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passage of the Introduction to my Tra. M. de Saussure, in mountains compan. vels in England, but I shall explain it tively to which those of Derbyshire are after having copied that passage, in like mole-hills. Mr. Farey might bare which I said, “ I shall not attempt to seen, in my Elementary Treatise on relate all my observations in this country, Geology, many descriptions of parts of where I have resided since the year the Alps and Mount Jura, as exact as 1773. Whenever I have had occasion the greatness of the objects could permit, to travel through any part of it, I have which I have opposed to Professor Playalways been attentive to the geological fair, as precisely as those in England; phenomena which presented themselves and I hope Mr. Fares will find the same io my view; but, as my object at first exactness in the descriptions of great was only to examine whether any of the chains of mountains in Germany, France, circumstances of those phenomena were and Switzerland, forming two volumes either new to me, or contrary to the of iny Geclogical Travels anterior to ideas which I had formed in other places, those in England, of which I had postI seldom committed my observations to poned the publication, to answer Mr. writing, or at most, I took very short Playfair on his own ground. But these notes of them. It was the work of Pro. travels are now in the press, and will be fessor Playfair, which made me sensible soon published at Messrs. Rivingtons. in how great a degree precise and nu. I shall often refer to them, though yet merous details were necessary for the unpublished, because my system had determination of true general phenome been formed on the facts which will be Da; and, the observations of that gen. found in them, and has been only coutleman having been confined to this formed by my observations in England. island, I became desirous to study it I must add, that Mr. Farey's own with more attention, and especially to description of Derbyshire and the adja. follow him to some of the places to cent countries, affords also a complete which he had referred."
confirmation of this part of my systein, This is the reason why Mr. Farey has that the derangement observed in our found that I have inanifested an earnest strata, proceeds from ruptures, angular desire to sift into the truth and correctnotions, and partial subsidences. Only ness of Professor Playfair's observations; he calls lifts, the parts now the highest; but he could not know that, among the without, however, assigning the cause various parts of England which I had obe which has raised these parts : wbile I served with great attention, was his own consider the lowest parts as having sunk, field, in and near Derbyshire. I hare and I have assigned the cause of those Juckily found the notes which I made in events. This will be the subject of exthat journey, containing numerous de- amination in the sequel. tails, because the country interested me The organic remains in our strata are very much. I shall first trace the road a great geological phenomenon, on which which I followed from Birmingham, ben consequently Mr. Farey insists much : cause I shall have occasion to refer to he opposes its particulars both to Comseveral places.
mon Sense and to me. I shall succes. This journey was in August 1787. sively copy his propositions on this sube From Birmingham I went to Walsall, ject, replying to those which relate to Four-Crosses, Newcastle, Ecruria, Con. my system. gleton, to Liverpool. Thence I came This begins at p. 514, where he says, to Macclesfield, and entered Derbyshire “1. That each species of these bodies by Buxton; I came down to Ashford, has some particular bed or stratum, of ascended some way in that valley, and indefinite extension, to which it is pe. returned to Bakewell and Matlock. I culiar, and of which it forms a character, came out of Derbyshire by Derby, and either alone, or in mixture with other entered Leicestershire, passing by Lough species, not less important, and often borough and Leicester. Thus, having more so, than the mineralogical or che. observed the same field as Mr. Farey, I mnical qualities of such stratum or imbed. may say, that I have never seen any de ding substance." scription of a mountainous country inore I cannot say any thing particular in accurate than that he has given of this, that respect concerning Derbyshire, and in the Philosophical Transactions; but the adjacent countries, the beld of Mr. it is a very small spot on the surface of. Farey's observations; as there I fixed the earth, in comparison of the extent my attention only on the dislocations of my observations, and also of those of and inclinations of the strata, and the
external external signs of these catastrophes, beings is extinct, or never did exist on more numérous than he is aware of. the present surface of the earth or in its But I have visited a great part of the present waters; and that, however nearly Continent, always attentive to that the form and habit of some reliquia may great phenomenon, the organic remains; seem to approach to existing species, a and I have found the very samie shells sufficient discrimination has never failed in strata, of a grent variety of substances. to detect differences essentially specific, A proof that these bodies do not point if not generic characters, in the former out a particular character of the strata. and present individuals."
« 2. That all the species lived I may doubt whether Mr. Farey has and grew in the very spot where they bad the opportunity of studying this subare found," (this is ce cain, but then ject so extensively as my brother and follows) " and lived only during the pe- myself have done. I have entered into riod of the deposition of that stratum in many details on this object in my work, which they are entombed ; having bad Histoire de la Terre d. de Homme : no existence while either the flor or the explaining, first, the causes why many roof of such stratum was forming." Mr. species of marine and terrestrial organic Farey's observations have been too liinit. bodies were extinct, and others mateed for such a general proposition, and I rially changed in their appearance. am going to state the results of mine. With respect to facts, our collection of
It happens in soie spots, that the natural history, which has remained at same species is found only in one stra. Geneva, consists in particular of a very tum, and not in those above and under great number of all species of natural it; but this does not affect the very ex. and fossil shells, the latter collected by istence of the species, as if it had not ourselves. existed on our globe before the forma. Al the time when we began our obtion of that stratum, and had ceased to servations, about the year 1754, there exist afterwards; for the same species was among the naturalists, a question is found in other places, not only in the very similar to that which is between Mr. saine, but various, kinds of strata. Let Farey and me, with respect to the dissius confine ourselves to the sea animals, milarity observed between the fossil and by far the most numerous among the nalural shells: soine naturalists conorganic fossils, and consider the proba. cluding, froin thal circumstance, that the
ble cause of these differences, pointed latter were different races of aniinals, the · out by facts. It has happened in some first being extinct. But our collection
spots, that the motions of the sea have afforded the proof that this was too hasty carried away from them the spawn of a conclusion. We conceived the causes shell-fish; in others, that the precipita. why certain species were extinct; and, tions forming the strata under and above that this was absolutely the case with that in which a certain shell is found some, our collection furnished the proof; imbedded, were not favorable to the as it likewise did of many essential propagation of the species; as I have changes; but, we undertook to make it explained in my first geological work and evident to the sight, that it did not exothers. In general, the spawn of shello tend to all. For this purpose, having fish is carried along the whole lotion of numbers of duplicates, we made a par the sea, but it hatches only in places ticular arrangement as follows. We had fit for it. We see that effect on our many small cases, in each of which we coasts, for the shells are very different bad placed, a natural shell, and the on different parts of the same coasts. I fossil correspondent to it. That cola have observed these differences on the lection, which still exists in our cabinet, coast of England; but the difference is is very numerous; and, when we have much greater between the coasts of difhad the opportunity to show it, and my ferent climates. These facts, I think, brother and nephew after I bave lett are sufficient to prove generally, that Geneva, to those who doubted, and particular circumstances are requisite for consequently examined it with a scrutie the life and duration of certain species nizing eye, they have never been able of sea animals; circumstances changing to detect any difference between the in the ancient sea, in the process of the natural and the fossil ; some of the suécessive precipitations, forming differ- latter eyen retain their colour. ent kinds of strata : a consideration “4. That all this class was subaquewhich will recur hereafter.
ous, or lived in, or at the bottom of, a " 3. That the whole of this class of deep and general ocean, of which para
ticular ticular mention is made by Moses, before with the seventh following, hare been any dry land appeared." This, I may supposed to constitute one of our present be permitted to say, and I shall show weeks. I have given demonstrative hereafter, is an assumption, of which proofs, that in this first chapter, the he gives no proof, either from natural word day implies only a period of unhistory, or from the words of Genesis ; determined length; and that therefore, but he places here a note, which, after “the earth may have existed a great having copied it, I shall examine. many ages before God created man," " Who shall presume to say, that the On this subject I referred also to my same creative power which, at the letters to Professor Blumenbach, in the finish of His work of creation, in a British Critic; in which I have detailed comparatively short period, brought the operations that took place in each into existence, or created, all the spee of these periods; following in that recies of organic beings, wbo, by their spect the successive effects of known. innate power, have propagated, through causes. These I have distinguished by their generations, to the present day, their characters, the strata formed beupon the surface of our planet, in the fore the existence of any organic being; air and in the waters, did not create or, at least, containing none of their each of these prior and successive sub- reinains. These strata are probably aqueous races of organic beings, whose those which Mr. Farey calls chrystulised, remains are imbedded within it; and such as granite, porphyry, micaceous also successively create, or give, the pre- schisti, and other conteinporaries. There sent forin, by modes of combination now I have fixed the period in which organic unknown, to the fluid and to the solid beings began to exist, indicated by their and inorganic matter of each stratum, remains imbedded in strata, very differ. during the periods marked by these or- ent from those which had preceded; ganic existences, or between them, and I have explained the cause of some where strata occur, holding no reliquia, species of organic bodies being extinct, which are numerous, and, of most kinds and many having changed their appeara of substances, crystalized masses in par- ance. Thus there is no need of a con. ticular? Are any parts of these sugges. Linued creation: each species first created tions more unphilosophical than that He continued to propayate, till some becreated separate masses or mountains of came extinct; and many were altered in quartz, and other substances now found their appearance, by the changes in the in grains in the strata: which masses, by medium in which they lived, either wa. unknown causes, are pretended to have ter or air ; changes of which I have as. teen broken down into such small and signed the cause. uniform grains ; and certain masses of I now return to the text of Mr. Fa. other substances, which, by means alike rey's paper, and first to page 515, where inexplicable, have been ground into he says, “ If this view of the subject be powder or paste, for cementing the correct, the alternation of land and sea, grains, or forming homogeneous mine. or of fresh water and marine animals rals"
and vegetables in the earth, has no I have copied so far this note, in order foundation; and the very ground-work to show, that it is not tu me that Mr. of your correspondent's new theory" Farey opposes the preceding ideas; it is (meaning Common Sense) “is overto the Huttonian system. As for me, I turned; and the existence of tropical shall first say in general, that I shall ne, animals and plants in high latitudes is ver presume to maintain any thing con- also alike unfounded." trary to the foundation of our faith, with I certainly shall not defend the theory respect to the creation, which is the book of Common Sense; but, with respect to of Genesis. But that book does not im- the alternate fresh water and marine reply, as he thinks, that the creation was mains, and those of tropical animals in a short period; which idea has occasion. high latitudes, it is for want of obser. ed his embarrassment in determining varions in various parts of the Continent, the tine during which it was possible and even of England, that Mr. Farey that organic remains should be imbedded can doubt these facts. With respect tu in some of our straia. If he had given the remains of tropical animals in high a sufficient attention to all the parts of latitudes, besides many examples winch my answer to Common Sense, he would I have seen on the Continent of these bave scen the proofs, that it is only by a remains, intermixed with marine bodies. misconception of the sense of the word I have seen, myself, dug up in England, duy in that chapter, that the six duys, at Brentford, near the Thames, many
bones and tusks of elephants and hippo
MEMORANDA LUSITANICA. potami, in loamy strata mixed with
Fruncisco Rodrigues Lobo. Ainty gravel : I have explained the cause The Portuguese biographers have fura of this phenomenon.
nished us with very few particulars reIn general, the case of these remains lating to the life of Lobo; all the informa. of organic bodies of the animal kind, istion to be obtained from them merely rethe same as that of the remains of vege
cords that he was born in Leiria, and was cables, which forin our coal-beds, both
educated for the profession of the law; having existed on islands in the ancient
and that he flourished at the commence. sea, while the temperature of the earth
ment of the 17th century, and was was more equal at every latitude; a
drowned in the Tagus, as he was passing change which I have also explained.
that river in his way from Santarem to These islands sunk under the level of
Lisbon. the sea, and were covered with new
Although Joaquim de Foyos, in his Dis. strata. The same proof is found in coal sertation on Portuguese pastoral Poetry beds; for I have seen, in many parts of
in the Memoirs published by the Royal England and of the Continent, that coal
Academy of Sciences at Lisbon in 1792*; seams lay on strata, either of lime-stone
classes Lobo with the old and sterling or other kinds of stones, containing ma
writers of the golden age of Portuguese rine bodies, as the upper strata contain
literature, and great praise is bestowed vegetables. Of this I have described
upon his productions by several authors instances on the Continent, in my tra
of known and acknowledged abilitiest, vels, which soon will be published, prov.
it is to be feared that a perusal of his ing, that the different coal-beds, Tying
works will not justify his possession of on one another, with intermediate strata,
such an exalled situation. They consist proceed from successive subsidences of
of five voluines, as they have been lately Such islands, in the intervals of which
reprinted, one of which is occupied by a sabsidences of peat mosses, the sea co
worthless poem, intituled, O grande Convered them with new strata, as is attest.
destubre, of which the famous Nemaled by the marine bodies. But of this
vares Pereira is the hero; another conmore bereafter, because Mr. Farey has
tains some dialogues, intituled, Corte not a different opinion on the origin of coal
Aldea, possessing a superiority over his beds.
I, A. De Luc.
other productions; and in the remainder Windsor.
are printed three connected pastorals, ina
tulerably dull, and interspersed with To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine.
pieces of poetry as dull as the narrative SIR,
which shey interrupi. The genius of URING a short residence in the
poetry, however, once siniled upon bis Peninsula a few years ago, I im.
endeavours, and in a happy moinent of bibed a taste for Spanish and Portuguese
inspiration he composed the following literature, and have since that period oc.
justly celebrated sonnet. In this beaucupied my leisure hours in prosecuting
tiful composition he has left us an hoe my favourite pursuit. While I was thus
nourable monument of his name; it posdesirous of amusing myself, I was not
sesses great sweetness of expression, and altogether regardless of the public, and
is esteemed the master-piece of his poerie therefore took notes of such particulars
talents. as I not only wished to impress upon my
SONETO. memory, but which, froin their novelty,
Formoso Tejo meu, quay differente might condace to the instruction or enter.
Te vejo, e vi; me vês agora, e viste, tainment of the English reader, and
Turvo te vejo a ti, tu a mim triste, which I purpose, should it meet with your
Claro te vi eu já, tu a mim contente. approbation, to occasionally communi
A ti foice trocando a grossa enchente, cate through the medium of your Maga
A quem teu largo campo nao resiste, zine. As iny studies have been hitherto
A mim trocou-me a vista, em que consiste principally directed to Portugal, I shall
O meu viver contente, ou descontente. commence with such notes as I ain pos. sessed of relative to the poets who have
# Tomo i. pp. 6 & 7. by their productions contributed to its + Faria na Intro. as Eclog. di Camoens, s. honour, under the title of Memoranda 6, c. 7.-Lope no Laurel de Apoilo, p. 26. -Lusitanica.
JOHN ADAXSON. Gracian no Critic-Cervantes na Vida de Don Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
Quixure-Castro na Mappa de Portugal, Zor August 24, 1812.
11. p. 311, MONTHLY MAG. No. 238.
Ja que somos no mal participantes
In“ A Fenix Renascida" are numerous Sejamolo no bem: oh quem me déra specimens of the poetry of this author,
Que fussemos em tudo semelhantes! His principal work, the Recovery of ReMas lá virá, a fresca primavera,
cife, an harbour belonging to the capTu tornarás a ser quem eras de antes, tainsbip of Pernambuco, in the Brazils, Eu nað sei se serei quem de antes era.
is now become of great rarity. SONNET.
: ANONYMOUS SONNET. My Tejo sweet! How dift'rent to our view
The following sonnet is also contained Our past and present sates do now appear, Muddy the stream which I have seen som renix renascidir clear,
SONETO. And sad the breast which you contented Que alegre pendurado de hum raminho, knew.
Cantando em alta voz estás contente, Thy banks overflow'd-through vast resistless
Sem temeres o mal, estando ausente, plains
Que te espera, ó incauto passarinho!
Se tardares hum pouco, descontente
O roubo de teus filhos, e o teu ninho.
Pois, per viver ausente, e confiado,
Já que cantas ausente, e divertido
SONNET. As it is the only specimen of this spe- Othoughtless bird! that thus with carol cies of composilion found in his works,
sweet, a suspicion arose as to the probability of From airy bough pour'st forth thy joyous its being the production of another au
tale, thor, and Fernaudo Alvares do Oriente Regardless of the ills that may assail, was the poet who was honoured with the When thou art absent from thy lone retreat. fame of being the composer. This suspi- Fly, quickly haste--For I, alas ! protest, cion is now totally vanished, and Lobo is. If yet thou tarriest here, that, sunk in woe. allowed the quiet reputation of having Thy tears eternally are doom'd to flow, produced a sonnet equal in beauty to the
And wail thy young ones stol'n, and spoil'd best in the language.
thy nest. This sonnet is published in the first Ah! let my griefs thy slumb'ring feelings volume of “A Fenix Ranascida," a cola wake, lection of Portuguese poetry; and follow. For I, while absent, trusting all to fate, ing it are three Glosas, or poems, to
Lost the rewards of a long life of pain. which it stands as the text, by Doctor
Why dost thou now delay! -My counsel Antonio Barboza Bacelar, a native of
Or, by thy los convinc'd, thou'lt mourn toa Lisbon, who flourished about the iniddle of the 17th century, and was a Desen- Tho' happy now thru pour'st thy lively bargador, or judge, as appears by a De
strain! cuna addressed to him by that title, by Jeroniino Bahia, a Benedictine monk, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, commencing,
TF I understand your philosophical core
1 respondent, on the nature of cold," In addition to those studies which his
rightly, he intends, by stating cold as a professional education required, he cullin
seil existent efluvium, to denominate it, valed lyric poetry with considerable suc
not as a mere subtraction of heat, a discess. His sonnels were harmonious and
engagement of caloric, a quality of inat. elegant; his style dignified and abound
ter, but a substance different from all ing in those delicate touches of nature other, and as such demandirg a name in which secure adıniration and respecif.
philosophical language, which is given is * A Fenix Renascida. Tom. ii. p. 360.
by Frigoric. The arguments he adduces f Fran. Xavier de Oliveir nas Memorias
in favour of his hypothesis, I certainly Hist. Tom. I. p. 350.--Castro na Mapra de
consider jusuflicient to support it; but, Portugal, Tux, ii, p. 301.
before I state the grounds on which I