said to who is also represented as in perfect and have been founded by him, and was ay lunited in respect to his knowledge, and parently, from its commanding situation seeking the means of information. In on the banks of the Euphrates, intended consequence of the miraculous interpoas the seat of his empire.
sition which, according to the tenor of Misraim, the son of Ham, is conjec. the narrative, ensued, the building was tured to have first planted Egypt, there discontinued, and the name Babel, or conbeing some fancied analogy between the fusion, given to the place. names of his descendants, Ludim, Ama. The race of Heber, though distin mim, Pathrusim, &c. and Lybia, Ammo- guished by peculiar marks of divine fania, and Pathros, or Thebais, &c. And your, had in a long series of years sunk Egypt is frequently in Scripture styled the into idolatry from the example of the surLand of Mizraim.
rounding tribes, or communities; and Canaan, the brother of Mizraim, fixed these fathers of the Jewish nation, de his residence on the eastern border of the scribed as dwelling on the other side the Mediterranean Sea, and gave his name flood, that is, the Euphrates, are exto the country which he thus occupied, pressly accused of serving other gods. till, in his distant posterity, the curse of At length the renowned patriarch AbraNoah was in all its bitterness and ven. ham, whose name is still of the highest geance fulfilled. Gomcr, son of Japbet, celebrity in Arabia, and throughout the is supposed to have been the ancestor of Fast, and whose fainily seems to have the Gomeri, Cumri, or Cymri, that is, escaped the general contagion, departed the Celts, that great people who after. with his whole household, conformably to wards possessed the larger part of the the divine direction, from bis native continent of Europe. But the posterity country, and finally settled in the land of Shem are most distinguished in Jewish of Canaan, the ultimate possession of history. Ashur, the son of Shem, is re- which was destined to hini and his chii. garded as the founder of the kingdom ordren, who were in the course of ages to empire of Assyria, and of its celebrated become a mighty people. capital Nineveh, of which not a vestige Such are the principal occurrences, now remains. From Heber, another of and little more can now be known of the his descendants, the Hebrew nation are be- history of this long period, extending to lieved to derive their immediate origin. 427 years according to the Hebrew ac
The race of mankind becoming very count, but to no less than 1078 years, Rainerous in the plains of Shinaar, sup- reckoning by the more probable Samari
tan tan chronology. This immense blank re- to a caravan of Arabian merchants, tras sembles, as has been remarked, a vast velling from Gilead to Egypt, with a rich bouk with writing only on a few of its cargo of spices, balın, and myrrh. The pages. The learned Bryant has, in his kingdom at this time seems to have been celebrated and elaborate work, shown subject to a great and powerful monarch, that the sacred history derives, in various living in much magnificence, and surrespects, considerable support from the rounded with officers of state and men of poetical, allegorical, and mythological science, Occasional mention is made of fictions, the scattered assertions and ob- court festivals, of silken vestures, of silscure allusions, of the ancient heatten ver cups, gulden chains, jewels of gold writers; but it is to be regretted that on and silver, chariots of state and of war; many occasions his imagination has too and the land also appears to have been obviously predominated over his judge highly cultivated, producing grain of difment.
ferent'sorts in great quantities. The narrative of events from the grand With respect to manners and customs, era of the departure of Abraham from we are told that the Egyptians held it Chaldea, comprehending the occurrences an abomination to eat bread with the which were peculiar to the family of that Hebrews, or doubtless any other nation. famous patriarch, is frequently very ni. They were probably already divided into nute, curious, and interesting. Few Castes. But, what is still more remarkable, materials, nevertheless, exist from which it is given as a reason why the children we can form a tolerable judgment of the of Israel were settled with their flocks and general state and condition of mankind herds in the land of Goshen, " that every during this period. Chaldea was proba- shepherd is an abomination to the Egypbly at this time the most populous and tians." Gen. xlvi. 34. This abomination civilized of all countries, but its religion must have originated in some powerful was evidently corrupt and barbarous. cause, and was perhaps closely connected Canaan, the modern Palestine, was die with some great historical event. vided among a great number of roring That the order of priests was held in hostile tribes, subject to different chief- high estimation and reverence is manifest tains, resembling the present Arabian from their having a portion assigned sheikks or emirs, and engaged incessantly them of Pharaoh during the seven years in bloody intestine wars. Egypt is the of famine, as well as from the unalienable country of which we have the fullest ac- nature of their property. It is certain count in the sacred writings, and upon that the pleasing superstition of embalmthe various revolutions of this ancient ing dead bodies was now coinmonly prac. kingdom, some faint gleams of light are tised in Egypt. Jacob was embalmed also thrown, even at this very remote and kept several months previous to his era, by the precarious and indistinct tes. interment, and Joseph was embalmed timony of profane history. The very first and put into a coffin, in order to be remention of this country in the scriptural moved, at somnę distant and uncertain records suggests the idea of its being a period, to the sepulchre of his fathers. land of plenty ; for, in consequence of a When the oppression of the Israelites temporary scarcity or famine in Canaan, commenced, they were employed by PhaAbraham went to sojourn in the land of roah in building and, probably, fortifying Egypf The inhabitants we find also two cities, called treasure-cities, Pithom trafficked in slaves; for Hagar, the hands and Raamses; and the total omission of all maid of Sarah, was evidently a feinale mention of, orallusion to, ihe pyrarnids has slave purchased in Egypt. The country, been urged as a proof or forcible presuppe or ibat part of it where Abraham resided, tion that these enormous edifices were vot was under the government of a king yet erected. But the city of Memphis, known by the appellation or title of Pha near the site of which the pyramids maoh. Of the extent of his kingdom, or stand, was at a great distance from the how many other contemporary monarchs land of Goshen ; and that part of Egypt might reign in different or distant dis might possibly be under the dominion of tricts of the extensive region since called another sovereign. Egypt, it is impossible to know, and use Amid the splendour of the court of Phaless to cunjeciure.
raoli, much simplicity, not to say rusti. We hear no more of Egypt for the city, of mamers, apparently, in some ree space of 200 years, at the end of which spects prevailed. The king's daughter period we find the sons of Jacob conspir- is represented as coming down to the ing to sell Joseph their brother as a slave, river side to bathe, Hoiner, describing
ce | Water
the manners which prevailed some taste, as the best representative of the centuries later, exhibits a similar pic. universe that has been ever devised, ture. The beautiful daughter of Ale showing posterity that such handsome cinous, with her attendant damsels, is creatures existed, superior to the fabudescribed as seeking,
lous monsters of the ancients. The subche distant wave,
sequent catalogue explains Where their fair vests Phænician virgins
The new Constellations. lave."
Danubius, the river Danube, in place of On these occasions we must suppose the Dragon. some appropriate spot to be selected, Hercules kneeling and holding a golden
wrapt in einbowering shades," and se- Apple, in place of Cerberus, his head towards cure from the foot of intrusion. From the polar star. Bumerous passages in the Iliad and Odys Copernicus at his feet, holding a sextant, sey, we find that the use of strong and in- his globe beneath, in place of the Serpenttoxicating liquors," the bowl with Bacchus holder. crowned," was in the age of Homer very
Newtonus holding his prism, defended by
? an eagle, in place of Antinous. general; but, in the far more ancient times, **
. Kepler, pointing to the Heavens, in place of wluch we are now treating, we may of the ship Aren infer that the fermented juice of the Hipparchus in place of the Indian digrape, or wine, was not yet known; for vested: the chief butler, in relating his dream to Moses, the Jewish law-giver, near the Joseph, describes himself as pressing the Altar of Incense, in place of the Fly, Tri. clusters of ripe grapes into the cup of angle, and Fish. Pharaoh, in order to produce a liquor Condor, the great vulture, in place of Peo such as the king was no doubt accustomed gasus. to drink.
Chrysætos, the golden eagle, in place of The remainder of this interesting paper is the Greyhounds and Berenice's hair. èeferred cill our next.]
Hallætus, the osprey, in place of the
great Hydra. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Platalea, the spoonbill, in place)
" of the sign Fishes. SIR, M HE Chaldeans and Egyptians who.
Pelicanus in place of the South-| birds.
ern Fish. 1 first gare naines to the great fixed Urogallus, the mountain cock, in place stars, and divided them into constella- of the Fly, two Triangles, and Fish. tions, representing several kiods of ani. Ibis, the red curlew, in place of the Sermals, take precedence; yet have they, pent's Head in Serpentarius. through defect of taste and understanding, Ciconia, the stork with extended wings, disgraced the celestial mansions with the in place of the chemical Furnace and Sculpnames of reptiles, snakes, fish, dogs, cena cor's Apparatus. taurs, horned and winged horses; and, in Butes, che bittern, in place of the Painter's modern times, triangles, mechanic figures, Easel. and such mean substitutes have been
Phasianus, the Argus pheasant, in place added. that are inconvenient and une of the Sword-fish and Hydra. becoming the dignity of illuminated
Corona Ariadne in place of the North Crowli.
A Quiver in place of the Horse in Sagitarius. Heaven, (except the globe, sextant and
Castor, the beaver, in place of the Crow Telescope,) which should be represented
and Cup.. by the most noble and handsome crea- Elephantus in place of the footed Whale. tures, which I have introduced, consist- Camelus, the white camel, in place of ing, for the most part, of large birds the Centaur and Wolf. aud bcasts, which reduce the multiplied Cervus, the stag, in place of the Linx. constellations, and comprehend many Alces, the elk, in place of the Lizard. unformed stars, making no material Equus in place of Monoceros, the horned change in the system, as all the stars re- Horse. tain their old names. Each of the fi Zebra in place of the Dolphin. gures have their heads to the polar star Antelaus major, the antelope, in place as their zenith, being antipodes to those
of the Great Dog. south of the equator; I have made as ]
Antelaus minor, in place of the Little
Dog. few mutations in my drawings of the
Leopardus, in place of the Flying Fish. globe as consistently could be made, Antarctic Circles. which has been approved by some of the
WILLIAM COLQUITT. first astronomers and persons of good
Chester, Sept. 9, 1812.