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them bad enough truly !) and would be plaintive tenderness of a Bowles, and ready to exclaim with che Roman, the lofty maysticism of a Coleridge. Such Vos exemplaria Greca,
fine writers have no reason to fear those Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna.
sweeping criticisms, although re-echoed by myriads of anonyinous hiretings : nor
do I think it would be too much to asGraiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo, sent, that they will be read long after Musa loqui.
Porson is forgotten. I have no wish to The love of what is old, is a propensity, treat learning with levity; I bope that I I will not call it a passion, of the human have a proper respect for it; it no doubt mind: it abounds in all countries, it gra. has its use; but, when such doctrines were tifies our vanily, Aatters our prejudices, promulgated, ex Cathedra, it is difficule and assuredly, too often, obstructs the to restrain one's indignation. progress of truth; and, therefore, it is not Fontenelle bas, I think, very properly aurprising that Horace should have held discussed the question between the anup the Greeks as models of imitation for cients and moderns; and he admits that, his countrymen. Distance very' fre- in eloquence and poetry, the ancients quently makes objects seem larger than have succeeded well, but it does not folthey really are, and more particularly low that the moderns might uot succeed historical distance; but, with the pro. as well; indeed, very many think that gression of intellect, it is to be hoped they have so succeeded: to venture to that we have acquired more power to hint that they have succeeded better, appreciate justly the merit due to every would be so propitious, as not to be to. writer, either ancient or modern; and lerated; and would besides, raise up that neither a dogma of the Stagyrite, more enemies than a prudent writer may Horuce, nor Professor Porson, is to be just now be willing to encounter. · That implicitly followed, whether in works they have succeeded better in medicine, contributing to our amusement or plea- chemistry, natural philosophy, astronomy, sure, or those which lead more imme- and the arts of life, adınits no question.; diately to the pursuit of justice, or the It has been made a question, and, discriinination of truth.
indeed, is now become more questionPerhaps it might be said, that such able than ever, whether much attention opinions are harmless, and that every to classical studies be not mischievous to inan of understanding will judge for him the progress of the human mind. It self: not exactly so. Reviews are, even mighi be argued, chat, in studying a lan. now, notwittistanding the low reputation guage, we not only adopt the words of which their anonymous dogmatizers have the author whom we read, but, such is procured for them, too much encouraged the nature of the human mind, that too and referred to, even by those whose often, in spite of our previous deterini. understandings ought to direct thiem nations, we adopt the author's ideas also : better :-a pointed figure, how untrue and it may be illustrated more clearly by soever; a curn of wit, no malter how observing, that we insensibly acquire the much distorted; in short, any thing pic habits, manners, and modes of ihinking quant to amuse the reader, no matter at of those persons with whom we asso. what expense of reputation to an author, ciate, be those babits and modes of -and the business of reviewing is ac. thinking good or bad ; if at the same time complished. Who that had faith in the we have a previously good opinion of Review above quoted, would think that those persons, their sentiments and manSouthey had any species of merit; or ners will, doubtless, have greater weight: who, listening to the dogina of Porson, exactly so with classical learning; an inwould not conclude that modern poets stence of which, in an extreme degree, were all blockheads, and Ilomer and is, I presume, in the recollection of all Virgil without a fault? Dr. Johnson, in the learned readers of the Mootbly Mathe plenitude of his powers, and the gazine. unrelenting severity of stricture, never. How! says the Professor, lift your advanced a sentiment so repugnant to pen against those pursoits which have truth, or so replete with splecii.
for ages been held sacred ; which have, Fortunately, for good taste and good in almost every nation of Europe, insti. writing, the age is not deficient in minds tutions set apart for the avowed purpose both able and willing to set a proper of inculcating them? What (says be) ' value on the elegant simplicity and will become of theology-what of law Spaitan boldness of a Southey, the what of medicine, without a classical
education; education!-My dear Mr. Professor, do grown babies--to remove the noxious not mistake me. I do not certainly object umbrage which darkens the human to an institution, the avowed design of mind, and let the broad day-light of reawhich was, or is, to retain and convey to son visit it without intervening clouds, posterity a knowledge of the ancient To conclude, in the words of Fontenelle, languages of Greece and Rome, through Rien n'arête tant le progres des choses, the medium of Professors set apart for rien borne tant les esprits, que l'admia the purpose: and if you, and others of rution Ercessive des anciens. your taste, are desirous of wading through
JAMES JENNINGS. the troubled flood of ancient learning to Huntspill, June 25, 1812. the opposite shore, do so; I, and many others, may be contented to bathe our To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. feet a little, and land upon the first plea SIP, sant islet in our way. But, sir, let not T HERE send you the few conclusions your having so waded, give you an ex. 1 I have been enabled to draw from a clusive right to those places and pre- series of experiments lately made on eminences in society, where, abilities some bad dollars. Haring met with being equal, competition ought to be several which carried such external marks equal and open to all. Some of your of goodness about them that I could not objections are worse than useless.--Law, suppose them base, though they asterfor example, which ought to be made so wards proved to be so, I was induced to simple, that he who runs may read, is try what composition they were made of, too often a ready mischief when en, in order to find out how to distinguish veloped in learned terms, or the mys. them from good coin. In the first place, teries of a foreign idiom. Of theology, I I will observe, that good dollars never say nothing. " But there are situations weigh less than six drains, hifty-five grains which it is impossible to fulll, without apothecaries' weight; one in twelve that an acquaintance with Latin at least : how I weighed was only six dranis and fifty would a physician's prescription look in grains; but the ignoble coin seldom or English, and what would bis patient never weighs more than six drams and think of it?" Sir, I am afraid that, tou fifteen grains, and cannot be made liea. often, the patient would think very little vier without being distinguished by its of it indeed : but the physician of ge- extraordinary size, copper (of which it is nuine science will never wish to deceive made) being so much lighter than silver, his patients: it is neither his interest nor I tried each with different acids, and bis duty. I have heard of one modern found concentrated sulphuric had no physician who prescribes in plain En effect on either, nor had strong nitric glish; and I have also heard that the acid much; the latter formed a black reason of his doing so is, because he does mark on both, which would rub off withe not understand the Latin. This is, he. out hurting their appearance. A mix. yond question, i calumny designed to ture of four parts strong nitric, and one injure him with those who cannot dis- part sulphuric acid, is the best test of criminate: I have no doubt but his doing the goodness of silver, as it immediately so originates in superior comprehension, made a green and effervescent solution and the disgust which he feels at the when dropped on bad coin, and produced toutine of his profession. “But, sir, but little change on good, the reason of classical learning enables you to think which will be obvious to those of your with more precision, to write with more readers who have observed metallic salts, correctness, and to speak with more and their solutions. In dissolving a bad energy and effect." Study it then; but dollar in nitric acid of spec. grav. 1.280, only so inuch as is necessary for such there was a rapid disengagensent of purposes; and, instead of making it the nitrous gas, and a rather copious white main business of your life, to the neglect precipitate, which would not dissolve. of other and more important acquisitions, By evaporating a little of the transparent quit it as soon as the object is accom. solution, I found it to be pure copper; plished.
and the white powder, which formed a We are now, thanks to the progression twentieth part of the whole, I then dis. of intellect, in another era, and it be. solved in diluted nitric acid; and, by hoves us to adapt our education to the that solution with oxalic acid, obtained times to throw no obstacles in the perfect crystals of oxalate of zinc, which was of the good work--to shake off the fell to the bottom of ibe mixture, being tranmels of the cloister, fit only for raider insoluble. From this I concluMoxtuly Mac, No. 231.
ded, ded, that bad dollars contain about nine. Jamaica or to Petersburg, is maintained teen paris copper, and one part zinc, by our commerce. It is probable, chat which latter metal is added to increase about one-tenth of the labour done in the weight and whiteness of the dollar. the country, one-half of the labour done I would advise persons to keep by them in the inland manufacturing towns, and a standard dollar to weigh others by, and two-thirds of the labour done in the seato observe, tbat, if they examine one that ports, are put in motion by our comis larger than their standard, and yet merce. lighter, it surely is bad, as coiners can. It is idle vaunting to call out, that a not make a copper coin so small as a nation is independent of what inaintains silver one, without its being considerably half the inhabitants. This commerce, lighter. No dependence can be placed indeed, cannot cease all at once, or in on ringing, nor even on cutting them, any very grievous degree. The cottonbut the above-mentioned mixture of acids spinner, if he can no longer vend bis will presently discover a bastard coin. yarn in Hamburg at the old price, will Should you think these few hasty obser- sell it so much lower as shall tempt the vations worth inserting in your valuable smuggler to carry it thither. He will Compendium of general information, you offer less for his next purchases of cot. may perhaps decrease the circulation of ton; and, when the raw material, or the bad money; at any rate, you will oblige estate on which it is grown, has accepted your constant reader,
its share of the depreciation, the march SAMUEL BEDDOMS, of commerce, again proceeds, through a 163, Borough, July 17, 1812.
bye-road indeed, and with profits some
what diminished, but so that each indiFor the Monthly Magazine, vidual engaged still finds his account in DOUBTS about the supeRLATIVE UTILITY it. Coramerce is indestructible, thougla of AGRICULTURE.
not invulnerable. QURELY the dissertation of Mr. A similar process will take place in alt D Spence, entitled “ Britain indepen the leading branches of trade, agents dent of Commerce," has more popula- will be removed to the sites of neutrality, rity than merit. The author begins by vessels will apparently change their saying, that Bonaparte has given us the owners, and capitals their proprietors; title of a Nation of Shopkeepers. His but all the traffic will still go on, for predecessors, the Girondists, first adopted which luxury will afford to pay. If some the phrase, nation bouliquiere, as a term labour is cashiered, some new work of reproach. It comes out of Condor. arises. If some capital is set at liberty, cet's translation of Adam Smith; so that this will at first lodge itself in the funds. we owe the appellation to our greatest and raise thein; it will next explore thase pative philosopher. This remark, else domestic lines of industry, which are ununimportant, proves in Mr. Spence a derstocked; and some internal prosperity negligent study of the Wealth of Nations, will arise from the cessation of exiernal · where the expression first occurs. relations. But this very rise of the
Commerce, if it has any definite mean- funds, and these speculative exploits of ing, includes all the branches of foreign domestic industry, prove, that the profits trade; as well those carried on with our of capital are declining; and this of itself colonial dependencies, as with inde. inconveniences an iinportant fraction of pendent nations. Commerce, therefore, the community. einbraces the intercourse occasioned by Mr. Spence follows the ridiculous dis. all our imports, and by all our exports. tribution of Quesnoi, and the French Every vessel wbich arrives, or sets sail, economists, as if agriculture was not a at any of our havens, is freighted by our branch of manufacture. The capital commerce. Every merchant who colo employed consists, in a superficial extent lects, every poiter who removes, every of soil; in certain work-rooms called sailor who transports, the wares we send barns, &c.; in utensils and instruments, abroad, or send inland, is maintained called ploughs and waggons; in raw ma. by our coinmerce. Every manufacturer, terial, such as seed, cows, &c.; by the and manufacturer's journeyınan, em. apt managenient of which, a certain played in shaping the iron, woollen, quantity of butter, cheese, hay, and corn, ensthen, and cotton wares, for the use of is made or manufactured in the course the foreign consumer, is maintained by of the year, and carried to market. Now, our commerce. Every farmer, whose if the capital value of the estate, fixtures, wool is sent in the form of cloth, or whose machinery, raw material, and circulating barley is sent in the form of porter, to capital, employed on a farm, to put the
requisite human labor in motion, be all last volume. He seems to think that estimated, it will be found that agricul. the position of the members of the ture is the least profitable of all the sentence in question constitutes the accufurons of etnployment, into which a na- racy or inaccuracy of the phraseology. tion can throw its capital; and that every But his explanation, I must confess, does other branch of manufacture is to be not carry conviction to my mind. The preferred.
sentence under consideration consists of In agriculture, (1) the capital invested two comparisons, connected by a conjunccan be returned but once a year, by the tion. In Murray's altered construction, nature of the seasons; (2) the value of the latter member of the second compathe yearly produce bears a much lower rison being omitted, it must, I conceive, proportion to the capital invested, than by the rules of composition, be supplied in other trades; (3) the proportion of from the latter member of the former capital issued in wages is very small, so comparison; and, if so, the latter compathat it affords maintenance to compa- rison would be but not so much adratively few persons; (4) and finally, mired than Cinthio,' which is neither the objects it creates are so rapidly de- grammar nor sense. Had the sentence structible or consumable, that its very been 'He was as much beloved as Cine" additions to national wealth are pecoe thio, but not so much admired,' the elliarly short-lived. Adam Smiths, who lipsis would of course have been pere draws a different inference, has wholly sectly legitimate, because it could have Genitted to estimate the capital value of been regularly supplied. These are my the estate to be cultivated, in his account ideas upon the subject. of the relative profits of agriculture; and, Murray, it does indeed appear, has, in by this blunder, has founded the per. some later editions of his Grammar, said zicious partiality of our government to something incidentally respecting as in its the landed interest.
pronominal sense, but not so definitively There are two sources of wealth, as might be wished. I see no reason why Dature and labor; or, as the ancients it should not be classed among the pro. expressed it, matter and form; the ma- nouns, as well as the conjunctions, in the terial of every thing being from nature, same manner as the word that. and the form from man. But there is Hanslope, W.SINGLETON. not more merit and more utility in being July 2, 1812. bosied about the wheat, which is the raw material of bread, than in being busied To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, about the flour, which is the refined ma. terial. On the contrary, the ruder the
SIR, labor bestowed, the lower the occupa. V OU amused your readers in a late tan; and the less profitable also to the 1 Magazine by an enuineration of the individual and to the coinmunity.
extraordinary prices fetched by some liteBir. Spence adopts the indefensible rary lumber at the sale of the late DUKE doctrine, that some sorts of labor are of RoxBURGHE; and it may prove equally unproductive; as that of barristers, ac useful to inform them that at a book-sale tors, dancers, fiddlers. All labor is near this town, which took place last productive, in the exact proportion in week, some sets of modern and more which it is paid. Mr. Spence also useful books fetched prices equally consi. roaintains, that, by making and selling a derable, but perhaps far more justificoach, no addition is made to the na. able. rional wealth; whereas, exactly so much A well bound set of the UNIVERSAL is added, as was laid by in the form of HISTORY, in 65 volumes, was sold for 431. profit by the coach-makers, or in the A sete of the MONTHLY MAGAZINE, in form of savings by bis journeymen, The 32 volumes, Russia backs, 241. 185. 6d. balance of production over consumption, A Set of Dodsley's Annual Register, in constitutes the anuual increase of na: Russia, 45 volumes, 271. 55. tional wealth. These things are so ob And the ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, vious, that one wonders at hearing them with Supplements, calf gilt, 116, 12s. controverted.
It gratified me to see useful books
fetch such respectable prices, exceeding, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I believe, what they are usually marked SIR,
in the London catalogues. In ihree days I MUST request your permission to our country auctioneer knocked down I make a few observations by way of one thousand pound's worth of modern Egawer to Mr. J. Payne's letter in your books, the late property of an unfortu
P2 . nate
nate manufacturer, to the neighbouring characters and descriptions, is' nothing clergy and country squires.
wonderful, it was precisely what might Huddersfield, T. G, WILLIAMS. have been expected; but that her inind, July, 1812.
superior to all the fascination of the flat
tering distinction arising from the patronTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. age, che intimacy, and the friendship of SIR,
the highest church dignitaries, should noAMONG the many distinguished fe- bly run the risque of forfeiting all this in
A males of the last and present cen- defence of her father, unfortunately en-> tury, there are few, if any, who have gaged in a most un popular contest, is a' ranked higher than the late eminent Mrs. theme for praise on which it were natural Elizabeth Carter. Her biographer has to imagine that an affectionate biograJabored to do justice to her extraordinary pher, deeply in pressed with the sense of learning, ber early and extensive cele her merit, would have delighted to dwell. brity, her amiable unassuming disposi- In fact, the omission seemed so extraortion, wholly free from vanity' or pride; dinary, and even improbable, on the sup. her habitual piety, her affectionate and position that Mrs. Carter had really been faithful attachnient to all her more im- so honorably distinguished, that several mediate connexions, and her exeinplary of my friends to whom it was mentioned, conduct as a daughter, a sister, and a and who, being much younger than iny. friend. But there is one important trait self, did not know the circumstance, imin her character, surely not less honor- peached the memory of the voucher as able, and perhaps, in her peculiar circum- having played truant in the long interstances, of far more difficult attainment, vening period of more than half a centuwhich he has wholly omitted, namely, ry, or at least of having mistaken time, her decided love of truth, unmindful of and place, and person; and that, even supwhatever might be its unpopularity, and posing something siinilar “ in the days which she exemplified in the firinness of other times" had actually happened, with which she defended the principles of that it must have applied to some other lier father, when under persecution for Mrs. Carter. obeying the dictates of his conscience, in This scepticism of their's prevented my refusing to read the Athanasian Creed. I taking any notice of the circumstance at well remember, Mr. Editor, in very early the time when the memoir was published; life, to have heard the highest respect at. but it happened lately, in a sale of books tached to the name of Miss Carter, for belonging to the late Duke of Grafton, having so nobiy come forward, in a pam. that the very pamphlet, whose existence phlet well known to have been written had been thús questioned, was purchased by her, on that singular and very crying by a friend of mine in London, bound up occasion. I thought I recollected to have with several others in an octavo volume, seen the pamphlet, and, although I was and lettered "Unitarian Tracts.” then much too young either to have read It consists of 52 pages octavo, and is it or to have comprehended the conclu- entitled, “Remarks on the Athanasian sive reasoning it contained, yet my inind Creed,' on a serinon preached at the was so strongly impressed by the enco. parish church of Deal, Oct. 15th, 1752; miums I heard passed on that occasion, and on a pamphlet lately published, with by some learned and excellent persons, the title Some short and plain Arguof whose judgment I have ever had the ments from Scripture, evidently proving highest opinion, (clergymen of the esta. the Divinity of our Saviour.' In a letter blistiment,) that a very high respect for to the Rev. Mr. Randolph, rector of the character of the author was indelibly Deal; by a Lady." Under which is writfixed in iny mind; and I opened her me. ten, as I believe, in the Duke of Grafton's moir with more peculiar interest, not own hand, By Mrs. Carter. The foldoubting that it would contain a detailed lowing is the appropriate inotto: " * To us account of so memorable a transaction, there is but one God, the Father, of Judge then, Sir, of my surprise and dis. whom are all things, and we by hira; and appointment at finding, on a careful pe- one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all rusal, that it is never once adverted to things, and we by him,' 1. Cor. viü. 6. through the whole narrative!
Printed for R. Griffiths, at the Dunciad, That the talents of Mrs. Carter, her Paternoster-row." It is written in a style extraordinary learning, her agreeable per- of polished irony; takes no notice of the son, and amiable temper, should have prosecution carrying on against Dr. Car attracted a crowd of admirers, of various ier by the mayor and corporation of Deal