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ing that this is the lowermost ford in Such collections. aided by those of the river Thames, I not only take it to Tradescant, Ashmole, and Thoreshy, be the place where the Britons passed, cherished the infancy of science, and but likewise that wbich Julius Cæsar should not be depreciated as the play. forced, wiien he routed the Britons, things of a boy after he is arrived at notwithstanding what has been alledged manhood. Mr. Pennant's ancestor, who by Camden, and others, in favour of lived at Chelsea, often took his great Cowey Stakes, where the water is not nephew, Mr. Pennant's father, to the only deeper, but likewise that there are coffee-house, where he used to see many other places in the said river, be poor Richard Cromwell, a little, and tween the ford above-mentioned, and very neat, old man, with a most placid Cowey Stakes, which are much shallower." countenance, the effect of his innocent

In Antoninus's second Journey, Lon- and unambitious life. He imagines this vlon appears to have been seventy-seven was Don Saltero's coffee-house, to which Roman miles from the port Ritupis, he was a benefactor, and has the honor in Kent, where Cæsar landert, to which of having his name mentioned in the being added about three of the same collection. . miles, from the millarium, (London Mr. Pennant, when a boy, saw “hís Stone) in Canon Street, to the afore- uncle's gift to the great Saltero," which said ford at Chelsey, they will exactly was. "a lignified hog.” What Mr. Pen. answer to the account of about eighty nant thus facetiously denoininates, in miles, given by Cæsar of the distance the edition of Saltero's Catalogue chat of Cassivelaun's confines from the sea, we have seen, is called “ a piece of a where he passed the river Thames; root of a tree that grew in the shape of whereas seventeen Roman miles, the a bog." He feared this inatchless cudistance from London to Cowey Siakes, riosity was lost, at least it is omitted in being added to the account in the Itie the last, or forty-seventh edition of the perary, the saine will be thereby in- catalogue. creased to ninety-four iniles, which can by no means agree with the account

AN ACCOUNT OF given by Cæsar.


ALEXANDER ADAM, LL.D. This well known coffee-house was first Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. opened in the year 1095, by one Salter,

MIS EARLY LIFE. bu had been a servant to Sir Hans The late Dr. ALEXANDER Adam was Sloane, and had accompanied him on born at Coats, of Bergie, in the parish of his travels. The collection of curio. Rafford, and county of Moray.' His fa sities, whicb were principally the gift ther, John Adam, rented one of those of Sir Ilans Sloane, being the duplicates small farms which then abounded in the of his various curious collections, drew north of Scutland. Jolin Adam and from London a multitude of spectators. Christian Watson, though respectable, It exibied more than a century,' and were not rich. They were, however, in was at length cold by public auction in such circumstances as enabled them to the year 1799.

make good their determination of keepSir Richard Steele, in “ The Tatler," ing their son at school, till such time as No. S4, has given a humourous descrip- he should be entitled to become a claiin. tion of this once far-fained collection ant for a bursary, to enable' him to pro. of rarities, and of its eccentric proprietor. secute his studies at one of the univer

The curiosities of this collection were sities. After going through the routine deposited in glass cases; and consisted of the Latin language, as it was then of a great variety of petrefactions, cn. usually taught in a parochial school, Mr. rals, chrystals, ores, shells, animals Adain turned his steps towards Aber preserved in spicits, stuffed animals from deen, with the intention of contending various parts of the world, idols, cu- for a bursary, or exhibition of smai

rious Chinese manuscripts, missals, birds, value. It was at King's Coilege that he • suakes, butterflies, medals, models, fire- made the attempt. But there his dio. arms, fishes, portraits, prints, &c. ficiency in Latin was not approved; be

A catalogue of the whole was printed was declared incompetent, and in con. with the names of the donors affixed; sequence remanded to his studies under And, under the management of skilful his schoolmaster Mr. Fiddes, of whom hands, this collection could not have nothing has been handed down to us but : failed to produce ample remuneration his name. and profit.

After a season spent in renewing his

for det former exercises, he was encouraged to admirably calculated for facilitating their go to Edinburgh, about the beginning of acquirement of a thorough kuowledge of the year 1758, by the representations the ancient writers. He had now forvied and advice of the Rev. Mr. Watson, a plan for giving to the world a set of then minister of Canongate parish, and works much wanted in their several de. a relation of Mrs. Adam. Ilis studies were partments, and which should also elim continued with unremitting vigour, and body his ideas of a proper course of study his finances were so straightened, that, for the perfect aliainment of the Latin in his anxiety to go forward to the grand language. object of bis career, he even abridged The Roman Antiquities appeared in his portion of the necessaries of lite. lle 1791, and, for the copy-right, the doctor entered the logic class in the university received from his bookseller, the sum of of Edinburgh, on the 4th November, 6001. The emolument which he derived 1758, and about the sane time began to from this work was exceedingly small, in assist young Mr. Niaconochie,* in that comparison of the vast encrease of recapacity which is commonly styled a spectability which, in a short time, apprivate teacher. For his services, be peared from the circulation of such a va received only one guinea in three luable book. The author's name was months; yet, as he had no other method now ranked among the first literali in of raising a sixpence, he contrived to Britain ; he was declared to have pro subsist upon this sum, and in a manner duced the best compendium of Ronian which will now appear incredible, lle antiquities which is extant. It was lodged in a small room at Restalrig, in translated into the German, French, and the north-eastern suburbs; and for this Italian languages. accommodation he paid tourpence per The Classical Biography was published weck. All his meals, except dinner, at Edinburgh in the lauer end of antunin uniformly consisted of oatmeal made into 1200, and three hundred pourds were porridge, together with small-beer, of given for the copy-right. It was origiwhich he only allowed hiinself half a bot- nally intended to serve as an appendix to tle at a time. When he wished to dine, the large Latin dictionary, upon which he purcliased a penny.loaf at the nearest the rector had been previously employed baker's shop; and, if the day was fair, for almost seven years, when he found he would dispatch his meal in a walk to that the subordinate work had insensibly the Meadows, or Hope Park, which is increased to the bulk of a separate pubadjoining to the southern part of the lication. He evinced much ability and city; but, if the weather was soul, hie industry, in the Geographical Index had recourse to some long and lonely appended to the Summary of Geograstair, which he woult climb, eating his phy; and, in the work now under consi dinner at every step. By this means deration, he comprised, by the same all expence for cookery was avoided, means, and within moderate linits, a and he wasted neither coals nor cavdles; copious fund of information and refer for, when he was chill, he used to run ence. He spared neither time por liable till bis blod began to glow, and his even: hour, in ascertaining the proper autho. ing studies were always prosecuted under rities for every fact and statement which the roof of some one or other of his com- be had occasion to introduce in every panions.

progressive step of his undertaking. la IIIS works.

this manner our autior's works gained The work which laid the foundation of undeniable superiority over all others of Mr. Adam's reputation was his Latin the same nature; and in this way he has Grampar. This book was published in referred the student, in almost every May 1772, and its merits underwent the page, to the purest sources of historic severest scrutiny; for no sooner was it truth, and to the best models of eloquence generally known, or rather in sooner among the ancients. was it generally circulated, than it inet

SCHOOLMASTERS' FUND. with the most violent opposition.

Upon the 20th of September, 1805, a After our author had laill at rest the general ineeling of this schoolmasters in disagrecable controversy respecting his Scotland was convened at Edinburgh grammar, le proceeded to compile "A For about twenty years preceding, it Summary of Geography and listorv," for had been regretted by many friends to the use of his pupils. This design was public improvement, that the instructors

of youth olten left, at their dealb, a nile. Now a Lord of Session, by the title of and family without any seuled provisivo. Lord Meadowbank,

Various suggestions had been made with

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a view to the institution of a public fund should return their warmest thanks to
fur contributing to the relief of the dear. Dr. Adam, for the essential services
est relatives of a class of men, who, which he had rendered to the school-
though they deserve every encourage masters in Scotland, by promoting the
ment, bare seldom an opportuuity of enactment of their bill, and in advanje
procuring a share of affluence suitable cing the inoney for that purpose.”
to their real importance as members of This bill was intituled, "An Act, for
the state. Tie object of this meeting raising and securing a Fund for the relief
was to deliberate upon the most efficient of widows and children of Burgh and
mode of putting these suggestions into Parochial Schoolmasters in Scotland;"
execution, but no regular measures were and includes a variety of minute regula-
adopted, though the public attention was tions. These are not of immediate con
excited in a considerable degree. An sequence; but it may be proper to give a
individual, present at the meeting, after- brief sketch of the state and nature of
warris threw out a hint intended for pro- the institution. The contributors are
moting the objects in view. He pro divided into five classes. The first is
posed that the co-operation and support assessed in the annual payment of five
of Dr. Adam should be requested in the guineas, and so on to the fifth, or lowest,
Most particular manner; these objects which pays one guinea yearly. The
being thought highly desirable, both on sum thus raised is subject to various
account of the doctor's prominent situa. limitations, and is vested in trust, in the
tion as a teacher, and his extended infiu- name of a cashier, chosen from among
ence and connection. This hint was the members at the general meeting.
adopted without delay, and the recior The widows of contributors receive aile,
benevolently lent a willing ear to the re- puities in proportion to the payınents
quest of his brethren, He exerted bim. made by the class to which their hus-
selt among his friends in public capaci. bands may have belonged. A widow of
ties, who couldi assist them in facilitating a contributor of the first class draws 251.
the completion of the plans which had per annuin, and those of the fifth receive
been laid down; and he advanced from 51. Dr. Adam was chosen cashier, and
his private funds nearly 3701. being the officiated, from the commencement of
amount of expence incurred in procuring the proceedings under the act, till his
an act of parliament. Those friends death. The writer had occasion to
who assisted the doctor in bis laudible know, from his own observation, tbat
exertions exclusively belonged to that hardly a day passed in which the doctor
set of inen, to whose endeavours huma. did not perform some service to the in-
nity is indebied for the abolition of the stitution, or shew bis anxiety, in some
slave-trade, and from whom, it is to be manner, for its welfare. He was truly
hoped, this country will get derive im; the father of the measure, and he had
portant benefits. Among these, the the satisfaction to see it increase in ex.
Hon. Henry Erskine, Francis Horner, fent and respectainlicy. In the space of
and William Adam, Esqrs. M.P. were two years, the contributors were tripled.
most conspicuously anxious in manifest. At the last general meeting, held in June
ing their attention to the rector's wishes. 1810, the funds, after deduction of all
Ai a numerous ineering of schoolmasters expences from the commencement,
held at Edinburgh on the 18th of Sep- amounted to 21201. and contributions
tember, 1807, thanks to these gentieinen were diawn from three hundred and
were proposed, and carried by unani. thirty subscribers. The numbers stood
mous acclamation. It bad been previe thus : In the first class 64, the second 45,
viously resolved, that the members the third 64, the fourth 93, and the Gstb 64.

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astonishing phenomenon, than the conti. CUR l'Etat Militaire de l'Empire nued existence of the Bysantine empire,

Bysantin," &c. On the Milicary which, although feeble at its very birth, Siate of the Byzantine Empire, during yet was able to sustain itself for near the reign of the Emperor Justinian I. eleven hundred years, in the midst of the by LAWRENCE ENGELSTOFT, professor of most imminent dangers; any one of Ilistory and Geography in the University which would have proved suificient to of Copenhagen.

overtorn a great state. Sprung from History no where presents a more ancient Rome at a period when itself


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approximated its ruin, it received in its and Italy, might contribute greatly to exvery cradle che germs of all those vices, plain these events. Ilere follows an and int corruption which bring on the outline of his works, which, in audition ruin of empires. Patriotisni, simplicity to a profound inquiry into the ordinary of manners, the love of liberty, a passion sources of intelligence, presents many for war, and all those virtues which excellent remarks, inferences, and de clerated Rome to the climax of gran. ductions. deur, bad lung disappeared from the The Danube, for a long time, consticartii; while selfishness, pomp, pussillani tuted the grand barrier between the mily, and a spirit at once hauyhty and Roman empire and the barbarous da. sorvile, formed the principal icatures of tions. The Dacians and the Geta, the character of those citizens who con. known also by the general name of the stituted the empire. From the very Sarinarians, inhabited the left bank, and first ton, this New Rome was attacked on made frequent irruptions into Thrace, all sides, by oneinies much more nume. Mæsia, and Illyria. · Augustus was confus, and infinitely more valiant, than tent to oppose legions and strong for. ile forces opposed by her to them: the tresses on the right bank, to these; but Collis, the Slavi, the Huns, and nearly Trajan actually crossed the river, forced ait the riations which overwhelmed Eue the barbarians to retire towards the rope during the grand migration, assailed worth, and thos established a Roman her in their turn; the Persians, the Sara province beyond the Danube. This fur cens, and the other concoerors of Asia, a time ensured tranquillity to the posmiterwards commenced a long as well as sessions on the right side; but notwith uninterrupted attack; while on far from standing that, several of the northern enjoying that degree of tranquillity with nations, and among these the Vandals in, which would have permitted her to and Gothis, at length advanced towards apply lierself entirely to defence against the Danube, and forced the emperor such formidable enemies, the empire Aurelian, in the year 274, once more to was torn asunder by politirnt factions, confine the dominions of Rome 10 and theological disputes still more bits the provinces situate on the south ter than the former

side of the river. But even then the To these the chief men in the state, prorinces near to the Danube, enjnyert, the grandces, and in fine all classes of the for almost a century, a considerable de community, resigned themselves without gree of tranquillity, because the barbareserve, while they entirely forgot those rous nations happener, at that periud, to external disorders which inenaced their make war on each other. At length, in common country. It frequently bap. 369, the luns, having arrived from ebe pened that the intrigues of the court, and heart of Asia, forced the Goths to cross the ambition and avarice of a few over to the right bank of the Danube; eunuclis, brought Constantinople itself all the provinces, from the Bosphorus to to the very brink of destruction : notwithi. the Julian Alps, were then by turns a standing this, the empire still supported prey to these horrible invasions; and itself, during more than a thousand years. even after the dissolution of the mo. Nothing is the effect of chance, for there narcly of the Huns, the Lombards and every where exists a series of causes and the Gepidæ, who replaced ther, reneffects, which produce those events dered this portion of the empire equally which we denominate history. It fie- unquiet. quentls happens indeed that they escare. Such was the situation of affairs wber our enquiries, but it appertains to the Justinian I. assumed the reins of governBiistorian to withdraw the veil that covers ment; and the reign of this emperor, them; and M. Engelstoft in his descrip- prored a fantastical mixture of the nos rion of the military state of Byzantium brilliant success, and the most humiliaduring the time of Justinian I. has ting defeats. The Huns had been forced thrown great liglit on a phenoinenon, by new nations (A.D. 454,) to retire to which at the first aspect appears to lie the borders of the Euxine Sea and the almost inconceivable. He, in conimon Palus M otis; the Ostrogoths pos. with all Europe, has been struck with the sessed Pannonia (Upper Hungary); and sudden and repeated capture of the capi. the Gepidæ, and the Dacians, the tals of the most sourishing empires; and country to the west (Transylvania). AL he conceived that an analysis of this length, about the year 489, the Gepide reiuni, during which Constantinople itself possessed themselves of both countries, was besieged, although the arms of the whence they were bowerer chaced, coiperor were victorious in Asia, Africa, A.D. 565, by the Lombards, who, in

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their turn, were forced to vield them up maritime coast, from the mouth of the to the A cars. After the Goths and the Danube to the Bosplions of Thrace, ina Hu..s, the Slavi, a nation entiri dy diffe. gether with the internal parts of Moesia, rent froin both Goths and Germans, els- Thrace, Macedoma, Thessaly, and the tered the country and occupied a portion other provinces, were furnished with of it, from Dacia to the Tanais; these them. One hundred and bity-two were called Sarinatians by the Romans,who legions were distributed, partly in the distinguished three nations among them: heart of the country, and partly on tha

1. The Vunedi, who dwelt beyond frontiers; and yet, notwithstanding such the Carpathian mountains, and extended formidable preparations, there never themselves towards the Baltic sen.

elapsed a single year in which thu.e 2. The Sluveni, who occupied the same territories, although tbus de enderd country from the frontiers of Styria and by so many forts, and such a nuinber of Carinthia, to the Dniester and the Da- legions, were not devastated by the bar. nube, and on the northern side, as far as barians. The truth is, that those were the Vistula,

no louger the legions with which Rome And S. The Antes, who resided nearer had conquered the world; they were the Euxine sea, and who lived after the cowardly, eiteminate, addicted to luxury, manner of Nomudes, or wandering tribes. and composed chiefly of foreigners, who These two lauter nations were accus. so far froin defending the empire, fretomed almost annually to make irrups quently combined with its enemies, and tions into the provinces appertaining to participated in the booty acquired by Justinian.

them. The number of soldiers of wluicia · The Bulgarians occupied all the conn- cach legion had been composed, was try situate between the Caspian and the now reduced to one quarter, a circumBlack Sea; these also comprehended three stance which greatly diminished bosta mations.

their confidence and courage. In order 1. The Urogues.

to form a just idea of the state of degra2. The Onogures, or Ungares.

dation into which the armies of Rome And 3. The Saragures. The last of had relapsed, it is only necessary to read tbese were annibilated by the Persians; the introduction to the llistory of Charles but the two first, being pushed forward V. by Professor Robertson. by the Avars, advanced towards Europe But the legions were not only reduced, and the Danube, and menaced the Greek they were also divided in the following empire.

manner: • There is no portion of history more 1. Into those destined to guard the tomplicated than the migration of all person of the einperor. these barbaroos nations. It is trequently And 2. Those employed in defending impossible to point out, with any degree the frontiers.. of certainty, whence they issued, what The former of these enjoyed all order of march they pursued, and where the advantages resulting from the serthey fixed their liabitations. The ac, vice, without experiencing any of the counts of the ancient historians, and dangers; they were rarely employed in more especially the Byzantine writers, war, and passed their time in idleness, so far from clearing up these facts, only The latter, on the contrary, were exposed einbarrass them the inore, because they to all the fatigues of the service, in addi. confound the whole, and often deceive tion to which they were badly paid, and themselves respecting both the origin consequently becoming discontented, and the power of those tribes, sometimes were but little disposed to sacrifice themjoining those whom they ought to sepa. selves for the defence of the empire. rate, and, on the contrary, not untre. Favour alone, presided at the distribu- . quently separating those who ought to tion of recoinpences and distinctions, have been united. It is only within che merit was not considered as any thing. Jast fifty years, that clearer nocions have The infantry, in whicha bad consisted the been entertained respecting this impor- strength of the armies of the common. tant branch of history.

wealth, was now despised; and after the An incredible number of forts had manner of barbarians, they no longer been constructed along the right bank of esteemed any other troops but can alry, tbe Dasabe, all the way from Singidu- The foreign foe experienced little or no num (near to where Belgrade now resistance; and Belisarius and Narses slands,) to the Euxine sea, for the ex- were indebted for their success chiefly to press purpose of arresting the incursions their own valour and their genius, of the nations alluded to above. All ihe T he picture of the calamitics expe.


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