« ZurückWeiter »
the suburb of Benares, in the gardens of sole claim by which any one can hope to which, most of the instructions are given. attain distinction. The mode and course of teaching are the The unmarried Brahmin is destined, same in all. The scholar does not con. from his earliest infancy, to enjoy a clude his studies until the expiration of portion of the immense property of the twelve years, and those who wish actu. temples and the pagodas: it is in corrally to become pundits, that is to say, sequence of similar pretensions, that the professors, must remain there for twenty ignorant pundit lives in the enjoyinent years.
of laziness and abundance. No one has In each of these universities, the learned yet endeavoured to discover the means deliver private lectures in the temples, of affording a remedy to the disagreeable on theology alone : but public courses consequences resulving from the great take place in the groves and gardens, heats, and the too frequent use of dry which appertain to the temples, on the legumes, called kichery; together with other sciences; such as grammar, poetry, the other causes of indolence in the inhistory, jurisprudence, medicine, astro- habitants of India. Nothing, however, nomy, mythology, popular iheology, and is wanting but the example of some great philosophy. Those only who are born genius, who would assuredly excite in Brahmins, and who have been twice tation in a country, where he who knows consecrated, are admitted to the private how to read the Vedam, and recite the courses, because at these the mysteries customary explanations of it, is consiof the Vedam are explained : on the dered a prodigy of erudition. other hand, the public courses are open The institution created by the Marquis to the laity, such as the children of the of Wellesley, forms a fine contrast to cast of soldiers.
those just mentioned. It was foundThe different branches of instruction ed at Fort William in Bengal, by that are taught according to the elementary Governor-general, in the month of Aubooks, all of which, even the Sanscrit gust, 1800, after the model of Oxford dictionaries, are composed in verse. and Cambridge. Its aim is the instrucThe pundits make the students learn tion of those persons destined to occupy them by heart; in addition to this, two some situation in the administration of of these discourse together on each lesson that country, under the English govern. of the science which happens to be the ment: it is siinply termed "the College object of investigation. During the first of Calcutta," or, « College at Fort Wil. five years, the student is restricted to an liam, in Bengal;" it, however, merits absolute silence; at the expiration of the title of Uviversity to the full as much this period, it is permitted him to pro. as those of Europe. It is astonishing, pose his doubts to the professor, who is that the British government did not be obliged either to enlighten him on these fore discern the necessity of such an insubjects, or forego his reputation. The stitution. The students educated at it, inumacy which subsists between the pro- are admitted to the adıninistration of the fessors and students, who live constantly territorial possessions, the population of together, may perhaps make up for the which amounts to thirty millions of inhadefects of such a method. Each pundit bitants. These are composed of several has along with him, during ten or twelve, nations, who differ from each other, as or perhaps a greater nuinber of years, much in respect to their origin, as their six, ten, and as many as fifteen, students; languages, their manners, customs, and and he enjoys a considerable pension, religious; but, in conformity to the ex. which is paid to him by the treasurer of press directions of the English governthe temples, in proportion to his pupils, ment,* they ought to be regulated by But, as these pedagogues do not embrace their own peculiar institutions. Instead this state, from views of interest alone, of complying, however, with these orders, but for the express purpose of consigning the servants of the East India Company themselves to that innate love of indo- neglect the study of the laws and the lence, so truly characteristic of the lin. customs of the various nations alluded to doos, they themselves are usually very above, although called upon to govern ignorant. No emulation is excited for them, and that too, to such a degree, study, because the Hindoo can never as to be ignorant of their respective lan. prevail upon hanself to overcome his guages. This circumstance obliges them natural inactivity. No hope of recom. peace can excite the desire to redouble The Court of Directors of the English his application, because birth is the East India Company,
to trust to Indian interpreters, and, all the, Rrofessors, may retire on onebesides, is productive of a variety of third of their annual salaries, under the disorders. Notwithstanding the mani. name of pension, and return, if they fest inconveniences resulting from this please, to Europe. This pension may be circumstance, the means of remedying even augmented, at the recommendation these, by a literary foundation, for the of the patrou and inspector. To render purposes of instructing that class called the establishment less expensive, a upon to govern the country, was never branch of this college has been lately thought of until the time of Mr. Hastings, transferred to Hertford, in England. about the year 1781. M. Eichorn, in his “ Histoire des Langues modernes," p. 223, 1.5. (see " Histoire de la Lit. To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine. terature," 8vo, Goettingen, 1807,) gives SIR, a detailed account of the measures then TIE following observations on cold, adopted. The candidates for the dif. I are intended to call the attention ferent employments, both civil and min of the philosophical reader to this opinion litary, are now bound to frequent the that cold is a self-existent efiluvium. courses of lectores given in the college, To denote this effluvium, the existence doring the space of three years, and the of which the writer has long adınitted, plan of study is distributed under the five we may, without inquiring about ety. following principal heads: viz.
mological propriety, use the word frigo1. The study of the Asiatic languages, ric. such as the Sanscrit, the Arabian, the Per- Water dilates as its temperature rises sian, the idioms of Hindoostan, Bengal, from 36° of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the Marrattah empire, &c. &c. also the to 40°, or even up to 212°. During its Latin and Greek, the modern European dilatation it absorbs caloric. languages, and the English Classics. Water also dilates whilst it sinks from
2. Greek, Roman, and Universal His. 36°, the temperature at which it attains tory; but, above all, the Iristory and Alle its greatest density, to 32', the freezing tiquities of Hindoostan and the Decan. point, or even to 70 under particular
3. Mathematics, Geography, Natural circumstances. History, Botany, Chemistry, and Astro Observation ist.-The dilatation of the nomy.
water in the last instance, is not accom. . 4. The Laws of the Mahometans, panied by an absorption of caloric : ca. Hindoos, and other nations of India; loric is developed during the dilatation, together with the English Laws, and the Obs. 2d. There are no void spaces in Regulations of the Governors.General water, therefore the dilatation in question
5. Political Economy, and everything may not be aitributed to an auginentation relative to the commerce of the country. of void space.
An institution formed on so extensive Obs. 3d.-By dilatation, the volume a plan, ought necessarily to multiply the of the water is augmented; therefore, number of professors; but the act for to allow of this augmentation of voluine, regulating these particulars, leaves this something that occupies space must be matter undecided, and the patronage is acquired. accordingly vested in the Governor-Ge. Obs. 4th.-What is acquired is not neral for the time being. The duration Newton's suhtle ether. When the ex. of each course is limited to two months, istence of caloric and frigoric shall have which is followed by a month of vacation, been adınitted, then the subtle ether of in conformity to the customs of the Newton inay be annihilated. The dilaEnglish Universities. At the end of tation in question, then, may not be every half-year, there are public exer- caused by an absorption of subtle erber. cises, followed by a distribution of prizes. Obs. 5th.-An alteration in the arTie professors and scholars must remain rangement of the aqueous molecules canwithin the saine edifice, in conformity to not, of itself, cause the dilatation in the customs of Oxford. Tlie immediate question. If such an arrangeinent takes inspection of the whole is confided to an place, it must enlarge the interstices beEcclesiastic of the church of England, tween the aqueous molecules; and, duwith the title of Provost; there is also a ring their enlargement, something must Vice Provost. To these is entrusted the be absorbed. These interstices are not Téception of scholars, the superinten- void spaces; yet they cannot be filled, Hence of their morals, their instruction in unless they be pervaded by frigoric. religious principles, &c. &c. After Obs. 6th.-The dilatation in question Seven years of uninterrupted attention, cannot be caused by a formation of gas the Provost, Vice-Provost, together with in the characler of small bubbles. There
is not any evidence of the existence of expansion is accompanied with an absuch bubbles.
sorption of caloric. Obs. 7th.-Crude water contains a Water expands on congealing at 320. quantity, equal in bulk to two hundredths This expansion may be attributed to an of its own volume, of atmospheric air, absorption of frigoric. Pressure, which which is disengaged as the water ap: retards and totally prevents evaporation, proaches to a state of congelation; there. retards and probably entirely prevents, fore the dilating water may contain small the consolidation of water; but nothing bubbles of atmospheric air: nevertheless, important can at present be inferred the water contained this air when at 36o; from this circumstance. therefore, though this air is separated Obs. 9th -Modern experiments teach, from the water as it approaches to 320, that 146° of caloric escape from water yet, as nothing calculated to occupy space during the expansion of congelation, is acquired, the volume of the water The loss of this caloric, were not an equiought not to be augmented.
valent absorbed, would decrease the voObs. 8th.—Boiled distilled water, which lume of the water. Though 146° of cacontains no atmospheric air, dilates as Toric have escaped, yet the volume of its temperature approaches 320 or 70, the water has not decreased, but it has from 36o. In this instance, bubbles of increased; therefore, an equivalent for air can have no influence on the dilata. the 146° of caloric escaped must have tion in question.
been absorbed. The equivalent may The foregoing observations shew, that be frigoric. the dilatation which water undergoes, Obs. 10th.—The expansion enlarges while its temperature sinks from S6° to the interstices between the aqueous 320 or 70, cannot be accounted for with molecules; consequently there must be Out admitting the existence of frigoric. absorbed of frigoric a quantity sufficient, But, by supposing that frigoric exists, and not only to occupy the space left by the that it is absorbed during the dilatation 1460 of caloric that have escaped, but in question, the difficulties attending à also to fill the interstices after their en. consistent explanation of the phenome- largement. non are removed.
Obs. 11th.-The small bubbles of air Before we spoke of the dilatation which often seen in ice, cannot cause the takes place in water, as its temperature powerful expansion that accompanies sinks below 36°, liere supposed to be the consolidation of water. Had ihey a produced by an absorption of frigoric, we tendency to expand powerful enough to mentioned the dilatation which takes split bousehold utensils, to burst cannons place in water, as its temperature rises and bomb-shells, and to split trees and from 36° to 212°, and depends on an rocks, all of which phenomena are caused absorption of caloric; not, however, with by the expansion in question, they would a view to advancé what might be said flaw and split a fragile substance such as in regard to the absorption of caloric, ice, burst' from their little cavities, and but merely in order, first, to call to mind explode like guns. a beautiful contrast; and, secondly, that V bs. 12th. These bubbles, since they the reader who is able to make deduc- consist of atmospheric air, which tends tions for himself, may perceive that it is to contract as its temperature decreases, just as reasonable to infer from one will, in some degree, counteract the exdilatation that frigoric exists, and is ab- pansion in question. sorbed by water as its temperature sinks' Obs. 13th.-Boiled distilled water, from 36°, as it is, from the other dilata, which contains no atmospheric air, extion, to infer that caloric exists, and is pands wbilst it congeals. Air bubbles absorbed by water while its temperature are not concerned in this instance. rises above 30°: the latter inference is Obs. 141h.-The specific gravities of now generally admitted. For similar ice and water are as 92 to 100; therereasons we shall mention the expansion fore, the quantity of air contained in un of water by evaporation at 212°, before boiled undistilled water, being but two we make our observations on the expan. bundredths, is not sufficient to cause the sion of water by congelation at 320. The augmentation of volume that constitutes term dilatation was used to denote a the expansion in question. Even though slow increase of volume; expansion will all of it were acquired during the process be used to denore a rapid or sudden in. of congelation, yet, were no other cause crease of volume.
concerned, it would make the specific Under the common pressure of the gravities of ice and water but as 98 to, atinospliere water expands at 212, The 100, or thereabout,
Obs. 15th. All of the bubbles found species of matter, as the nitric acid, ex: in ice may not be derived from the ato tricate frigoric, and make a frigorific mospheric air contained in crude water. mixture. From the surface of water there often The following observations seem to escapes, in the character of small bub shew, that frigoric exists; that it is bles, a gas; of which the sources may combined or latent in alkalis and ices be a ligneous substance, undergoing de and can be disengaged from them; and composition at the bottom of the water; that, in several respects, it bears to ata and the lungs and stomachs of small kalis the same relation that caloric bears amphibious creatures. Hence, water to acids. that is well stocked with small living crea. Obs. 17th.--Some frigorific mixtures tures, and rests on a bottom; which, in disengage a gas as they extricate frigoric, the summer season, is the bed of an in. and therefore are not proper for the prenumerable tribe of aquatic plants, that sent inquiry: those only from which no undergo decomposition in the following gas is disengaged, will be considered winter, is covered, during a frost, with here. Of the latter class there are some ån ice nearly full of bubbles.
in each, of which the sum of the volume Obs. 16th.-Supposing a specific ar. is less than the sums taken together, of rangement of the aqueous molecules in the volumes of the ingredients before ice may, perhaps, account for the aug. they were mixed. Suppose one of this mentation of volume that accompanies class-its volume has decreased, there the consolidation of water; it implies, fore something calculated to occupy however, nothing concerning what is abó space must have escaped. Gas has not sorbed. The result of this arrangement, escaped. Caloric has not escaped : there if it takes place, is an enlargement of has been an influx of caloric. But fri. the interstices between the aqueous mole- goric, if it exist, may have escaped, and, cules; consequently, since these inter- by escaping, may have caused the de stices are not void spaces, they must im. crease of volume. Bibe something, which probably is fri. Obs. 18th. The simplest frigorific goric.
process is the thawing of common ice. Without admitting the existence of When ice liquefies, it absorbs 1469 of frigoric, the expansion in question, as caloric; therefore, since this absorption must appear from the foregoing observa. is accompanied by no increase, but by a tions, cannot be satisfactorily accounted decrense of volume, the ice, hereby confor: any hypotheses hitherto employed verted into water, derelopes 146° of fri. does not say what is acquired. But, sup- goric, and a little more. posing the volume to be increased two Obs. 19th, Philosophers maintain per cent, by bubbles of atmospheric air, that the decrease of temperature about and six per cent. by latent frigoric; or a frigorific inixture, is thus caused: the otherwise, none per cent. by bubbles of mixture, by virtue of an increased capaair, and eight per cent, by latent frigoric, city for caloric, absorbs that efiluvium very would rery well account for the pheno- rapidly froin the surrounding medium, menon. Whether the two hundredths Did such a rapid absorption take place, of atmospheric air contained in crude and did no frigoric, at the same time, water has the effect of lessening, by two escape, the volume of the mixture would per cent, the specific gravity of water on he increased, and not decreasell: hence its conversion into ice, may probably be appears a detect in the method com. proved by ascertaining and comparing monly employed to account for the phethe specific gravities of ice formed of nomenon in question. When by virtue boiled distilled water, and of ice formed of an increased capacity, a body absorbs
caloric, and thereby causes cold, it sufWhen an acid, as the vitriolic, and fers an augmentation of volume. Water, some other species of inatter, as common alcohol, and ether, when they evaporate, Water, are inixed, they form a calorific absorb caloric, and produce a depression bixture. The sum which denotes the of temperature; but their volume is volume of the mixture is less than the thereby augmented. sums taken together, which denoted the Obs. 20th.--Nitric and sulphuric acids, Volumes of the ingredients before they which are ingredients in many frigorific were mixed. With an extrication of ca mixtures, contain latent caloric; thereJoric, then, there is a diminution of vo. fore, were what has escaped to produce
the decrease of volunie afforded by the Some of the alkalis, amongst which acids, it ought to be caloric, and the in. classes ice, when mixed with some other gredients ought to make a calorific mix
of crude water.
ture. Alkalis and comnion ice, which thus yielded by the thermometer be. pre ingredients in many frigorific mix- comes radiant caloric, which is reflected tures, contain, according to the opinion at A, and again at B, and brought to of the writer, much latent frigoric, i here- a focus at b; that the frigorific mixfore, admitting this opinion, what es- ture at b, absorbs the caloric, and with caped to produce the decrease of volume an avidity that causes the thermometer was frigoric, which was afforded by the to emit, very rapidly, its caloric. To alkall--hence, as it ought to be, the this explanation there are objections. compound is a proper frigorific mixture. Obs. 21st.–After having admitted the
At fifteen feet apart, place two metal. self-existence of cold, it is not inconlic mirrors in such a position, that the sistent to say, that frigoric, by penetratreflecuing surface of one shall face the ing the thermometer, depresses its temsame surface of the other, and the focus perature, or, in other words, decreases of each shall be in a line with the focus the volume of its mercury: it is a fact, of the other, and with the centres of that any liquid, whilst at a temperature hoib the mirrors. Each mirror shall be higher ihan the temperature at which it concave, and shall have a focus at eigh- attains its greatest density, decreases in teep inches from its surface: between the volume as it absorbs frigoric. The cause focusses there will be a distance of twelve of this fact needs not to be explained feet. Call one reflecting surface A, and bere: it is governed by the law that re. its focus a; the other B, and its focus 6. gulates that oscillation, as to its volume, · Ala, place the bulb of a delicate iber- which water undergoes when its tempe. memeter; at b, a calorific mixture. rature is hurried, from 400 through 360
Philosophers allow that caloric escapes to 320, and from 320 through 56° to 40°, from the calorific mixture, becomes ra- alternately, diant in the terrestrial atmosphere, and Obs. 22d. Whilst the apparatus is forms divergent rays; that soine of these perfect, the thermometer, which is twelve rays impinge on the surface B, and are feet from the frigorific mixture, continues jetlected; that, after this reflection, they at a temperature lower than the tempera. become parallel rays by virtue of B's ture of the air with which idis in contact; concarity; that these parallel ravs im- but, when either of the mirrors is repinge on the surface A, and are a second moved, its temperature rises till it is equal time reflected; that, after the second to the temperature of the contiguous air; reflection, they become convergent rays this proves that the frigorific mixture acts by virtue of A's concavity, and form a on the thermometer by means of reflected focus at a; and that the thermometer, rays, which inust be eighteen feet in baving its bulb at.a, readily absorbs the length, caloric, and acquires hereby an elera. The depression of temperature in the tion of temperature.
thermomeier at a, produced by the frigo, For the calorific mixture at b, substi. rific mixture at li, may be easily explain. tute a frigorific inixture. In this case, ell, as inay be learned from what has the writer supposes, chat frigoric escapes already been said, by admitting that fris from the frigorific mixture, becomes ra- goric exisig. The mode of explanation diant in (be icrrestrial atinosphere, and used by philosophers who deny the estive forms divergent rays; that some of these vial existence of cold is objectionable, rays are reflected at B, and are hereby as may be learned from the following obmade parallel rays; that these parallel servations. says are reflected at A, and are hereby Obs. 230.-The first position of these made convergent rays; that these con- philosophers seems to be, that caloric vergent rays form a focus at a, penetrate escapes from the thermometer into the the thermometer, and depress its tempe- atmosphere, and then becomes radiant, rature. Thus frigoric, l ke caloric, obeys Be it remembered, i hat soon after the adthe laws of radiation and reflection. justment of the apparatus, the thermo
Wbilst a frigorific mixture remains at b, meter will have attained a tenperature the thermometer at a continues at a lower than the temperature of the atmostemperature lower than the temperature pheric air with which it is in contact. of the atmospheric air with which it is in. In this state of the circumstances the contact. To account for this fact, phi- thermometer cannot yield its caloric: 110 Josophers who deny that cold exists, substance yields its caloric to another maintain that the temperature is higher when the temperature of that substance at a chan at b; that therefore a, the is higher than its own temperature. How thermometer, must yield caloric to b, then shall caloric escape from the therthe frigorific mixture ; that the caloric moweter and become radiant? In fact,