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But, as if it was impossible to attain personal references. I never visited any any degree of perfection in human af- of these receptacles of disease, nor have fairs, these very acts of benevolence have I the slightest knowledge of those who been censured by certain philosophers, have the management of them. I da as morally and politically noxious. They not mention this, however, by way of insist, among other considerations, that apology, for, when one speaks from the such an excess of charity represses in. positive testimony of facts, it is altoge, dustry, and encourages all the low vices iher unnecessary to be timidly scrupu. which spring from sloth and improvi- lous. Is it a proper occasion to indulge dence.
in ceremony when health and life are at But, without entering into this argu- stake? Can we suppress our sympathy ment, which, in the very worst constie when we reflect on the helpless poor tuted charities, can apply but partially, groaning under pain, and, at the same there are some at least, such as hospitals tine, conscious of receiving gratuitous and dispensaries, that do not appear to attentions, unwilling to murmur or ex. be at all liable to such censure. It can- postulate ? not be imagined that any person could I am not sufficiently acquainted with the act so absurd a part as to counterfeit peculiar practices of the Edinbur hand sickness to obtain gratis a medicinal London hospitals, as to be able to point drug; or, if he could avoid it, would out the causes of such different results, choose to be removed from his comfort. Some time ago I entered into conversation able home, to be inclosed among strane on this subject with a very ingenious gers in the abodes of disease.
person, who had resided many years in These medical charities are so exten- Edinburgh, and he gave me the following sive, that, great as is the population of explanation, which, though it appears London, poor applicants are hardly ever plausible, was to me rather unexpected: refused assistance. In this respect they " That, as far as he understood, the du. are not to be paralleled; although, in ties of the Infirmary at Edinburgh were one very capital circumstance, we must, performed by all the physicians and surit seems, temper our admiration. In their geons ibere in rotation; this circumstance internal regulation, the utmost exertion caused that publicity in all its transaccertainly is not practised. There inust tions, which naturally inspired more be somehow a deficiency in the main anxious exertions and a greater ambition purpose for which they were intended. to excel; that, in a place of this size, the Such a suspicion would never have oc- principal things, in some degree, come curred, had not indisputable experience under the inspection of all, and that, in taught us the possibility of better man fine, the northern metropolis is famous nayement. I have in view the Infirmary for a spirit of conversation and critical at Edinburgh, which, at all times since knowledge of public matters, which ren, its erection, has sent out a much greater ders all noted characters, medical men number of cured than any of the London particularly, more than usually responhospitals. This appears rather unac. sible to public opinion, and, consequent. countable, as the skill of the medical ly, extremely cautious, circumspect, and men in both places is equal, and in attentive." To some people this may none are they confined by any improper appear a far-fetched speculation ; but regulations of the founders or governors; those who have bestowed a close attenbut, in all cases, the utmost freedom is tion to human nature, will be deeply sen. allowed to follow that regimen which sible, that, where interest is not conmay prove most conducive to the health cerned, without some very strong exterof the patients. As circumstances do nal spur, it is apt to relax in its exertions, not differ, I ask, why should there be It will not, I hope, be suspected, from any difference in the number of cured? these remarks, that I have any wish to Surely, if diligence and attention, in all depreciate, or that I am insensible to the respects, were equal, their good effects general merits of the London medical would be found siinilar. We are then, charities, and of the immense labors I think, forced to conclude, that, in the which they daily perform in the service London hospitals there are faults, and of bumanity. That they are susceptible faults too that might be avoided.
of improvement, in some respect or other, As the whole of my information on the is what I am obliged to assert, from the subject is conhned to the mere statement knowledge of a fact which cannot be. of the disproportion of cures, I cannot controverted or otherwise understood. be supposed to make any particular or At the same time I readily confess, that
whatever I have heard of them from them extends, these charities, if not in those who bave been patients, or others, some respect noxious, are, in regard of bas all been of a favorable nature; from relieving he poor, almost totally useless. which, no doubt, I ought to conclude, They appear to answer no other purpose that they are, upon the whole, well ma. than to confer on certain gentlemen the Daged; but that the Infirmary at Edine power of patronage, and the pleasure of burgh must be carried to a high degree being solicited. of perfection-a perfection surely not un- I imagine that there are very few real attainable.
foundlings in that well-known hospital There are two celebrated charities in intended for their reception.t FoundLondon, the Foundling and Christ's lings are invariably taken charge of by Hospital, which, it must be confessed, their respective parishes, and I never are more liable to be abused by the pub- heard of a poor parish eased of its found. lic than the medical ones. The fault, lings by this institution. Upon tolerably however, does not lie so much with the good grounds, I conjecture, that they are public, as in the nature of the charities generally the unlawful offspring of ladies themselves, which present temptations where secrecy is much wanted, or of too great to be resisted even by the opu- gentleinen who have sufficient interest. lent. The favors which they confer are They thus not only obtain the advantage by far too splendid to be ranked among of secrecy, but also the important one of those of an eleemosynary kind. To keep completely disburthening themselves of and educate an individual for a period of the charge of rearing their own children. seven years, to many persons may be equal I have no doubt but that the considera. in value to the sum of 500l. a present tion of such a convenient riddance, is too magnificent to be conferred merely sometimes an inducement with gentleas an alms on the poor. In disposing of men to be less scrupulous in debauching so important a concern, other feelings their maids. Lately, a young woman in beside those of pity occupy the mind. this situation of life being pregnant, her When we can easily command the esteem friends were told that the father had in. and gratitude of persons of consequence, terest enough to get the child admitted with whoin perhaps we may be proud to into the Foundling. In a similar case, be connected, can it be expected that, the father's interest was not able to acfrom conscientious motives alone, ne complish this will the child was eight should give a preference to mean and monilis old. Lastly, a gentleman in the obscure people, whose poverty is their neighbourhood of Cheapside, having a only recommendation, and whose good child by his servant, at first resolved to opinion or gratitude is held in no esti- allow the mother a weekly pension to mation? Such a fancy will hardly be ele rear the boy; but, growing weary of the tertained by the most visionary theorist. "perpetual expense, he had bin conveyed Accordingly, as far as my knowledge of to this hospital at the age of eighteen
months. I • The means by which this much wished Christ's Hospital, commonly called the for perfection may be obtained is no secret, Blue-coat School, is somewhat notorious and may, if we choose, be very easily known. for disregard of its original and avowed In much lesser matters a more active desire intention-affording relief to the poor, for information is often displayed. Were it suspected that there was any where an artt At their entrance, no doubt, they are practised, by which a particular manufacture all denominated Foundlings; they are promight be improved, how eagerly would it be fessed or pretended foundlings, in the same sought after and adopted! But, as no art can manner as those admitted into Christ's Hos. equal that of preserving life, the distinguish- pital are all supposed poor, tough few of ing regulations of the Edinborgh Infirmary them are actually so. I confess, however, ought to be well known and studied. The that my knowledge on this subject is but comparative want of success in the London scanty, and I speak with some hesitation, hospitals, mav perhaps be owing to a defici. The public have a right to be better inency in the inferior attentions, which, in most formed of what are generally the recommendiseases, assists nature in its efforts towards datory qualities of the objects of admission recovery more powerfully than medicine it into the Foundling; some account also ought self. It was by directing his chief study to to be given of chose actually admitted, and these, without any medical novelties, that from what quarter they earue. For my own the late Dr. Bachan diminished, by more than part, I should be very well pleased to be found. one-half, the deaths of the children of that in a mistake. large branch of the Foundling Hospital once I In this last instance it was not, I believe, established at Ackworth.
effected without a dunation in money.
If any proper objects are admitted, it is economical plan of Lancaster, instead of altogether by accident. There is no go- educating 400 children of the supposed vernor that has any candor will deny, poor, their benigni influence might be that interest, not poverty, is the prime extended to almost all the real poor of motive of admission. Any person who London: by which many thousand wor. would choose to give himself the trouble thy parents might be happily relieved, of inquiry, will soon be convinced that and society at large farther advanced in this is not a rash assertion. I never my. humanity and civilization. To such a self went out of my way to inquire ; but proposal little attention, I know, is to be in the ten or twelve instances which ac. expected. Governors of these institucidentally occurred in my observation in tions are continually thinking of their the course of life, none had any preten- own importance, and at all times display sions to poverty, and indeed (except for a childish antipathy to every plan of imform's sake at the time of making applic provement which has mere utility in view, calion) would have been affronted had unless at the same time it tend to their they been called poor people. To de- aggrandizement; the idea of a great chascribe them all, would be tedious and dis- rity-school, although it might obtain the agreeable ; one case, however, deserves applause of ihe rational philanthropist, particular notice: A tradesman, in the would sound meanly in vulgar ears. Such, west end of the town, who had long however, is buman nature, and such the struggled with poverty, was at last pa state of the world, that, if charity be not tronized by a relation of his wife, by degraded to its proper level, so as to be whose influence his business was en- of importance to the truly necessitous Jarged. Ile now began to lift up his only, it will never arrain its end, or head, and aspire to gentility. He dis- answer any good purpose. ipissed his lodgers, whom he forinerly But, if such a diffusion of henefits may found necessary to assist him in paying seem too great a departure from the ori. his rent, and took out a bair-powder ginal scheme of such hospitals, something licence. Among other schemes of ele- surely might be devised to prevent their vating his grandeur, he rid himself of the priine intention of relieving the poor from charge of one of his sons, by devolving being almost wholly thwarted. A cer. it on the funds of Christ's Hospital; and tain distinct class, or those who have suf. he calks loudly of having sufficient inte fered some particular dehnite misfortune, rest to dispose of another in the same should be the deterininate objects, so as way. In his adversity, when his claims to render it impossible on every occasion, in justice ought to have been stronger, as at present, tu miss the really destihe durst not to bave indulged such pre- tute. Suppose, for example, that the sumptuous expectations.
one half, or even the whole, of the inIn the present state of matters, it will fants admitted into the Foundling, and not be easy to find a remedy against of boys admitted into Christ's Hospital, such Aayranit robbery of the poor. It is in time of war, belong to officers killed certain, that, when the advantages of in the service of their country, and, in charity are so great as lo overbalance its default of these, of the common soldiers disgrace, as is the case with the Founds who have met the same fate; and, in Jing and Christ's Hospital, it will always time of peace, of the same class of men, be sought after and obtained loy the most None, I think, could grudge such a dis. powerful. Were the advantages which tribution of charity; the pecuniary adevery individual received sinall, were the vantages of the military profession are fonds diffused over a wider surface, there generally sew, wbile its hardships and would be no danger of their misapplica. miseries are always many. tion. Those well. managed institutions, I cannot conclude without expressing the parochial charity-schools for instance, my surprise, that there should have been where the sole gratuity is education and more royal foundations for charitable purclothes, are disdained even by people in poses ju former rude ages that in later moderate circumstances; and, consequent times, with all our pretensions to supeJy, are left wholly to their proper objects: rior humanity and civilization. The Brie no shameless intruder is here seeii, ac- tish Government might, I thwk, without com pamed by his great friends, to overany great inconveniency, find opportuawe the helpless peor, and to jostle him nities of oftener sympathizing with the out of li rights.' Were the revenues of poor laborious classes,' Hospitals for the Christ's llospital managed with equal cure of the diseased poor, wbicb, as was judgment, or according to the excellent formerly observed, are hardly capable of
being abused, ought to be more encou- nually rekindling the flames of war on raged, and in some instances endowed, the continent. by Government. Such a grant, there. I certainly, when I read this paper, fore, to the London and Middlesex Hos thought that the whole context, and all pitals, whose funds, I believe, are defece the circumstances, affixed to it one con. tive, as 20,000l.to each, would be an action struction, which was, that the inter. the most worthy of a wise and patriotic ference of France with respect to Spain Minister. The same sum could not pos. and Portugal should be withdrawn, and sibly be applied for the real good of the those nations left to their owit govern. people more certainly or more extensive ment; the foreign troops which have en. ly. Mere protection should not be a tered them to be removed on both sides Minister's sole study, he ought also to out of those countries, as the necessary View the people with sentiments of bene result of their independance thus acknow, volence, and attempt to alleviate their ledged. And, if this were as I conceived miseries, and, as much as possible, to it, and still conceive it, to be, the natural add to their comforts. As all originares sense of the proposal, it did, and it does, from the people, why should not some appear to me, that a basis of peace was Small streams be made to flow back to thus offered, unexceptionably comprepromote their happiness? A common. hensive, firin, and honorable; and that place politician, in whose system pity any ministry by whom it is rejected must has no part, will deride these notions as be deeply responsible to their country meak and absurd; he will soar above and mankind; since, if interminable war such easy and well-known principles of be not intended, there could not be a hunanity; and, with a bolder and more fairer or more ample prospect of peace extensive stretch of thought, might ima.
thomht. might ima. within the reach of hope, or of any rea. gine with the late Mr. Pitt, that twenty souable imagination. miilions passing through the hands of the The natural answer, and it should Emperor of Germany would, at last, more seen the only one possible to have been effectually promote the welfare of the given, to such an offer, would have been, people, than twenty thousand in the that, considering by this offer both Spain above manner. Many persons have fond- and Portugal as recognised independent, hy expected to behold an epoch in polja our government is happy in receiving tical moralitv, from the well-known good- this overture of the French government; ness of the Prince Regent; and, tbough by which the cause of war would be done there may be danger of forining extrava. away as to those nations, and their reign. gant expectations, yet, surely, there is ing families and constitutions, as they some reason to indulge hope. Since his were before the war, re-established in accession to power, his situation, in one peace and security; all foreign force point of view. has been difficult; but, I withdrawn; and the relations of amity ibink, judging with candor, may be between Britain and France, capapronounced laudable. In abolishing old, ble of being adjusted consistently with useless, and pernicious customs and in: our engagements to our allies, and all stitutions, and in promoting new plans other subordinate particulars discussed os benevolence, much may be effected by and anicably arranged. That, therefore, his constitutional authority, and much by
without delay, we should communicate his personal influence.
W.N. 10 our allies the proposal made to us; Bedford-row, May 6, 1812.
trusting that, in concert with them, a ne
gotiation, opened and carried on upon To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine. such a basis, would terininate in a peace,
the permanence of which would be secured W IEN I read, about three weeks by the particular and common interests of
VV back, the translation of the Pro. all the parties. farsal of the French Government to ours Something substantially of this kind, for Peace, I own I was astonished that a which diploinutic experience would repaper of such iw portance, dated at Paris, duce to the proper terms, seems to have 17th of April, and answered the 23d, been obviously and strikingly dictated should have been so long in making its by the nature of the offer aud the circumappearance. In the mean time move, stances. faents have been made which, in all pro. I have endeavoured to reduce the supe bability, will very shortly terminate in posed answer to the fewest terms, pero Consequences which, if anything can, suaded that every unnecessary word on will put an end to our systein of contia such occasionsleads to irritation or to error,
By an answer of this nature (as much that he has inadvertently lent his sanc better expressed as any one pleases), be tion to an unnecessary, irritating, and, as it admitted that there is some ambiguity it seems to be, furced, construction of in that part of the proposal respecting the French proposal for peace. If that Spain, an explanation would have been construction was right, we might have s9 secured to as, consisting either in the answered as to shew that we did not adoption of our sense of the terms, coutseek an hostile interpretation; that we teously, liberally, and with dignity, stated, would be guarded but not provoke; and or in an avowal of the sense inipated to have peace if a pacifre, but explicit and them; and all prejudices to our interests dignified, answer would lead to it. We and the general interests, from any mise now have war continued, extended, and understanding, would have been avoided. aggravated, when, for aught that appears,
At the same time it appeared to me it may have rested with ourselves to base from the first, and now, that, as all foreign had peace, and to have given it to the trarforce was proposed to be withdrawn, and rassedworld on most satisfactory terms. Spain to be governed by a national con- Troston Hall, CAPEL LOFFT. sticution of her Cortes, and the indepen. Aug. 7th, 1812. dence and integrity of Portugal also to be ERRATA in p. 25, of this volume, for guaranteed, and the house of Braganza "sextant" read ". septant," for “ pergatilla" to have the sovereign authority. Whatever read " pulsatilla," o'ynasty might otherwise have meant, (dynasty properly meaning nothing more To the Editor of the Monthly Blagasine. than a power or goverument, AUPOSE!,) SIR, jc must be taken here to mean the Spite QINCE I drew up that paper upon the nish reigning fainily supported by the Equilibrium of Arches, which you Cortes; as it means in the corresponding were so obliging as to insert in your Ma. part the Portuguese reigning family. gazine for May last, I have seen another And, what is most of all, once remove all Tract upon the same subject, by a Mr. foreign coërcion, and leave her indepen. Ware, architect, London, which, although dent to her own government, Spain could published previous to Mr. Gwilt's, did have nothing but, as other independent not fall within my observation until lately. nations, of her own choice, adoption, or Mr. Ware seems to possess every qua. acquiescence. Whether the word also lification as an author, except a know. be aussi or de même, in the original, the ledge of the subject he has treated upon; import of that word, in such place and but in that he seeins to ine to be very de connection, and of the whole sentence ficient, therefore to point out this defiand circumstances, appears to leave ciency, and to supply the defect, is the scarcely the possibility of any other sense immediate purport of this paper. than that which at all events we might By referring to the Tract, sect. 1, prop. safely and beneficially bave declared to v. and sect. 2, prop. vi. it will be seen, be our interpretation.
that this author's equilibrium is no other But, on the 22d of April, the day be than the augmentation of the length, and fore the answer given by our government, consequently the area and weight of the the Emperor of Russia began his march, voussoirs, froin the vertex downward, so the answer and that march may explain as to be sufficient to counteract the resise each other; 'both, I fear, the source of tance of the inclined plane, formed by unnumbered woes to us and to Russia. the radii of curvature and the horizon,
Quian' ouxilio juont ante levatos? those augmented lengths being no other Have the former war coalitions been so than the secants of an arch, whose radius propitious to us and to Russia as to en- is the length of the voussoir at the vertex, courage the hazarding of this last? commonly denominated the keystone.
I sincerely respect Mr. Sheridan, and I readily admit that this equilibrium is have a high sentiment of his genius, ex- complete, while the arch is supported by perience, and political knowledge and the centring, upon which it was formerly public spirit. I cannot believe that he as it equalizes the pressure of those soushas in a moment, thrown away years of soirs in the direction of their radii upon "pure patriotic glory, and knowingly made that centring; but, when the same is te any unworthy sacrifice to personat motives moveit, and the arch left to rest only of the immense and probably irretrievable upon the abutments, then the pendent interests which this question involves. part thereof, or that directly over the But I grieve, notwithstanding, to think space between those abutments, will gram