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with six pedals would not have existed. Again, in Book ix. line 683, I have written to the “ honorable gentle. « The sands, the serpents, thirst, and burning man" and to Dr. Kemp; from repeated

heat, interviews with whom, Mr. L. asserts, Are dear to patients, and to virtue sweet." that he was induced and enabled to per. That the sands, &c. as being trials of fect “ his invention;" he also declares

patience, are “dear" to the virtuous, is that, at the time I alluded to in my first

evidently meant; but does the word “paletter to him, (which was October 1808)

tients” signify the patients or sick people? he “had many instruments in hand

the latter does not seem a probable with six pedals," From the gentlemen

meaning, and, if meant for the former, it dove mentioned I have received no ane

should bave been patient, in my opinion. Swer.

One of your correspondents inquires, Mr. Loeschmann has not thought prom the means of clarifying, or, I believe, per to attempt any reply to my letter in

making oil white, for mixing, to paint your publication for last June; but, as he

with; if he means sweet oil, one way of has so positively and unjustly asserted

making it white, is to expose it to the air, that all his information that enabled hiin

or air and sun; and, when it loses its yel. to perfect his patent instrument was de

low color, strain it from the dust; it rived from “the bonorable gentleman" should be in a very shallow dish or plate. and Dr. Kemp, I must now insist that

I should feel indebted to any of your Mr. L. bring forward a confirmation of co

correspondents, if they would commuthis assertion, with the authority and sig. nicate through your Magazine, any ine. nature of the two gentlemen he bas menthod of fixing the colors of drawings, tioned, which, if he is unable to do, it is done in dry colors, with a stump and an evident proof that he has taken the stippled, as they are very apt to rub off most unwarrantable liberty with their

their on the slightest touch. Rames; and I call opon him to produce a declaration from them (if he can) that, ia To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, October 1808, be had “ many instruments

SIR, (or any instrument) in hand with six pe. Two articles in my Logical Synopdals;" until this is done, his word can 1 SIS, (see Monthly Magazine, No, lave no influence against inatter of fact, 221.) bave, I ain afraid, been inaccu. and his silence will be only a clear evi- rately transcribed from my manuscript; dence that he feels my last letter to be it will therefore be necessary for me to unanswerable. T. GEENVILLE,

write them out again. I believe that my dug. 4, 1812.

paper is correct enough, as far as the

head of Perception. You will, there. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. fore, be pleased to substitute the subSIR,

joined account of that power of the DEADING Rowe's translation of Lu- mind, in rooin of that given in my fornier Il can's Pharsalia, I was struck with paper.. (wthat appeared to me) an impropriety, 'Of Perception. Difference between Book vii. line 711.

Sensation and Perception. "Wheeling around the hostile line they wind, 2. Of External Perception in general While lightly arm'd the shot succeed behind; Process of External Perception-Impreso In various ways, the various bands engage, sion on the External Oryan of Sense And burl upon the for the missile rage; Change of the inind imınediately conseThere, fiery darts and rocky fragments fly, quent on this impressiona Perception of And heating bullets whistle through che

whistle through the external objects įmınediately consequent sky."

ou this change, Whether it be improperly rendered by 6. Aristotle-Critical History of his Mr. Rowe, or not, I kisow not; but it Metaphysics Peripatetic Theory of Perappears to me to be extraordinary, that ceptions-Sensible Species--Phantasinsame Shot and bullets are mentioned in Cæsar's Intelligible Species. time, Gunpowder, we know, to be a c. Peripatetic Theory of Perception, Ciscovery of the fourteenth century. I modified by the schoolmen during the do not certainly remember to have read dark ages. of shot or bullets at so early a period as De civil wars of the Romans; perhaps we received this article after the Logical some of your correspondents can satisfy Synopsis had been put to press ; but, in jus: me, and give ine a literal translation of tice to the learned author, we now feel is the passage, or au explanation,

ous duty to insert it separately.

Ff2 2. Theories

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d. Theories of Perception, adopted by All these Theories of Perception, inModern Philosophers, antecedent to the cluded under the general terin of the time of Locke: "

Ideal System or Theory, refuted by Ds. By Des Cartes His doctrine of Se- Reid, of Glasgow, Scoiland, who nevercondary Causes—The mind (according to theless proposed no theory of his own Des Cartes) does not directly perceive View of this departinent of Reid's Pbiexternal objects; because no immediate losophy-Ilis reasonings on the subject intercourse can take place between mind of External Perception stated and ex. and matter: this intercourse must be plained - Inquiry into our External carried on by the agency of Deity-Prin- Senses- Essays on the Intellectual Powers cipia Philosophia- Meditationes. of Man-Causation---Difference between

By Hobbes-De Natura Hominis. Metaphysical and Physical Causes—The · By Mallebranche-This philosopher latter synonymous with the invariable admitted Des Cartes's Doctrine of Se- sequences of physical evenis-Belief in, condary Causes; but contended, that the and reliance on, this invariablenessof Anmind does not at all perceive external tecedents and Consequences, an ultiobjects, but only the ideas of them. mate Law of our Constitution. These ideas are the immediate, or near. I believe that my foriner manuscript is est, objects of the mind, when it perceives sufficiently correct to the seventh article external things they are separate on of this part of my Syllabus, viz. Abstracdistinct existences, froin the Percipient tion, which I here retranscribe, and re: or Sentient Mind-they eternally ex- quest the subjoined account of that faisted in the Divine Mind-the Divine culty to be printed. Mind is present to every other Mind-it 7. Of Abstraction-Under this head, communicates to other Minds those ideas the following topics will naturally offer which eternally existed in itself. La - themselves to our consideration, viz. cherche de la Vérité-An excellent work, u. The origin of our idea-Precise notwithstanding the extravagant and une import of that term. The word Idea, tenable theory of Perception unfolded in whenever it is used in these lectores, is it; containing many admirable remarks understood as synonymous with Thought on the errors of Sense and Imagination; - Notion-Apprehension Theory of Mr. and many admirable precepts for judging Locke, concerning the origin of our ideas, and reasoning with propriely, to which viz. all our ideas are derived from Sen. the venerable Father himself paid liule sution and Reflection—The Senses are attention in the construction of bis The- the principal inlets of our knowledge; ory of Perception.

but this theory, notwithstanding, inper. By Leibnitz-Extension the result of fectly, accounts for the origin of our simple substances-The External Mate. ideas; because many of our ideas are rial World composed of Monads ; that is, not derived, either from sensation or reEntities, truly eristing ; simple substances; flection :--our ideas of Time; of Motion; the external images of Universul Na- of Personal Identily; and inany otherstures-Doctrine of Sufficient Reuson" The only account which can be given of

Doctrine of Pre-established Har- these ideas, is, that they spontaneously mony" — Meditationes de veris et falsis arise in the mind, during the exercise of Ideis. Actis Erudit, 1684. Epist, ad those faculties wbich are subservient to Hanschii Tractatum de Enthusiasino their generation. Platonico.

b. Mr. Locke's doctrine of Innate e. Theory of Perception, adopted by Ideas, stated and refuted~This droctrine Mr. Locke-Criticism and Encomium very ancient-Doctrine of Plato conon the “ Essay on the Human Under- cerning ideas-Sense in which certain standing."

ideas may be said to be innate-Docf. Theory of Perception, espoused by trine of Condillac, respecting our ideasBerkeley-Scepticism of this Philosopher, Viz. all our ideas are either simple sene with regard to ihe existentes of the Ma- sations, or sensations transformed or mo. terial World--Principles of Human Know. dified by certain internal processes of ledge.

the mind, refuted— Truite de la Sensation. & Theory of Perception, proposed by c. Of the Use and Abuse of words, Mr. Hume-Ideas are the Inipressions of considered as the signs of our ideas. External Olujects-Treatise on Human d. Of the doctrines of NominalistsNature-and his other Metaphysical Of the Realists of the Conceptualists Works,

Brucheri Ilisto-Philosoph.-Crilica.

8. Of

8. Of Memory.

cept the disgrace of treating a conquered I recollect no errors in the remaining rival with unnecessary harshness. parts of my paper,

If the opposition which has so con. Edinburgh Duncan FORBES. stantly been made by our government to

the efforts of the Irish Catbolics to obtain To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. a repeal of the laws obnoxious to their SIR,

interests, have any belier foundation DERMIT me, through the channel of than mere prejudice, what can be the

I your valuable Magazine, to state a end they expect to attain by tíus obsticircumstance, which has long astonished nately opposing those efforts? Can they me, as well as many others in the same hope to exterminate the Catholic religion situation. I am holder of a share in the from these kingcouns by continuing to Third, or Youngest, Class of the Irish-go- bold be members of it in live subjection vernment Tonuine, established in 1775, in which it was doubtless necessary to which began with paying an annuity of hold them when their pumbers, power, șix per cent. in Ireland, or five per cent. and avowed hostility to the existing if receivable in England. This annuity government, rendered it necessary to goreceirable in England bas only encreased vern them with laws of peculiar severity? to seven per cent, after a lapse of thirty- If they do, I will venture to affirm that seren years. It is impossible to suspect their hopes will be disappointed; for in any improper management in a public no soil whatever dues sectarianism thrive fond of this description; at the same so well as in that of persecution, and time so sinall an encrease after su Jong every restriction and disability which the a period is not easily reconcilable with laws impose upon any particular sect is our general notions of the uncertainty of a species of persecution, mild or severe, human life. Perhaps some one of your in proportion to their extent and effect. numerous readers, who has studied the But it may be doubted whether it principles of such funds in general, and is would be sound policy in the govern, acquainted with the circumstances of the ment, even if it were attainable, to at. particular one alluded to, may be able to tempt wholly to abolish the Catholic re. explain what to me and many others apa ligion in this country; and whether, under pears so unaccountable.

particular circumstances, the existence A CONSTANT READER. of sects, distinct from the established Arbroath, March 23, 1812.

church, may not be productive of advan).

tage in the bands of a government wise To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine. enough to discover the means by which it SILL,

may avail itself of their assistance. N o impressions are so difficult to re. The present times furnish a peculiar TV move as those which prejudice illustration of the use which might be creates. Eren the inost enlighiened namade of the Catholics. In the contest tions long retain the prejudices they re- which, in alliance with the Portuguese ceived in remote times, when involved and Spaniards, we have so long mainin all the darkness of ignorance. In this tained with che French in Spain and Pure respect nations resemble individuals, tugal, what infinite use inight have been whose minds, even in the vigor of man. made of them! The miserable defici. hood, can seldom shake off the prejudices ency in othicers which the Spaniards have coatracted in carly youth. It is thus that shown in almost every baile they have we may account for the prejudice of the fought with the French, is too well and English nation against the Catholics, con- tuo generally known; and, unfortunately, tracted in reinote lines, and cernented their great bigotry and insuperable aver by all the bitterness of hatred which thesion to the religion of the English, bave struggles for superiority between the constantly made them reject every offer members of that and the now established made by our government to officer their church naturally created; it has, like regiments with English officers. The most other prejudices, long outlived its result of this obstinacy has been the ala cause; for, happily for the liberties and most total conquest of Spain by its perh. prosperity of England, those struggles dious enemy. Had the English governbare long subsided, and so complete has ment known how to make use of thein, been the victory of the Protestants over how many gallant officers might Ireland the Catholics, that the former bave long have furnished for this service, to whom, had nothing to fear from the latter, ex. Catholics like themselves, the Spaniards

could

could have had no possible ohjection, South America, anxious to throw off their and who might have supplied what the allegiance to the mother country the ino. Spanish arıny so eminently wanted, and ment they can secure the alliance of a what an army can never tecome victori- stare powerful enough to protect thein oos without,-brave and abile officers ! during the infancy of their new governe

That the misfortunes of the Spaniards ment, offer the only channels into which and their numerous defeats have been commerce can turn ber now diverted attributable to the want of good ofticers streains. But, if the bigotry of Old Spain is rendered evident by the circumstances has prevented her armies froin ainalgaattending the Portuguese army. While mating and co-operating with ours, and it was commanded by officers of its own laid her prostrate before the more comsation, it never dared to oppose itself to bined and united forces of France, what the legions of France. "Juroi's first obstacles have we not to dread from the march into Portugal rather resembled the bigotry of New Spain, which exceeds that return of troops to their native country of its mother country in an hundred fold than the hostile invasion of an indepen. degree? To trade with them to any ex. dent kingdom, How different is the con- tent without accommodating ourselves in duct of ihat army now that is led to bate some degree to their prejudices and hitle and to victory by officers on whose gotry will be utierly impossible. But, gallantry and talents it can rely with the with a large body of Catholics in the most entire confidence! And how diffe- kingdom, how easily might this be acrent, in all human probability, would complished! Let every mercantile house have been the conduct of the Spaniards trading to South America, atiach to itself from what it has been, if they, like the a partner of the Catholic religion, and, il Portuguese, had been headed by officers it be necessary to base a partner resident of the British nation!

in South America, let the Catholic partWe can see, we can feel, we can de. ner be selected for that purpose; let the plore, the folly of the Spaniards in suffer. captains of vessels trading thither, and, ing their religious prejudices to deprive if possible, the seamen also, be persons them of the aid of brave and intelligent of that persuasion; and let the consuls, officers, to their utter and perhaps irre envoys, ambassadors, and other public trievable ruin; yet, we can neither see, functionaries sent by our government to feel, nor acknowledge, that we are our South America be chosen from amongst selves guilty of the very same fault, the Catholics. Let these precautions be though it must be evident to every one, adopted, and let the Spanish Americans that our army must lose a very consider have as little evidence as possible of our able proportion of excellent officers, pare being of a different religion from then). ticularly Irishmen,* by the disabilities selves, and then the difficulties arising puder which the Catholic soldier lies, and from their inflexible bigotry may easily which prevent him from rising in the army be overcome, and our commerce with abore a very limited beight!

thein be established upon a solid and last. In commerce, even greater benefits ing foundation,

H. might be derived from a judicious em. Kentish Town. ployment of the Catholics than in the arriy. The period is probably approach- To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazing ing in which we shall be obliged to abani. SIR, don our allies in Spain and Portugal to (AVING been in Ireland last summer, she inerciless grasp of their stern in. IT I was induced by the uncommon vader. Then will the last port in Eu- tiveness of one or two of its latter months, rope he shut up against British com. to take up my abode at a retired sea-bath merce! Cut off from this resource, Eng. ing village on the southern coast of that Jand, of which commerce is the very ali- kingdom. Here, there being little society, ment, without which she cannot exist, I principally employed myself in exmust espinre new regions over which to ploring the caverns and other natural cupour her native manufactures, and the riosities with which these bold shores produce of her East and West India pose abound. One day, while wandering among sessions. The extensive districts of the rocks just at the water's edge, I was

particularly struck by seeing a shoal of • The value of Irish officers may be pro sprats approach the shore, followed by perly estimated when we consider that Earl an innumerable fuck of sea gulls, who Wellington, Marshal Beresford, and General were preying upon these bapless little Stewart, are of that pation !

Ssabies. At a little distance from the

MAQ

main fock, I perceived one of the gulls and deforinity: and, on a Sunday evenpursued by a bird, which, from its distance, ing, in November, * 1693, she was sude I judged to be about the size of a small denly cured, without any medical apgoose, and of a dun color. When the plication or surgical assistance. All this, gullappeared nearly exhausted, I observed I think, may reasonably be admitted : * emit ils excrements, wiiich this extra- that the event was a miracle, is not quite ordinary bird caught in its mouth and 80 certain. devoured, ere this precious inorsel could To say nothing of the marks of weakreach the water.* It then singled out ane ness and credulity which abound in the other gull, which it left for a third, and exact relation, it is plain, from the pa30 on. As I was returning home I met tient's oarrative, (page 7,) that, even a puniber of fisherinen, to whom I re- though she ran about after her cure, she

lated what I had just seen. These men still bobbled ; a defect which she ascribes · informed me that it was a common bird to a very different cause from what is as.

on their shores, and said that, as far as signed by the medical men, who state, they knew, it had no other means of ob- that something of a tumour, something taining sustenance; they also mentioned of a limping, remained. i name, which decency forbids me to re- , Now, if the cure was incomplete, there pent. I have searched Bewick's British is a strong presumption that ic was not birds for it in vain, nur have I obtained miraculous, the iniracles of Scripture any information froin the various inquiries being all perfect. I lave made respecting it. Should any further, Maillard's declarations, taken of your numerous correspondents favor in connexion with those of her mistress, the public with a satisfactory account of indicates, that her cure was effected thus' curious bird, through the medium through the agency of, what are termed, of your valuable Miscellany, I doubt natural causes. Thus, there was, at pot of its being as gratifying to many of this instant, a greater extension of the your readers as to AN OBSERVER. limb than usual; and her situation and

feelings, at the moment, would power To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. fully affect her frame. I am assured, joSIR,

deed, by a inedical friend, that diseases A FEW months ago, I met with a of this kind are soinetimes perceived to i pamphlet entitled, 'An Exact Ac. be suddenly removed, and that the fact gount of ine Wonderful Cure of Mary is not inexplicable by those who are acu Maillard, &c.' This was published in quainted with the organization of the 1730; thirty-seven years alter the date human body, of the event which it records: and it re. Though, previously to a iniracle being fers to a narrative of the cure, which apo wrought, we inay be no proper judges of peared presently after it was wrought. the necessity or expediency of it; yet, I bave since been informed, tbat a I conceive, Sir, that, when the relation of pamphlet of substantially the same im- such an alleged event is published, wo port, came before the public in 1694. may be allowed to ask, “how far the in. Who was it's author, and what degree of terposition was calculated to answer ise attention it excited, I ain unable to learn: portant ends, in respect of individuals or on these heads, I shall be extreinely glad the world?” In the present case, and to receive intelligence fronı any of your in the want of direct evideuce for the correspondents. One of the references, miraculous quality of the fact, this is a however, in Dr, Doddridge's Lectures, most material consideration. (vol. ij. 47, 4th edit.) is to Muillard's They who bave read that excellent miraculous cure : and, from the lecturer's production of the late Bishop of Salis. manner, I conclude, that he believed it bury, The Criterion,' will, I presume, to be miraculous.

find the greater difficulty in the instance Maillard, it appears, had labored, of M. Maillard, to be that of admitring a from early infancy, under some disease miracle. On this point, I shall be happy of the hip, which occasioned lameness in having my judgment corrected or conta

firmed by the communications of your • What amazed me most was the astonish- readers. ing exactness with which it caught it in the fall, as I never but once saw ic gain the water, and it was then picked up before it could * I will not be positive as to the month, as sink.

I am obliged to write from ricollection.

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