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By information transmitted to the gratuitous inoculation with cow-por, Board from their numerous correspon either at the hospitals, or at the houses dents in all parts of the country, it appears of the physicians; and it is stated, chat, that vaccination is alınost every where among the higher ranks, vaccination is gaining ground, throughout the British universally adopted. dominions, though its progress is very The accounts from Scotland, particu, different in different places; and it is larly those from the faculty at Glasgow, found that the number of deaths from which have been transmitted to the the small-pox is uniformly decreasing, in Board, furnish evidence of the general proportion as vaccination becomes more and rapid increase of vaccination in the general, and the inoculation of the smalle northern part of the island, and give the pox declines.
most satisfactory proofs of the success The disappearance of the small.pox and efficacy of the practice. from the island of Ceylon, was noticed Notwithstanding the incontrovertible in the Report of last year; and the Board evidence of the very great advantages of has now the pleasure of stating, from vaccination, it is much to be lamented sources of authentic and satisfactory in that there are still some inedical pracformation, that, in consequence of vac. litioners, though the number of them is eination, this dreadful disease has in no comparatively small, who obstinately instance lately occurred in the island of persist in disseminating by inoculation Anglesey, in the populous city of New. the contagion of che small-pox, and who castle-upon-Type, in the town of Pet, strenuously encourage and support, espe. worth, or in the adjoining district. cially among the lower orders of the
Through the different counties of Eng. people, the prejudices against the new land, the practice of vaccination is be- practice; rumors are industriously spread coining general, and the small-pox is abroad, of deforming and loathsome disgradually declining, and even in London, eases produced by this practice; and nu. where the opposition to the new inocu. merous mis-statements of cases are pube lation has been most violent, it is pre- lished, of the occurrence of small-por vailing, and its salutary effects are be- after vaccination. That, in some incoming daily more evident. At present, stances, the small-pox has affected perby the best estimate we are able to make, sons who have been most carefully vac it appears that nearly two-thirds of the cinated, is sufficiently established; nor children annually born in the metropolis, ought we to be surprised at this, when are vaccinated either by charitable insti. we consider that the inoculation for the tutions or private practitioners; and that small-pox sometimes fails, and that several the number of deaths by small.pox has cases may be produced, in which per. proportionally decreased. Previous to sons have been affected with the natural the discovery of vaccination, the average disease more than once in the course of number of deaths by small-pox within life. The number of instances of sınall the bills of mortality, was 2,000 annually; pox afler vaccination, however, is very whereas, in the last year, only 751 per. sipall; and we may fairly presume, that sons have died of that disease, although in proportion as improvements are made the increase of population within the last in the practice, such occurrences will be ten years has been 133, 139. The in. still more rare. crease of population throughout Great The Board have infinite satisfaction in Britain, in the same period of tiine, has stating the two following iinportant and been 1,009,000; and to these augmenta decisive facts in proof of the efficacy and tions the practice of vaccination has pro. safety of vaccination, viz. that, in the bably mucha contributed.
cases which bave come to their know. The Reports from the Cow-pock In. ledge, the small-pox, atter vaccination, stitution in Dublin, are of the most fa- with a very few exceptions, has been a vourable nature, and furnish sufficient mild disease; and that, out of the many reason to believe, that, siuce the intro- bundred thousand persons vaccinated, duction of the vaccine preventive, the not a single well-authenticated instance mortality from small-pox has considerably has been communicated to them, of the declined in that city. The correspond. occurrence of a fatal small-pox after vacence of the Institution affords satisfactory cination. evidence of the progressive increase of They cannot conclude their Report, vaccination throughout Ireland. In without adverting to the mischiefs wlaich most of the principal towns of that king. are daily arising from the diffusion of the dom, the poor have the advantage of faląl contagion of sınall-pox in the coin
munity, munity, in consequence of variolous ino. of direct light by several other properties culation, among the lower classes of the wbich were unknown to Huygelis and people, which constantly keeps up the to Newton, and the discovery of which contagion, and, where it saves a single is owing to M. Malus. If we supposc, in life, exposes numbers to a most dan. fact, that, after having disposed vertically gerous disease. It is greatly to be the principal section of a rhomboid of wished that this evil could be checked, carbonate of line, we receive the two by such measures as government in its fasciculi which proceed from them on the wisdom might juuge proper to frame, in surface of smooth water, and under an order to prevent the spreading of the angle of 52° 45', we shall remark that small-pox, and thus keeping up a con. the common fasciculus acts like the die tinual source of infection in the heart of rect ray; since it abandons to the parthe metropolis.
tial reflection a part of its molecules : as
to the extraordinary fasciculus, it peneIMPERIAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. trates the liquid quite through. If we Inoriries of Messrs. Malus and Arago suppose, on the contrary, that the prin relative to Light.
cipal section of the 'rhomboid is perpenA direct ray of light, as is well known, dicular to the plane of incidence, the possesses the property of dividing itself extraordinary ray undergoes the partial into two distinct bundles in its passage reflection, and the ordinary ray penes through a rhomboid of Iceland spar, trates the liquid entirely, whatever in other respects may be its When we examine, by the help of a position in relation to the principal sec.
rhomboid of calcareous spar, the light tion of the rhomboid,
which is reflected on the surface of the If we subject the light of which one of water, and under an angle of 520 45', these bundles is composed to the action we see that it has all the characters of of a second rhomboid, we find that it one of the fasciculi produced by the differs essentially from the direct light, double refraction of a crystal, for it no since, in certain positions of the princi- longer constantly separates into two fas, pal section of the second crystal,' it no ciculi: in this experiment, which is in longer undergoes double refraction : for some measure the converse of that which the discovery of this beautiful property we have first referred to, the plane of we are indehted to Huygens,
reflection perforips the office of the prin• When endeavouring to account for cipal section of the first rhomboid. "We this experiment, Newton remarks, in have only explained these results (which one of the questions which he has placed are detailed at great length in the eleat the end of his Treatise on Optics, that gant work by M. Malus, to which the it is necessary to admit that che mole. class decreed the prize of mathematics cules of wbich the luminous rays are for 1810) in order to indicate the point composed must have sides endowed with from which the members of the class different properties: these sides, which set out, who were occupied with this ob. some authors have designated by the ap. ject in 1811. pellation of poles, are diametrically op We have hitherto only alluded to the posite to each other, and in two direc- modifcations which the luminous rays tions respectively rectangular.
undergo in their reflection. Is the light This being granted, in a ray of ordia transmitted by diaphanous bodies, even nary light, the poles of the inolecules modified in certain circuinstances which will not affect any particular position, we are about to mention? and will be uniforinly directed towards If we place two object-glasses, one all the points of the space; whereas a above the other, there are formed, as polarized rav will be composed of mole. we all know, some colored rings, of cules, the similar poles of which will which the point of contact is the comhave the same situation: this last ray mon centre: these rings are perceived will be distinguished from a ray of direct either by the aid of reflected or of translight, in so far as ibe latter is always di- mitred light. When the augle of the vided into two fasciculi in its passage rays trans nitted with the surface of the through a rhomboid of carbonate of line; object-glass is about 329, they are powhile the polarized ray experiences only larized, since in certain positions of the a single re fraction in some particular po. principal section of a crystal of Icelandic sitions of the principal section of ile spar, we see only a single image of rings. crystal to which we present it.
Now, it is a very remarkable circuinThe polarized rays differ from the rays stance in this experiment, that the mos
dification which the rays forming the us nothing relative to the particular mode rings undergo in passing through the ob- of action of the metallic bodies and of jeci-glasses, is entirely identical with light. But, in a memoir read to the Inthat which the reflection communicates stitute on the 27th of May, 1811, M. to them; so that, for instance, if, in a Malus has shown, by experiments made determinate position of the object-glasses on rays already polarized, and by the and of a crystal, when we look at the help of a method of which it would be reflected rings, we only perceive the difficult to give a clear idea in an extract, image of the rings which proceed from that the light reflected by the metals the extraordinary refraction, it will still contains at once rays polarized in two be the extraordinary inage which we shall directions, so that, in its decomposition perceive, when in similar circumstances by a crystal of carbonate of lime, it acts we shall examine the rings transmite like the ordinary light. ted.
Hence it results, that all the bodies in This result, which M. Arago communature polarize the light under determidicated to the Class in the month of Fe- nate angles, and that sometimes among bruary, seems to prove that the colored these angles the rays receive this modifirings are formed solely at the expense of cation in a very incomplete manner. the light, which in the presence of the second lens will be partially reflected,
ROYAL SOCIETY. and thus establishes an intimate connec- Mr. Brodie has extended his experie tion between these two most extraordin ments on poisons to those of the mineral nary classes of the pbenomena of op- kingdom, and his valuable paper was tics.
read to the Royal Society on the 27th of On the 11th of March, M. Malus an February last. nounced to the Class, that, on suljecting, Since (says be) I had the honor of comat various times, the light which the municating to the Royal Society. some glasses transmic under an angle of 35°25', observations on the action of certain pois he had ascertained that this light is con- sons on the animal system, I have been posed of a certain quantity of rays polar engaged in the further prosecution of this ized in a direction contrary to the reflect, inquiry. Besides some additional expe. ed rays, and of another portion of rays rinvenis on vegetable poisons, I have insa not modifier, wbich preserve the proper stituted several with a view to explain ties of the direct light : this last portion the effects of some of the more powerful diininishes at each new transmission of poisons of the mineral kingdom. The the fasciculus; so that, if we pass through former correspond in their results so a pile of parallel glasses, the portion of nearly with those which are already belight transmitted is entirely polarized in fore the public, that, in the present comone direction, while the rays successively munication, I shall confine myself to reflected are polarized in a contrary die those which appear to me to be of some rection. M. Malus concludes from this, importance, as they more particularly that at all times, when by any contri. confirm my former conclusions respecto vance we produce a ray polarized in one ing the recovery of animals apparently direction, we necessarily obtain a ray dead, where the cause of death operates polarized in a direction diametrically erclusively on the nervous system. In my opposite, and that these rays follow dil. experiments on mineral poisons, I have ferent routes. The observation of M. found some circumstances wherein their Arago, which we have recently mention. effects differ froin those of vegetable poi. ed, forms the only exception to this gee sons, and of these I shall give a more parneral rule, since the rings reflected and ticular account, transmitted are polarized in the same Experiments with the Woorara.--In a mander.
foriner experiment, I succeeded in reM. Arago had long ago ascertained covering an animal, which was appathat diaphanous and opake bodies mo- rently dead, from the influence of the es. dify the light which they reflect: the me, sential oil of bitter almonds, by continue tallic bodies alone seemed to him to ini ing respiration artificially until the im. press no new property. It is true that pression of the poison upon the brain had Opricians were well aware that there was ceased; but a similar experiment on an a slight difference between the intensity apinal under the influence of the woorara of the two images formed by a rhomboid, was not attended with the same success, by the help of rays reflected by a metallic On the Effects of Arsenic. - When an plane: but this isolated fact could teach animal is killed by arsenic taken interMONTHLY Mac. No, 232,
nally, the stomach is found bearing marks is some variety in the symptoms proof inflammation; and it is a very general duced even in individual animals of the opinion, 1, that this inflammation is the same species. cause of death: 2, that it is the conse. In animals killed by arsenic, the blood quence of the actual contact of the ar is usually found fuid in the heart and senic with the internal coat of the sto. vessels after death; but, otherwise, all the mach, But in several cases I have found morbid appearances met with on dissec. the inflammation of the stomach so slight, lion, are confined to the stomach and inthat on a superficial examination it might testines. As this is the case, and as the have heen easily overlooked; and in affection of these organs occasions remost of my experiments with this poison, markable symptoms, it may be right to death has taken place in too short a time mention the result of my observations on for it to be considered as the result of this subject. inflammation : and hence we may con- Erperiments with the Aluriate of Baclude, that the first of these opinions is rytes.- When barytes is taken into the incorrect; at least as a general propo- stomach, or applied to a wound, it is casition.
pable of destroying life ; but, when in its Many circumstances conspire to show uncombined state, its action is very slow, that the second of these opinions also is The muriate of barytes, which is much unfounded.
more soluble than the pure earth, is (proIn whatever way the poison is admi- bably on this account) a much more acmistered, the inflammation is confined to live poison. the stomach and intestines; I have never On the Effects of the Emetic Tartar.seen any appearance of it in the pharynx The effects of the emetic tartar so much or oesophagus.
resemble those of arsenic and of muriate The syniptoms produced by arsenic of barytes in essential circumstances, may be eferred to the influence of the that it would be needless to enter into a poison on the nervous system, the heart, detail of the individual experiments made and the alimentary canal. As of these with this poison, the two former only are concerned in On the Effects of the Corrosive Sublic those functions, which are directly ne- mate. When this poison is taken intero cessary to life, and as the alimentary wally in very small and repeated doses, canal is often affected only in a slight it is absorbed into the circulation, and degree, we must consider the affection of produces on the systein those peculiar the heart and nervous system as being effects which are produced by other prethe immediate cause of death.
parations of mercury. If it passes into In every experiment which I have made the circulation in larger quantity, it ex. with arsenic, there were evident marks cites inflammation of some part of the of the influence of the poison on all the alimentary canal, the termination of organs which have been mentioned; but which may vary accordingly, as it exists they were not in all cases affected in the in a greater or less degree. When taken same relatire degree. In the dog, the in a larger quantity still, it occasions affection of the heart appeared to predo. death in a very short space of time. I minate over that of the brain, and on ex. bad found, that, if applied to a wounded ainining the thorax, immediately after surface, it produced a slough of the part death, this organ. was found to have to which it was applied, without occaceased acting and in a distended state. sioning any affection of the general sys. In the rabbit, the affection of the brain tein. This led me to conclude, that the appeared to predominate over that of the effects of it, taken internally and in a heart, and the latter was usually found large quantity, depended on its local acacting slowly and feebly, after the func- tion on the stomach, and were not con• rions of the brain had entirely ceased, nected with the absorption of it into the In the rabbit, the effects of the arsenic circulation, . on the stomach and intestines, were That a sudden and violent injury of usually less than in carnivorous ani- the stomach should be capable of thus inals.
speedily proving fatal, is not surprising, The action of arsenic on the system is when we consider the powerful sympathy less simple than that of the majority of between it and the organs, on which life vegetable poisons. As it acts on differe, more immediately depends, and the ex• ent organs, it occasions different orders of istence of which many circumstances in syimptoms; and, as the affection of one disease daily demonstrate to us. or another organ predominates, so there. The facts which have been stated, apo
pear to lead to the following conclusions by this last than by the muriate of barespecting the action of the mineral poi. rytes. sons which were employed in the fore. 4. The corrosive sublimate, when guing experiments.
taken internally in large quantity, occa1. Arsenic, the emetic tartar, and the sions death by acting chemically on the muriate of barytes, do not produce their mucous membrane of the stomach, so as deleterious effects until they have passed to destroy its texture; the organs more into the circulation.
immediately necessary to life being af2. All of these poisons occasion dis- fected in consequence of their sympathy order of the functions of the heart, brain, with the stomach. and alimentary canal; but they do not all in making the comparison between affect these organs in the saine relative them, we observe that the effects of mi. degree.
neral are less simple than those of ihe 3. Arsenic operates on the alimentary generality of vegetable poisons; and, canal in a greater degree than either the when once an apinal is affected by the eineric tartar, or the muriate of barytes. former, there is much less chance of his The heart is affected more by arsenic recovery than when he is affected by the than by the emetic tartar, and more latter.
PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
Communications of Specifications and Accounts of New Patents, are earnestly
solicited, and will alwuys command early Notice.
MR. LAWRENCE DRAKE's, (CLOAK LANE, The thin skins will, of course, require
LONDON,) for a Nethod of preparing less dipping than those of a thicker sube the various Sorts of Isinglass from River stance. After this process they must be and Marine Fish.
dried, either in a stove or in the sun, and TWE fish, according to the descrip- when so dry they are fit for use. “The T tion given of this invention, must staples," says the patentee," are merely be slit or cut down the middle: the intes- fanciful, although an artsui idea hitherto tines and sounds taken out, and well used to avoid detection of the original washed and cleansed from all imporities, consistency. To make the cake isins. The head is then to be slit open, and the glass, the cuttings arising in the manufac. white skin of the palate, as well as the iure of staples are warmed in a pan over white skin on each side of the head, cut a slow Gre until they combine, but great and stripped of, scraped and entirely care must be taken that they do not cleansed of the Heshy parts. The sounds burn." must be freed from all fat and animal substance, and cut through the middle, MR. S. BENTHAM's, (HAMPSTEAD, MIDafter the inside skin has been taken off. DLESEX,) for a new Mode of excluThe maw is then to be cut or slit open, ding IVater of the Sea, of Rivers, or of and all fleshy parts well scraped off, chat Lakes, during the execution of underthe pure skin may remain. With the water Works of Ausonry; or for the ovarium the same process is to be ob Security of Foundations applicable to served after the roe part is thoroughly the Construction of Sea: Walls, it'harjs, cleansed. The white skin from the gilis Piers, &c. down to the navel on each side of the The method employed by the patentee belly part is tu be cut or stripped off, for excluding the water, whether temand well cleansed and scraped. The porarily or permanently, for the purposes lower membranes of the flat fish are to above referred to, is by means of a dam, undergo a similar operation. When these constructed according to the maover de parts are well washed in cold water they scribed in the specification, the princiare then to be hung up to dry, bot, while ples of which will now be given. they remain moist, they are to be dipped T he dam is to be made either in one in warin water, but not boiling bot, in piece of sufficient extent and suitable order to draw out the fishy taste and form to enclose the whole of the spot smell. They are to be taken quickly from which the water is to be excluded ; out, and then to be formed into long or it is formed in several separate pieces, staple or short staple, and book isinglass. but in both cases in such manner as that