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of Europe. A French army has marched TV. THE OTHER ITALIAN STATES. towards Lisbon, while the Prince Regent, " During the course of this year, the with his treasures and his feet, has gone States of the Church have experienced a in search of a new kingdom. The King great revolution; the secular power of the of Spain has ceded his rights to the Ein. pope hay been confined to a very limited peror Napoleon, who has conveyed them extent of territory in the vicinity of to his brother Joseph, King of Naples; Rome; the March of Ancona, together assigning the throne of the Two Sicilies to with Urbino, Camerino, and Macerata," his brother-in-law Joachim, Grand Duke having all been re united to the kingdom of Berg, who has resigned his possessions of Italy. In 1792, the holy father, 'withe in Germany to the ein peror. One por: out reckoning considerable possessions tion of the Spanish nation, with a view in Italy, possessed the Counties d'Avig

of opposing those arrangements, has come non and Venaissin, together with the ' menced a civil war in the Peninsula; the duchy of Benevento, and Pontecrirro,

English, who are their allies, hate re. which constituted an extent of 360° occupied Portugal, and the French in square leagues, with 2,100,000 inha. cheir torn have advanced against both." bitants; but at the present moment be

11. THE KINGDOM OF ITALY. only retains Roine, with the Campagna, “ Several decrees for the internal admia and the legations of Viterbo, Spoleto, fistration of this portion of the French and Perugia, comprehending 510 square empire have been enacted; à consulta. leagues ; together with 620,000 inha." tive senate hath assuined the place of bitants. * Sicily and Sardinia, still obey the legislative section in the council of their former nasters; the luniau isles are state; the order of the iron crown has occupied by the French; Malia is in been augmented; the city of Venice has corporated with Great Britai; and as to obtained great privileges; a treaty of Lucca and Piombino, they present nothing coinmerce has been concluded with remarkable. Bavaria; an exchange has been founded v. SWITZERLAND, THE PAYS DE VAUD, at Milan; and the whole of the internal

AND NEUFCHATEL. adıninistration has been assimilated as “ These thice states have not experi. nearly as possible, with that of France. enced any political change, during this The States of the Church, viz. Urbino, year; the first of them, however, bas been Ancona, Macerata, and Camerino, have subjected to considerable internal troue all been unired to the kingdom of bles, and become also the theatre of Italy. Since the 11th of May, 1808, some of the grand catastrophes of nature. these provinces form three additional Among the works which make mencion departments, viz. those of Metauro, of this country, we have distinguished Tronto, and Musone: these accessions the following: have encreased the departments of the 1. · L'Alinanach Helvetienne,' which kingdom to twenty four, exclusive of contains excellent materials for the geoDalmatia. The number of towns of the graphy and statistics of that country. first order, amounts to 126; the towns of 2. * Alpina,' a work calculated to che second order, to 272; the villages make the Alpy better known. are 7,500, and the hearths 980,000. The 3. “Descriptions de quelques parties revenues of ihe state are nearly 122 mile de la Suisse, ou la Catastrophe de la lions of livres, while the expenses in Vallée de Goldau.' 1807 were calculated at 114,230,000 And 4. "Mont Rigi,' sketched from livres. The army consists of 30,000 nature. men.

VI. CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE, III. THE KINGDOM OF NAPLES. “This confederation, which has assure • " By conferring this portion of Italy, ed the place of the ancient union" ofile first on the brother, and next on the German nations, and which is under the. brother-in-law, of Napoleon, it was the immediate protection of France, at preo intention of the government to regenerate sent contains the whole of ancient Geri I state almost annihilated, and to awaken many, with an exception of the proa degree of energy among the people, vinces of Austria, Prussia, and Denmark, which has bitherto been vainly sought together with such stales as may have for within the walls of Naples. The only . recent publication of any value that 'has . These territorics have been since seized lately appeared here, is entitled “Ta.. upon by the French, and His Holiness him. bleaux de Naples," and "les Lettres sur self has been conducted into the dominio: t" talie."

of Bonaparte. Ed.

been

been incorporated with France and Hole interest of the public debt at 4,500,000 land. During the course of 1808, the franks, the civil list at 5,000,000, and Dukes of Mecklenburg Schwerin and the war department at 13.000.000. The Diecklenburg Sirelitz, have been ad amount of the public debt, in 1809, was mitted into it. It is therefore composed, 112,667,750 franks, and the army at preat the present niomeni, of the following sent consists of 14,048 men. sovereigns, one part of whom form the The Dominions of the King of Royal College, and another the College

Wirtemberg. . of Princes.

“ This kingdom, which is also a new I. To the Royal COLLEGE belong one, is divided into the twelve following The Prince Primale,

circies: Stulgard, Louisburg, Heilbronn, whose possessions consist of the princi- Abringen, Caliv, Rothenburg, Roths pality of Aschaffenburg, the principality weii, Urach, Ehingen, Altdorf, Schorte of Ratisbon, the county of Weylar, the dort, and Elwangen. The extent in city and territory of Francfort, together square miles is 329, and the number of with the possessions of the Orders of inhabitants 1,181.372. the Empire: these contain 38 square The Grand Duchy of Baden. leagues, and 174,736 inhabitants.

“The provinces are three in number, The King of Bavaria

viz. those of the Upper, Middle, and possesses the circle of the Mein, Pegnitz, Lower Rbine; the amount in square Naab, Rezat, Alumühl, the Upper Da- miles is 275, and the number of inhabinube, the Lech, &c. having in all an ex- tants 922 649. The revenues ainourt tent of country, amounting to 1,636 to 2,953,936 German forins, and the square miles, and 3,231,570 inhabitants. public debt to 18,000,000 forins, The Dominions of the King of Sarony. The Grand Duchy of Berg and Cledes

The kingdoin of this monarch consists consists of the dominions of the bouses of two different states, governed accor. of Orange and of Brandenburg, and is ding to two different principles: that of composed of Munster, Mark, Lingen, Saxony propor, and the Grand-duchy of Tecklenburg, and Dortmund, S14 Warsaw. 1. The Kingdom of Saxony square leagues in point of estent, and contains, the circies of Wittenberg, Tbus 930,494 inhabitants. This territory was ringia, the remnant of the county of originally carved out by the sword af Alansfeld, with the county of Stolberg, Bonaparte, for his brother-in-larr Joa. and the circles of the Misnia, Leipsick, chim, now called King of Naples, and country of Wurzen, as also the E12

The Grand Duke of Hesse gebirg, with the sovereignties of Schæne possesses the principalities of Siarcken. burg, the circles of Voigtland and burg and Upper Hesse, together with • Neustadt, the Bishoprics of Naumburg the Duchy of Westphalia: ibe extent in Zeits, and Merseburg, the principality square leagues 200, and the annount of of Querfurt, the Saxon part of lenne. inhabitanis 538,256. berg, Upper and Loner Lusatia, and the

The College of Princes circle of Coibus. In square leagues the is composed of the three following anamount is 750, in inhabitants 2,106,294, cient members: 1. The Duke D'Arem. principal towns 264, second order of berg; and 2. and 3. the Princes of towns 33, villages 5,976. The army Liechtenstern and Leven. - Tbe nen consists of 50,997 men. 2. The Grand. ones are: 4. The Duke of Saxe Weis duchy of Warsaw contains the depart. mar. 5. The Duke of Saxe Gotha. . ments of Warsaw, Kalisch, Pozeu, The Duke of Saxe Meinengen. 7. The Bromberg, Plock, Bialzstok, with the Duke of Saxe Coburg. 8 The Duke New Selesja. In square leagues the of Sase Hildburghausen. 9. The Duke · amount is 151, the number of inhabic of Mecklenburg Schwerin. 10. The

Canis 2,177,000, the chief towns are Duke of Mecklenburg Strelitz. 21. 387, the boroughs 27, and the villages The Duke , of Oldenburg. 12. The 15,847.

Duke of Anhalt-Dessau. 18. The Duke · The Duninions of the King of of Anhalt-Bernburg. 14. The Duse Polis Westphalia.

of Anhalt-Koethen. 15. The Prince of - “ This new kingdom, erected on the Schwarzburg Rudolstadt. 16. The :- ruins of ancient states, has by degrees Prince of Waldeck. 17. The Prince of

adapted itself to the constitution which Reuss, 18. The Prince of Lippe Dei has been conferred on it. The revenues mold. ; And. 10. The Prince of Lappe are estima ed at 37,375,000 franks, the Schaumburg.

The

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« The grand total of the Confederation medals to be engraved, as they appeared of the Rhine is as follows:

to him to be eininently worthy of attenNumber of confederales .

39 tion, and among others we find those of Extent in square leagues . 7,185 the colony of Corinth, struck during time Number of inhabitants 15,485,031 reign of Marcus Aurelius, on which are Amount of revenues in les

impressed the grand altar of Melicesta. German flrios Sie

*. 85,041,851

and the embleins of the Isthmian games. Continyent - - - 118,950 Here also is to be found the anecdotical

Certain provinces appertaining to Ha medal of Antoninus Pius, struck at nover were not at this period disposed Neoclaudiopolis, in Paphlagonia, which of, viz. Kalenburg, Luneburg, Lauen- bears the date of 191, and thus @sta. burg, Bremen, Verdun, Hadeln, Hoya, blishes that of a second epoch, in imitaand Diepholz. The face of the four tion of the other cities of the saine proHans Towns too, comprehending an ex- vince. In addition to this we are pretent of 38 square leagues, with a popula- sented with a medal of Coinmodus, tion amounting to 298.000 inhabitants, struck at Nicea, in Bithynia,' hitherto and a revenue of 5,600,000 forins, was published with a false legend; another of then unknown; their names are, Ham- Julia Augusta, struck at Cyzica, ju My burgh, Bremen, Lubeck, and Dantzic. sia; one of Diaduinenian, struck as Bonaparte had also at his disposal the Ephesus, which hears the image and the Prussian provinces of Erfurt, Blanken- name of the philosopher Heraclitus, orihayı, and Bayreuth; the Hessian pro- ginally of that city, &c. Among the vilices of Hanau and Niederkatzenellen: medals of Heliogabalus, belonging to the bogen, the principality of Fulda, for. colony of Sidon, M. Sestini has disco. merly appertaining to the House of vered a new type or figure, that emperor Orange, and Swedish Pomerania! These being there represented under the attriterritories amounted in square leagues butes of a priest of Astarte. Zoega preto 662,25, in nuinber of inhabitants to tended that it was a Triptolemus. 17,005,098, with a revenue in German Among the consular medals, about se. tiorins of 93.701 851.

venty in number, one only in the least 1,We formerly presented our readers remarkable has been found, impressed with a table of the extent, revenues, and with the letters Q. L. C. which the edi. population, of certain of the German tor explains to be Quintus-Lutatius-Cerstales, but the present account is far more co. The Roman snedals of the Higher explicit and complete,

Empire are nearly all of the middle

bronze, and for the most part in excel. MISCELLANIES.

lent preservation. Sestini has distin« Description des Medailles," &c. A guished a very precious one of a much Description of Greek and Rwman Me- venerated general, bearing the same in. dals, belonging to che late M. Benkowiiz, scription as another struck in honour of by the ABBE Dom. SESTINI, Berlin, 410, Augustus: “CONSENSU SENAT. ET EQ.

The Greek and Roman medals, men- ORDIN. P. Q. R.; which proves thai by tioned bere, formerly constituted part of the unaniinous consent of the senate, the the Farnesian Museum, from which they Equestrian order, and the people, a sta. appear to have been pillaged. A Sile. tue hart been erected in honour of Ausian, during his travels in Italy, obtained, gustus, and that Calogula had decreed and carried them into bis native country, the same mark of respect to Germa. with a view of selling them to some public nicus. institution, but heing unacquainted with “Dissertation sur le Dialecte de Pinthe value, he demanded such an enor, dare," &c.-A Dissertation on the Dias mous price that no one would purchase. lect of Pindar, by GeuffERY HERMANN. His death gave rise to a law-suit between - The author of this pamphlet combats his creditors and his heirs, at the conclu- the opinion of M. Sturz, who pretends sion of which the medals in question that the dialect of Pindar is the Doric or were all sold by auction. M. Sestini Eolic, which greatly resembles the prin having been employed to form a cata. Toitive Greek. He on the other band

logue of twelve hundred and fitty of contends, that Pindar never wrote in any : them, found ihat many of these had for- particular dialect but in the vulgar tongue

perly constituted the pride as well as of his native country, which was com

the delight of Cardinal Noris, Vaillant, posed of all the dialects, and he quotes - Morell, Hardouin, and Bandouri. Sese numerous examples in support of his arspai has caused sørenceen of the Greek gument."

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It is not a little remarkable that this the suhject, and at length felt how predissertation was written for the express ferable the lessons of reason were, to purpose of serving as an inaugural essay those of a master governed by prejudices, to the degree of doctor in pbilosophy, at It was then that they endeavoured, for a German university!

the first dime, to trace the source of those "dux Eleves & Aux Amateurs de forins and proportions, so often hitherto l'Architecture," &C.-An Address to copied without being comprehended; such Scholars and Amaleurs as delight in denied by ignorance, and violated withia Architecture, by the ABBE UGCENRI, out remorse by innovation. It was then architect. As some of the hints and that they discovered in the divisions and observations contained in the address of the mouldings of the different orders, the this celebrated lralian, who was at once principles whence they derived their a priest and an architect, may prove sere origin; hence they perceived the necese viceable in this country, we shall here sity of applying these in such a manner, subjoin a few of them. The Abbé begins as to proportion the solidity and elegance by observing, that, if philosophy be the of their edifices, to their quality and de flambeau thai conducts to the art of de- sigui. In short, it was at length fairly sign, architecture is sull unore indis. avowed, that the Franciscan, Father pensibly indebied to such a light. As Lodoli, so justly denominated the Socrates This branch of knowledge possesses an of Architecture, had developed a prin equal clain to the two honouraile lilles ciple replete with the most happy engof art and science, so ought its produce sequences in the two following bad Italian tions to have no other guide than reason. vernes : If atter the restoration of the arts, mo

“Debbonsi unire e fabrica e ragione, dern architects had not wandered froin

E sia funzione la rapresentazione." so excellent a guide, they would not have mistaken their own caprice for a rule; Since this fortunate return to truth, and we should not have seen the im. architects have becoine the faithful dise mense multitude of unreasonable works, ciples of the philosophy of the arts, by which occasion equal surprise to the well. not only conformmg to these marins informed spectatur, botli as to the passie themselves, but also in inspiring them bility of the invention and the folly of into their disciples. the applause bestowed on productions - And in order the more effectually ta equiliy vain, wild, and insignificant, fortify the minds of such young men as Notwithstanding this, the absurd and may devote themselves to architecture, capricious style of architecture, here says our author, “the necessity of an aliuded t", had so seduced a great majo. elementary bonk' has been intiniated to rity of artists, that the philosophical opi, me. It is with this view I bave just nions of Laugïer and Tregier, in France, published the result of my studies, and and the reiterated and sarcastical 1e- iy toils, relative to the three Greek ormarks of Lodoli and Milizia, in Italy, ders of architecture, while I have not wvere in vain exerted, in order to bring been inattentive to those remains of Rothem back to the paths of right reason. man art, which are still to be met with These mannerists, pleased with their own in such prufusion in Italy. It was ou cupricios, refused to hear her, and it was such monuments as these, that Palladio not until towards the conclusion of the and Vignoles torined their style and last century, that the propriety of their composed their models. The works of arguments bi gan to be discovered. these two celebrated authors ought to be

Milizia, it is true, was no more than constantly in the hands, or rather in the the echo of his predecessors, with tbis hearts, of young artists, that, out of dedifference however, that he reproduced ference to, and in iinitation of, them, their ideas, with inore order and greater they may contemplate and admire the method, and that with these he mingled antique, &c. thus perceive the real source some of his own natural causticity and of whatever is beautiful. The tabours of cynicism, which made bim be dreaded by such great masters, wiil enable them to other artists. Al length, they not only select and to apply the principles of the avoided contradicting, but even listened ancients, to the edifices of their own age; to them with attention. This new man- and accustom them at the same time, to ner of writing on architecture, produced contemplate every thing with their ouers a revolution in the art; for it was ac. eyes, without being blindly led by othere, companied with this advantage, that the and thus becoming the slaves of examscholars themselves began to argue op. ple. In fine, as tise advancement al be

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art itself, is the sole end and aim of my moir on the Sclavonic idiom, from the labours, I shall conclude with remarking, Abbé Dobrowsky; another on the Sclathat it is a great misfortune when an ir vonic-Germanic idiom by the late M.

resistible bias towards novelty, produces Henning, and a third for the Hungarian, 20 an estrangement from true philosophy, by professor Remi.

which can alone restrain any science In Asia, there are no fewer than one within its just and proper limits."

hundred and sixty languages, or principal “Mithridate, ou Histoire de Science dialects, while the present voluine assigns Generale des Langues," &c. Mithri- only about fifty to all Europe, without dates, or a History of the General Science coinprehending the Turkish, which is of Languages, with the Lord's Prayer, in considered as an eastern tongue. These nearly five hundred different idioms, fifth idioins are all supposed to be sprung The author, J. C. ADELUNG; the editor, from six, viz. Doctor JEAN SEVERIN VATER, professor 1. The Baske. in, and librarian to, the University of 2. The Celtic. Halle. Berlin, 1 vol. in 8vo. Part II. 3. The German.

A general knowledge of languages is 4. The Greek or Thracian. supposed to comprehend the examination 5. The Sclavonian, . of the origin and nature of all the known And 6. The Finnick. idioms, together with their classification, There are two languages, however, the history, and criticisin, oftheir written which the editor has been unable to class, characters, their lexicons, and their viz. those of the Albanians and Epirots, grammars. This science, which is cale the origin of which is not well known. culated to throw great light on the annals As to the Hungarian, it is pronounced of the human race, is not to be found in to be composed of the Finnick, Sclavoany of our Encyclopædias, and has nian, Tartar, Turkish, German, Wogool, scarcely begun to be cultivated at all, in Wotiac, Tchouwasse, Ostiac, Perinic, its collective capacity. Of the writers Sirjanic, Mordovanic, Tcheremisse, Peron the continent, Signor lewaz, à Spasian, and Arabian, languages. Scaliger, niard, was the first who obtained any in his " Diatriba de linguis Europæis, laurels in this career, and he was pre- reckons up eleven mother languages in ceded by Count de Gebelin, who did not Europe, which are five more than Messrs. acquire any reputation on the occasion. Adelung and Vater are here disposed to After these followed the Germans, who allow of; be however coats the Turkish have given a name to the study, (Allge. as one, and also includes the Latin, meine Sprachenkunde,) and possess what Irish, and Erse, as so many others, is termed a linguistical journal. M. which at present, the Latin is considered Adelung, in contemplation of the great to be a branch of the Greek, and benefits to he derived from such a source, the Erse and Irish pass generally for began his Mithridules; M. Vater has remnants of the Celtic, more or less continued it, while M. de Murr bas pube mixed. lished the prospectus of a Library of · All the six principal languages of Eu. Languages, which is eagerly looked for rope, alluded to above, came succes. by the learned

sively from Asia, with the various The first volume of Adelung's works tribes who spoke them. The descendants

treats of the languages of Asia, particue of these, at this day, constitute the com, ce laily the Chinese, to which he has de mon population of that portion of the Pridicated much time and attention.'. On world, and the fifty idioms are nothing

his death, professor Vater, one of the more than the remains of the six original most celebrated philologists of Europe, languages. All of these idioms possess and already advantageously known by common roots, which sometiines manie his excellent Arabian, Hebrew, and fest those mixtures arising out of wars." Russian, grammars, as well as by a conquests, alliances, different kinds of manual of general grammar, and a commerce, and sometimes the Asiatic German translation of the grammar of origin of nations, who have once spoken. Bl. Silvestre de Lacy, and undertook the or do now speak, the idioms in question. continuation, and has now published the The first people known in Europe second volane, which is consecrated to were the Iberians or Cantabrians, who the languages of Europe. He tells us in established themselves in the south of his Preface, that he has strictly followed Gaul, in a portion of Ilaly, and parlia the plan, the method, and the ideas, of cularly in a portion of the two Spains. lais predecessor, who had obtained a ine- The Basque, which is a mixture of Latin

MONTHLY Mag. No. 215.

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