« ZurückWeiter »
rather than occasion such an interrup- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tion. And, I think, it cannot be shown sir, that the Apostle forbad preaching by UTAVING observed that you some. revelation, when he imposed silence on IT rimes permit authors to reply, in subjects, on which information might be your Magazine, to the anonymous critics, gained by private inquiry of others. I take the liberty of sending you copies
Let us now see, if there are any other' of letters relative to a review of iny parts of the writings of this advocate Travels. It was not my intention io of the Christian faith, that apply to the have exposed the ignorance and pre: subject before us. In the fifth verse, sumption of this reviewer, until I had of the eleventh chapter of the same availed myself of all their better stric. Epistle, he says, “Every woman that tures in the second edition, which I am prayeth or prophesieth with her head now preparing, but the nature of the uncovered, dishonoureth her head.' In paragraph referred to in my letter to the New Testament, to prophesy some. Lord Valentia, obliged in to deviate times means only to declare truths from this resolution, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, His Lordshiy denies that he wrote without foretelling future events. But either the particular passage referred to, be that prophesieih, speaketh unto men or the general strictures; but he does to edification, and exhortation, and not deny that he wrote the account of comfort." 1 Cor. xiv, 3. “If any the Sicilian revolution, so strangely inin thing be revealed to another that sitteth troduced as part of the criticism on my by, let the first hold bis pence, for ye work. I therefore sympathize with his may all prophesy one by one.” 1 Cor. Lordship on the ridiculous consequence xiv. so, 31. If the Apostle, by direct- of having so pretty a composition bluning that women should keep silence in deringly patched up by a stupid editor, the churches, bad intended to forbid
John Galt. their preaching, it seems strange thai, in another part of the saine Epistle, he
No, I. should give instructions in what way
47, Bridge-street, Westminster, they were to ediry and exhort the church,
23rd June, 1812. I would also remind the Churchinan,' My Lord, -With the natural anxiety of that Priscilla, one of Paui's betpers in an author, I opened this morning the sixth Christ Jesus, who joined in the saluta. Number of the British Review, in which, tion to the Christian converts at Co. I understaud, your Lordship has criticis rintb, expounded the way of God in zed iny volume of Traveis; and I ain in Apollos, an eloquent man, and mighly consequence induced to call your ato in the Scriptures; that Philip, the tention to the second paragraph of page deacun, had four daughters who pro. 364,* in which the writer has indirectly phesied; and that Paul saluted Try.. charged ine with falsehood. To afford phena and Tryphosa, who laboured* in your Lordship, if the author of that The Lord; and the beloved Persis, article, an opportunity of correcting au who laboured inuch in the Lord, (these, error which no gentleman would seriousit appears from the Greek were all ly commit; I take the liberty of men. womeli.) In the pistles, to labour tioning that Balsamo's Journal was pub. frequently means to preach the Gospel lished about six months before my first by divine authority: “But I labour visit to Sicily, and that upon his authoinore abundantly than they all; vet 100 1, but the grace of God, which was with mc." 1 Cor. x6. 10. "I am afraid * The following is the paragraph alluded of you, lest I have bestowed on you to," Mr. Galt is of opinion that the popuJabour in vain." Gul. iv. 2. " Let the laiion of Sicily is gradually increasing, and elders who rule well, be accounted says, that the fact,' as he is pleased to
call it, is incontrovertibly established by worthy of double honor, especially they
recent extracts from the parochial registers. who labor in word or doctrine.” i Ton,
Mr. Galt's observations relative to Sicily V. 17.
were made a twelve-month previous to our 6 Mo. 5, 1812.
orun, at chat period no publication had ap
peared, as far as we know, from which we • In this passage, and in all the succeeding could obtain ibis fact, and we have much to ones that are quoted, the same Greek verb regret that Mr. Galt has not favoured us. XOTLAW, is used.
with the exposition of his authorities,' &c.
rity I founded my statement, thinking To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, the authenticated work of a Professor SIR, in the University of Palermo, sufficient V OUR correspondent on Light and authority for a cursory traveller, espe. 1 Colours, may be assured that it Caily as I perceived, after the lapse of has long been recognised that there are erghieen months, visible marks of that but three primary colours, as well as improvement which he alleges' was taking three primary tones ; and that these are place in Sicily.
in the same order in the visual and au. Ås I am on the eve of returning to ditory sextant: the Mediterranean, I request your Lord
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet shup imrnediately to notice this commu. First second third fourtta riflb Sixth seventh, bication.
Then comes in both the repetition, or I am fully aware of the licence of octave, to the colour, or tone. critics, and the justice of some of the And the Delaval esperiinents have general strictures coincide with the opi- shewn another curious analogs--that mons of my most partial friends; but every ray contains, as it were, a braid your Lordship is in some mistake, I of the three primary colours : its owil apprehend, with respect to the author principal, and the two others in subora of the book which, it is said, you have dinate proportion. vertured to review,
I know that I have said the substance I have the honor to be, my Lord, of this before; but this analogy is to Your Lordship's very humble Servant, beautiful, and striking, and inportant; "To Lord Valentia, John Galt. and this confirmation and precise exten. Arley Hull.
sion of the Newtonian theory, too va
luable, not to merit being repeated, No. II.
It is also very curious that the dise 6, Hinde-street, Manchester-square, tinctive harmony by thirds, yellow and 20 July, 1812.
blue, is frequent in the mixture of the Sir,-as I have never acknowledgeat colours of Howers: of the harmony of the haring any connexion with the British fifths, red and blue, the Fuchsia is an Review, I do not feel that you have any elegant instance. nght to assume that I was the author Of the connective discord by seconds, of the strictures on your work in that green and yellow, green and blue, the pablication, or to call on me to declare florist sces the earth full of examples. whether I was or not so. I have, how. The mixture of all colours in white may ever, no hesitation in stating that I did be regarded as a diapason. Orange and swot write the particular paragraph to yellow are also frequently and beautifully which you allude, nor any of the ge united in flowers : and blue in its seves beral strictures on your Travels.
ral contiguous tints. The vernal earth I have the honour to be, Sir,
and sky are a fine example of the con. Your very obedient Servant, niective second in blue and green. To John Galt, esq.
VALENTIA. I take it, the common principle, paraBridge street.
doxical as it may seem, runs throughout,
that discords are connective, and the pri. No. III.
mury harmones disjunctive. And ihac 47, Bridge-street, Westminster, thus, by union and disjunctinn, the fair July 3, 1812.
order of the universe is maintained. My Lord, I had this morning the lo In Summer the strangest colours abound, nour of your Lordship's note of yesterday, red, orange, yellow; in Autumn and and I now beg pardon for any indecoru:n Springe-white and blue more predomiof expression in the letter which I mavit; be daisy, the violet: and yellow wrote, in the belief that I had been as Spring advances--but:ercup, marshcorrectly informed respecting the author marygold, &c. In the close of Autumn of the paragraphe alluded to in the Brie the more refrangible weaker colours, clie tish Review,
blue of the asters, the purple of the meaI have the honour to he, my Lord, dow saffron, the white of many of the Your Lordship's very obedient Servant, autumnal flowers. Winter and carly
John GALT. Spring, the herbaceous greens, pale
blues, whites-hellebore," hepatica, N.B. Balsamo's Journal ought to have
pergatilla, white nettle, purple dead-net. been known to the Editor of the British Review, as a tranulation has been published
bed tle, ground ivy, common ivy, bully, and reviewed in this country.
I wish MONTHLY Mac, No. 230,
I wish we could see Protestants and about 16,000, are for the eggs of the Roman Catholics, and all religionists, working bees. thus united in the fair bow of national These different kinds of eggs are de. concord, that no sturms in future may posited in their proper respective cells, lower on the earth. C. LorFt. by this single female, by wonderful inTroston, July 5, 1812.
stinct; and in the remaining cellular
combs is deposited all the loney culo To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lected for their future subsistence. SIR,
After the queen, or female bee, is im. A CORRESPONDENT, in your last pregnated by the 4,000 males, and has A volume, begs to be informed of deposited the whole number of (20,000) the best method of preparing radical eggs for the next swarm of young bees, vinegar.
the working bees attack the males or The inethod I bave ad: pted, and al. drones (who collect no honey or wax,) ways with success, has been to take sal and expel them froin the hive, or kill diureticus, (acetate of potash,) and to add them, to prevent then consuming honey. to it gradually about half its weight of If the queen-bee is taken out of any sulphuric acid : the mixture inay be made hive, every bee of the whole live follows, in å smelling bottle. If a drop or two and all rest wherever she is placed, &c. of bergamot, or oil of lavender, be af. &c. &c. terwards introduced, it will constitute This natural history of the bee I con. the present and well-known perfume of sider as erroneous, it being contrary to aromatic vinegar.
M. Nature's laws, and consequently imposNew Passage, July 1, 1812.
sible for any one species of animated
nature to produce a different one; and To the Editor of the Alonthly Niagazine. equally so for 16,000, out of 20,000 bees SIR,
contained in a hive, to be of no gender. D EING in the habit of poting down I submit two theories to the consideraD ny private observations and thoughts tion of naturalists. on various maiters, those on bees are at One is, that the leading bee, (the your service, in consequence of seeing queen) if the parent of the whole stock, that subject mentioned, in your Ma. is impregnated by each of the other gazine, by Mr. Isaac and Mr. Lee, kinds, viz. by a male of the same kind Apis-ibe Bre.
as herself, then by the drones, and lastly The natural history of the honey-hee, by the working bees, which, as well as including also the wild bee, the wasp, the drones, must, in that case, be all, and the hornet, is very extraordinary; males; and, when the drones are exwhicis, however, although generally ac. pelled, &c. this single male of her oira cepted, does not satisiy me, and cer- kind shares the same fate. tainly is not reconcileable to my under. The other theory is, that the leading standing and approbation.
bee is the only inale of the stock, and A bive, containing about 20,000 bees, impregnates a temale of the same kind; bas only one female called the queen- and every drone and working bee, all of bee, 4.000 males or drones, and 16,000 which, in that case, must be females, working bees, considered to be of no sex, and then they deposit their eggs in their whose ilepartureut it is to form the combs respective proper cells, each according into different cells, as well as to collect to his kind, the drones and that female the wax for that purpose; and to range being afterwards destroyed, (if they the fields, exliacı honey from the flowers, really are destroyed,) es already stated, &c. and deposit it in the cells of the which I also very much doubl. coinbs.
As the life of ile bee continues at most The cells are divided into a few very only two seasons, the common mode of large ones, in which the said queen de destroying them for their honey, is not posits some eggs for young females or su cruel as bas been generally considered, queens, in the centre of the hive; a viz. quickly and suddenly; as they ge. number of cells, not so large, but bigger nerally all die in a miserable manner out than the common ones, for the eggs of in the fields, benumbed with cold, starved the males or drones, 4,000 in number; with hunger, and overcume by weakness ; and all the rest of the cells of the re- for there is nothing easier than taking maining breeding combs of the whole their honey without destroying the bees. have, of the common or smallest sizes, Billericuy, Esser,
For the Monthly Magazine. duals, in regard to other individuals in the PRORISMS relatite to WEALTH and cur- same realin; but it is no measure of the BESCY, applicable to the EXISTING absolute wealth of different nations, or CIRCUMSTANCES of the BRITISH EM- ages, because it is a denomination of va. PIRE.
live which constanıly varies in the propor
tion of the quantity employed or requireda, ATIE wealth of nations consists in
VI. 1 tbe accumulation and superfluity of A standard of the value of currency is marketable commodities, and in the best found in the necessaries of life. La. power of producing them by labour and bour is not a fixed standard, because ingenuity; the balance of produce over its value in currency may be controled Gnsumption, or the amount of exports, by law, depreciated by competition, or whether natural or artificial, being the advanced by skill. The sole object and beans of introducing luxuries, foreign use of currency, being to represent and becessaries, and the universal media of procure property, its best standard is the precious metals.
some commodity of the first necessity;
and this is approximated in bread The wealth of individuals consists in or potatoes, in some countries, or in the appropriation of property, or of cura oars or rice, in others. The wages of renc-the representative of property. labour ought to be food, clothes, and Iere the whole population of Britain shelter, or as much currency as will divided upon equal farms, with equal procure them. means, he would be the richest at the
vir. end of the year who, having had the best States possessing egual extents of soil, crops, bad the most to spare to his less equally productive, and of equal popula. furtunate neighbours. He would then tion, liberty, and in:elligence, would be be able to purchase their service, and to equally rich, though one should contain work less in the next year, or enjoy more but one million of currency, and the other than otbers.
twenty millions. The only difference would III.
be in the nominal price of labour and comThe wealth and, consequently, the modities,and in the circuinstance, that that powers of government, depend on the might be purchased for a shilling in one, collection from individuals of so much of which would cost twenty shillings in the the common currency, as will enable them other. to purchase service, and to combine and pultiply the powers of individual wealth Two such equal states might exist for in any required ratio. The same princi- ages, their governments possessing the ples, extended from individuals to states, same relative means of drawing out the and from nations to pations, constitute respective strength of their countries; and and create all those differences in human but, if the country, which possessed societies which are the objects of political twenty millions, were suddenly deand moral investigation.
prived of nineteen, and the circulation fv.
were reduced only to one million, while The motives for social industry, the labour and conimodities bore a price promeans of export, the wealth of nations, portioned to the original twenty millions, and the power of governments, have their it is evident that the scarcity of currency basis in the confidence of individuals, that would destroy the energies and comtheir labour will enjoy its reward with pacts of the people, and curtail the reout disturbance; hence, no state can sources, and annihilate the powers of the be truly wealthy and powerful in which government, leading to social disorganiserurity of property is not afforded to its zation, foreign conguest, or general einisubjects; or, in other words, in which gration, justice and civil liberty are not secured by immutable laws.
No delusion is more pernicious than
to measure the wealth of nations, Currency may be defined to be the by the nominal or national price of conmeasure of value. In different countries modities. An acre of land remains the the same amount of currency denominates same, whether its fee simple can be value in the inverse proportion of the mass purchased for one pound, or one thousand of property in each, and of the number pounds; and an increase of figures may of transfers in which it is required. It serve to generate confusion in the public constitutes the direct wealth of indivi- finances, but cannot add an iota to the
public wealth. Hence the gross empi. manufactured stock would be the consericism of some late ministers of England, quence; or, should it be lent only to agri. who have deludes the country by quo- culturists, a mischievous advance would ting increased amounts of experts, in. take place in the price of provisions. creased price of land, and increased col. It ought therefore to be diffused in lections of revenue, all relative sums, suitable proportions among all classes, bearing no higher proportion to the on the security of real estates, and general value of labour and necessaries, never on personal security, or on so than they bore a hundred years ago; factitious a security as inland bills, or while, in fact, the expences of the go- promissory notes. vernment have augmented every year in
XII. a ratio double or treble to that of any In the year 1792, nine years' peace, alleged. nominal increase of the taxes, high credit, and great trade, had extended X.
the currency beyond any former amount. The present social diseases of the En- Trade and speculation produced great glish nation arise from its having had so circulation, and all property attained an much currency as gave a certain nomi- extravagant nominal price. In 1793, nal value to labour, commodities, and pro- credit fell; the circulation particularly of perty; from that currency having since country bankers' notes was suddenly resudrienly diminished in amount ; and duced, currency could not be obtained to as a consequence, an universal degree meet the market prices of property; and ot' distress taking place from the imprac. tens of thousands were ruined. Since that licability of selling labour or circulating period, the gross amount of the currency commodities. For many ages our cur- bas rather diminished than increased ; rency and the prices of commodities re. yet the amount of the public revenue has mained steady, because their relations increased from sixteen to ninety-six mila were undisturbed by foreign trade, large lions; and the absorption of the currency, purchases of corn, subsidies, and the froin this cause alone may be calculated to fluctuations of paper money; but, in have increased from two to twelvempillions, the century following the revolution, they varied in a double ratio, and within the Between 1800 and 1807 the currency jast twenty-two years have rapidly in. of Great Britain consisted of at least creased in a triple or quadruple ratio. twenty-five millions of gold and silver XI.
specie, of twenty millions of Bank of In such a social difficulty, the modern England notes, and of thirty-five milinvention of paper-money appears, under lions of country bankers' notes, forming a proper modifications, to be well calculated total of eighty millions. But between to regulate the currency, and to parry 1807 and 1312, the currency has varied the evil arising from hoarding or ex- to two millions of coin, twenty-four milporting the ordinary ainount of the pre- lions of Bank of England notes, and about cious metals. It should, however, he twenty millions of country bankers'potes; issued and distributed with a sound dis- that is to say, it is now but forty-six milcretion, be granted only on valid se- lions instead of eighty millions ! curities, and spread in small sums over
XV. the empire. It sl. uld also be called in Country bankers' notes, and other at intervals in small proportions," and factitious currency, effect many purposes re-issued in diminished amounts, that an of circulation, but their amount depends inducement inight be excited to obtain in a certain ratio on the amount of the the precious metals, or convenient time specie, or legal currency, otherwise great gives to reduce the price of labour and risk and uncertainty would attend their cominodities, to the proportion of the issues. The disappearance therefore of precious metals.
twenty-three millions of specie, and the XII.
inadequacy of the addition of four millions Paper currency will, however, prove to the legal currency, in Bank of England useful in proportion only to the discre. notes, have so crippled the operations of tion and discrimination with which its country bankers, that within the last issues take place. Should paper-inoney seven years many have stopped payment, be issued on the credit of inere accome and the gross circulation of country notes modation bills, iis effect would be to has been reduced from about thirty-five give an artificial price to commodities; to twenty millions. should it be distributed only anong manufacturers, too great an increase of The issue or loan of Exchequer bills