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Megasthenes made use of; it is that Hippalus, profiting by this observation, which Possidonius eudeavoured to appro- was the first who dared to stretch out priate to himself, several centuries after, from the shores of Arabia, and abandon in his pretended measurement of the bimself and vessel to those annual winds, earth, and constituted the 240,000th part which soon conveyed both to the coasts of the circumference of the globe, as well of India, as he bad rightly foreseen. His as the 6661 part of a degree. By ap- grateful contemporaries conferred his plying this co che supposed dimensions name on the wind; this is the Lcuconotus of the different parts of India, the result of the Greeks and Romans, and our own will be, that the measurements of Me- south-west monsoon: it was this which gasthenes and Patrocles, are precisely conducted the ancients to the part of the same. It is from an ignorance of Asia just alluded to, and they were rethese various models, and that exact gularly brought back by the north-east identity of ineasures, that the geographers monsoon which blows the other six of the succeeding ages have alternately months in an opposite direction, from rejected the testimony of both Megas- the eastern coasts of India, to the enthenes and Patrocles, according to the trance of the Arabian Gulf. hypothesis which they themselves may Of all the Itineraries of India, pube have formed relative to the extent of lished during the reign of Ptolemy Phila India. The chart formed by Eratos. adelphus, there only remains the Perithenes, notwithstanding all its errors, plus of the Erythrean Sea. The mea. was generally adopted; and Strabo, surements contained in it, are exceedMela, Pliny, Solinus, Æthicus, Paulus ingly exact, so far as concerns the shores Orosius, Martianus Capella, Isidore of of the Arabian Gulf, those of the east Seville, &c, lave traced after it their coast of Africa, and the south part of various descriptions of India.

Arabia. But, on approaching to the The sovereigns of Alexandria being Ganges, the author of the Periplus loses very desirous to monopolize all the coin. all his reputation for accuracy, and this merce of the East, did every thing in merely because the navigators of Alextheir power to facilitate the progress of andria were but little acquainted with so navigation. We hear of vessels setting remote a portion of India. It was not sail from the ports in the Arabian Gulf, until a later period, that more correct and, after coasting along its shores, charts were published; yet it is not a reaching Malabar, and even the mouths little singular, that Ptoleniy, deceived of the Ganges. But, from the first cen- by the information of others, actually tury of the Christian æra, the navigators doubled the extent of the coast of Corohad discovered that regular and durable mandel, although he at the very same winds prevailed during certaio seasons in time made the shores of the Circars, of those seas, which form what we now Orixa, and even of part of Bengal, 10 term, the Monsoons. A pilot, named disappear froin his chart.



SKETCH of the Life of GEORGE stantly used without ever being exhausted;

ZOEGA, a learned Dane, by ARSENNE those treasures wbich cupidity never THIEBAUT DE BERNEAUD.

envies; which are preserved without the THE name of George Zoega apper. uneasiness incident to avarice, while they

1 tains not to Danish literature alone; constitute the true man of letters, and it is associated with that of past ages, ensure for old age an active existence, and the history of the most ancient na. even when consigned to the arms of de. tions. This learned man was born in crepitude. But erudition becoines only 1751, at Kiel, in Danish Holstein; and, a frivolous advantage, if, undirected by from his earliest youth, felt an ardent de the torch of sound criticisin, it does sire for study, while he, at the same not attach itself to some one particular time, enjoyed the exquisite delight ari. branch of history, or some separate Sing from the exercise of the intellectual and distinct portion of the immense faculties. He was, accordingly, unceas- edifice of human knowledge. This truth ting in his endeavours to accumulate those made a due impression on the inind of precious treasures, which may be con. Zoega, and he fixed upon philology as a Monthly Mag, No, 231,


science not only grand and sublime in reside but a short time within the itself, but the basis of all huinan literature. influence of so happy a sky;-in short, a

Fortune, which seerns incessantly dis- combination of ali ihese circumstances, posed to conspire against great talents, was calculated to turn the thoughts of appeared unfriendly to the ruling passion Zoega from the career he had at first of Zoega, when she unexpectedly sent pointed out; but nothing could pervert him to Fialy in 1777. This journey his attachent to study! warmed bis imagination, and sharpened It is not modern productions that most a inind naturally calculated for observa. contribute to render Rome interesting, tion. Ile ascented the Alps, repeating but those of times past. To an arche the sublinie verges of Taller; he beheld ologist such as Zoega, the shades of Venice, that superb city, built on piles, those grand objects which once decoamidst the shallows, and at the extre- rated this ancient capital of the world mity of a storniy gult; the inhabitants of those majestic remains recall to memory which, leaving off the trade of fishermen, whatever has occurred on the theatre of attained that extraordinary degree of the history of mankind. The fate of power, which alarmed all the sovereigns Rome too, notwithstanding its numerous of Europe during the fifteenth century, vicissitudes, has been far more mind than lle then traversed Lombardy, fertilized that of the other great cities, which make by the Po; he stopped soine time at Floo a figure in the annals of antiquity. The rence, where Dante had written his Hell, topographical situation of soine, and the and the Miedici presided during the bril- vast ruins of others, are insulated and liant epoch of the revival of arts and secluded in deserts which the travelier sciences. He next bent his course is unable to traverse without danger. 10 Pompeia, to consult that precious Thebes, which a poetical tradition depository for the study of antiqui. las called the city with a hundred gates. ty; and, while his eyes contemplated together with Athens, and Rome, are Vesuvius, where Nature, at the same the only oves, where we can with any rime, creates and destroys, his senses degree of certainty, still trace the ancient were gratified with the beneficent atmo. plan; point out the direction of the sphere, in the vicinity of Baia, where we streets; fix the position, and sometimes meel with tombs, once uselessly sump- the design, of those edifices, the magni tucus, now converted into commodious ficence of which is saunted in history, and huts for the shelter of laborious poverty. which are rendered celebrated by mema Alter this journey, which proved equally rable events. On revisiting Rome, and reuseful and agreeable, lie l'eturned in perusing its history, at every step, Zoeva 1779 to Rome, which he had only slightly conceived the project of giving a detailed viewed, in order to fix himself in that topography of that famous metropolis. eternal city. There he remained during Many antiquaries have attempted this the space of twenty-nine years,

laborious task, but all have failed; and Zoega soon became acquainted, and even Nardini, the most correct of the formed a strict intimacy with many whole, has committed many errors. of the most distinguished artists and Forined on a love of the sciences. Bearned men of that ancient capital. saved, as if by a miracle, from the sack of Ile was fortunate enough, during that pe. Velieri, in the war of 1744, the cele sod, to acquire not only the protection, brated Borgian Museum was calculated but the sincere attachment of that Car- to becoine an asyluun for all the sciences : diwal Borgia, who knew how to estimate it was so in fact, and out of its boneu according to their just value, and som issued, during the space of ten whose name is intimately connected with years, a multitude of works, calculated all the different branches of archæology. to astonish the learned world, and con. The enthusiasm inspired amidst the fine tribute to those sciences which either climate of Italy, the grand events in advance or preserve civilisation, as well printed on the very rujus of those eities as teach man to become acquainted with hitherto so famous, and on the summit himself. It was thence thai Giorgi drev of thut Capitol, whence descended those forth, the first inonument of the third erules that were to govern the world; the Coprio dialect, until then unknowing enchanting ideas that continually flow in Aller there found the Coptic characters : upon a man, contemplating such scenes, Becchetti several very interesting bass stri even the very pleasure of dolce fur reliefs; Wael, the materials for a learned: micute, k9 seductive to foreigners who dissertation on the Glyptic Lithulogy of


the Egyptians; Father Paulino, bis manu. prizing spirit; and, notwithstanding the scripts concerning the inhabitants of Hin- frequent attacks of a disease in the chest, doostan, &c. &c. &c. Zoega there also which had long tormented him, lie con. discovered several medals, and many tinued his researches into antiquity. It Egyptian inanuscripts, which he under- was then that fie prepared his exquisite took to explain,

dissertation concerning “Lycurgus and lo 1787, be published his Catalogue the Menades," a production that was Raisonné of the imperial medals siruck read soon after in the Roman Institute, at Alexandria, which did great honor 10 of which he became a member. bis talents, and, indeed, laid the foun. The discovery of a statue of the God dation of his literary glory. About the Eon, in 1797, had attracted the atten, same time, Pope Pius VI. who had just tion of the illustrious Danish philologist, embellished Rome with several Egypiian to this new Michriac mocument. It is monuments dug out of the earth, which well known that the worship of that divia, bad concealed them for more than twelve nity, called the lovincible, was broughc ceatories, requested Zoega to write a from Cilicia, into Greece and Italy; inas dissertation on the Obelisks. All his at he was embraced by the Emperor Comtention and all his studies were accord. modus, and maintained his reputation ingly directed towards this point; and, until the time of Theodosius. in 1797, appeared bis book, De Origine In 1801, the situation of Zoega was so

'su Obeliscorum. This is the most deplorable, that he conceived the idea ample work that has ever appeared on of leaving Rome, and retiring to llolstein, the subject ; for, although Mercati, Kir. This project, the suggestion of despair, cher, and Bandini, had already treated would have abridged eight or ten years on the obelisks, yot many deficiencies of so valuable a life, and it was accordingly still remained to be supplied; while our combated by all his friends. But he author,not satisfied with barely describing was happily prevented by Baron llerinan them, and considering their figure, size, de Schubart, Minisier Plenipotentiary, and de-tination, first traced their history and Envoy Extraordinary froin Della from the remotest periods to the time mark to Italy, a man full of affection of Augustus, and brought it down so low for the sciences, and devoted to all as the commencement of the nineteenth those who cultivated them with success. century. lle also paid attention to the It was he who represented the situation hieroglyphics which adorned them, and of so valuable a subject to the King of Sated the motives which induced hiin to Denmark, and at the same time pointed believe, that the sculptured figures formed out the advantage of his residence at Ue representation of so many hymns in Rome. Accordingly, Zoega was enabled bonour of the divivities to which these to reinain there, having been appointed nonaments were originally consecrated. librarian to, and professor in, the Unia

His book was sull in the press, when versity of kiel, with the usual emoluItaly beheld the year 1799 signalised by ments annexed to those offices. great events: the sovereign pontiff at Zoega liad not only rendered himself that period was precipitaleil from the familiar with the ancient languages, but chair of St. Peter, and Rome itself also with most of the modern idioms. governed by cousuls. These memo. He wrote in Latin with great facility, rable occurrences changed the lot of composed in Italian with all the graces Zsega, -and, although the existence of of a Tuscan, and was also complete the new republic proved but ephemeral, master of the French, the English, and he was benceforth subjected to contie the Gernian. Ile was entirely devoid boal prications. Being burdened with of that pedantry and rudeness, which the maintenance of a large family, the characterise many of his contemporapost of agent of Deomark at Rome, and ries: to bin, the good and the learned the office of consul in the Papal States, were always welcome. He was very both of which be obtained in 1798, with communicative; and the excellence of the very moderate salary of 300 rix-dol. his heart conferred on bis conversation, lars per annum (about 50l, sterling)could his features, and his very silence, certain to prove equal to the supply of his ne charnis which made him beloved by all. cessities, at a period when all cominercial In the interior of his house, he was amia Flations were interrupted, is consequence able; and he himself was the instructor

a long and disastrous war." But of his children. Unacquainted with in. este evils did not overwhelm bis enter. trigue, sordid interest never aifected b



destitute of ambition, his own glory (as sciences may be said to have surrounded Tacitus says of the philosopher) was the bis cradle, and it was their language last subject of his thoughts. He was which he was first taught to utter. always doubtful of his talents, and, that with a view to withdraw his mind from Je might live more completely dedicated the study of nature, to which be was to virtue, he retired, as it were, within fondly attached, young Broussonet was himself. His favourite book was the sent to a distance from his native home Odyssey, and his memory was so excel. to learn the languages; but, on his return, lent, that he could recite at will, most with a view of studying medicine, he enof the fine passages from Homer, Virgil, ployed himself in culling plants during Dante, and Klopstock. The loss of his the day, and in dissecting at niglit. In wife, whoin he loved tenderly, soon fine, he encumbered his father's house produced that melancholy, which affects with productions of every kind, while at the sources of life, and proves one of the same time he made such a rapid pro. the most distressing symptoms of chronic gress in medicine, that he obtained the diseases. For many years he had been title of Doctor of Physic at eighteen years afflicted with a pulmonary complaint, of age. The thesis which he chose on and this was greatly aggravated by a se- this occasion had “respiration" for its oba vere application to study. At length, ject, and was entitled, “Variæ positiones death, who spares no one, surprised himn circa Respirationem." The excellence in the midst of his brilliant career; for of this composition fully justified the he was cut off by a nervo-bilious fever, premature honors he received, for it at the age of fifty-eight, carrying with exbibits an admirable specimen of comhim the regrets of all good men. The parative anatomy and physiology; while professor was a member of the Italian all the known facts are assembled and Academy, as well as of the Academies illustrated with great judgment. of Copenhagen, Goettingen, Berlin, Flo. Having repaired soon after to Paris, rence, Sienna, Rome, &c. &c. He had for the express purpose of obtaining the been just nominated a Knight of the minister's leave to enter on his new proOrder of Danebrog.

fessorship, he met with such opposition on

account of his youth, that he resigned all An HISTORICAL EU LOGIUM on M. ideas on that subject; and, thinking that

BROUSSONET, F.R.S. pronounced natural history presented him a field in at the PUBLIC SESSION of the IN- which he could distinguish himself, be re. STITUTE Of France. By M. CUVIER. solved to apply his time and talents to

Pierre-Marie-Auguste Broussonet, Pru. this subject." fessor of Botany at the Medical School Although the eloquence of Buffon of Montpellier, and also a Member of the had inspired a general taste for the huistitute, as well as an Associate of the study of nature, it had at the same time Royal Society of London, &c. was born deterred the greater part of the scholars at Montpellier, Feb. 28, 1761. His fa- from the methods most proper to ther, François Broussonet, was a Profese guide them in respect to it; the zoologists sor of Medicine there, and his mother's and the mineralogists were not as yet fa. maiden name was Elizabeth Senard-Pâ. miliarised with the commodius nomen. quier. From the earliest period of his clature and rigorous synonymy of Linlife he exhibited the promise of great ta. mæus. It appeared as it this great man lents : for at eighteen years of age he was had written for the botanists alone, and nominated to a chair in the university of all these, becoming his disciples, constithe city where he was born; at twenty- tuted a separate class, the example of four he was unanimously elected a mem- which then had but a feeble influence ber of the Academy of Sciences, a circum- in respect to the study of the other stance which had not occurred from the kingdoms of Nature; but M. Broussonet, origin of that body; at a later period he incited by the examples of the respect, was chosen an Associate of the Institute able M. Gouan, with an extraordinary during his absence, and preserved on the zeal for the pure Linnæan doctrine, re. list, not withstanding his residence in the solved to render it victorious in France, Souch of France.

and accordingly attached his reputation to He was born in the bosom of a cele- the fate of this enterprise. brated school: he was the son of a man A s it is in the distinctions of the spewho exercised in an honorable manner cies, that the methods adopted by the the functions of his office: thus the learned Swede exhibit their superiority,


and the collections of Paris did not then species, while the Swede had only enuafford a sufficient variety to serve as the merated four hundred' and sixty. Nearly basis of such important labors, Brouse at the same time, Broussonet read dis sonet determined to visit such foreign sertations at the Academy, and gave cabinets as contained the finest spe- a description of the dog-fish, of which cimens.

he mentioned twenty-seven species; Ile, accordingly, directed his course to- one-third of which were unknown to wards England, the universal commerce other naturalists. He also treated of of which nation, its iminense colonies, the Annarhischas lupus, as well as its grand maritime expeditions, together the Silure trembleur, (Scomber gladius,) with the taste of the king and several of first discovered by Adanson to possess the grandees for natural history, bad ena the powers of electricity. Hle next de. bled it at that period to form the richest scribed the spermatic, vessels of fishes: depositaries of the productions of the two and demonstrated, chat several possessed worlds. Mr., now Sir Joseph, Banks at scales, which were supposed to be des. this time enjoyed that extensive reputa- titute of them. But the most celebrated tion which will render his name immortal of all his discourses, was that " on the in the history of the sciences, and it was comparison between the inovements of ander bis immediate protection that plants and of animals." It is to hin we Broussonet published the first part of his are indebted for the first complete de. work on fishes, in 1782, under the title of scription of that vegetable, to which we Ichthyologia decas i.

are most tempted to attribute something It contains the Latin descriptions, voluntary in its oscillations: tbe hedysuclassed after the Linnæan order, of ten rum gyrans, or that kind of grass prorare kinds, one half of which were before duced in Bengal, the lateral leaves of unknown. They were accompanied with which rise and fall both day and night, an equal number of plates; and consti- without any external provocation. Ile toted, as it were, a fine frontispiece to an also insisted on the determinate volition important work, which, it is to he greatly of the parts of plants, notwithstanding lamented, was never continued and com- all obstacles; the progress of the roots in pleted. At length, M. Broussoner re. search of humidity; the inflexions of the torned from London, preceded by the leaves in order to obtain light, &c. reputation of his new work, decorated . In a short time be aimed at still higher with the title of a member of the Royal objects, and his Memoir on the respiraSociety, and reckoning among bis friends, tion of fishes appertains entirely to the the son of Linnæus, Solander, Sparman, philosophy of natural history. He shews Sibthorp, Scarpa, and several other natu- how much respiration diminishes in ralists of the same rank.

respect to intensity, and the blood in His devotion to Linnæus would not at regard to heat, from birds to quadru. that period have operated as a recom. peds, and from quadrupeds to reptiles; mendation to many who enjoyed great he compares the size of the heart, and influence in the capital of France, and the quantity of blood of different anis particularly to Daubenton, who then pos. mals; he explains why those who have sessed much credit both at the Academy small bronchial openings can live longer and with the ministry; but the mild man. out of water than the others; he ment, ners and modest conduct of Broussonet tions the experiments made to demonnade his profcssion of faith be forgotten, strate the degree of heat which fishes are and he found a most zealous protector in capable of supporting, &c. Ilis paper the very man who was considered as on the teeth, is of a simular nature. The likely to be most rexed with bis doctrines, difference between the teeth of flestie Daubenton made him his deputy at the eating, and herbivorous animals; the College of France, his assistant at the flakes of enamel which penetrate the Veterinary school, and also contributed substance of the latter, and which give more than any other to his reception at them that inequality so necessary for the the Academy.

purposes of trituration; the infinite van He now gave notice of his intentions to riety of the number, of the figure, and of publish his grand work on Ichthyology, the position, of the teeth of aniinated and actually presented the prospectus to beings, &c.; in short, all these facts, the public. The distribution was to be which are at present notorious to every nearly on the same plan as that laid down one, were not then.deficient cither in by Linnæus, but he was to describe 1900 novelty or interest. "


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