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dessas require' considerable" disburse- Another kind called Guinda, is' merely ments before any profits can be derived the common sweet wine of the moun. from the crops. In a country, therefore, tains, with a inixture of the juice of where capital is so limited as in Spain, cherries, and is not much valued here, there can be but little progress made in but highly esteemned in other countries: the increase of this branch of agriculture; and the Lagrima de Malaga, a sweet and hence, the plantations are in exact wine, resembling Constantia,' though proportion to that surplus of capital' highly valued by Spaniards, is not agreewhich the mercbants of Malaga can spare, able to an English palate. These wines for this purpose, from their other con- are rather cultivated by the curious than cerns.

made an object of commerce, and the · The ancient and more extensive sys. quantity produced of each is very small. tem of agriculture is in a state equally Next to wine, the most important ara languishing, from the same cause. The ticle is oil, for the making of which there growers of wine, raisins, and figs, are are more than seven hundred mills in mostly small proprietors of lands, or petty the district through which I have lately tenants, paying their rents monthly passed. In general, the oil partakes of when in money, and, when in produce, the bad qualities I noticed at Seville, at the season of harvest, and who, being but in Velez more attention is paid to unable to subsist and pay their labourers, cleanliness than any where else, and the are under the necessity of being supplied oil is by far the best I have tasted in hy the merchants to whom they mortgage Spain. their expected produce, long before it is 'The quantity of raisins exported hence fit for market; the consequence is, that is very great, indeed this is the principal the cultivators are kept in a state of po- market for that article. Besides what verty and depression, from which there is sent over the mountains to Granada, is no prospect of their emerging.

and other places farther north, there is On the hills that surround Malaga, annually exported fifty thousand quintals there are upwards of seven thousand hy small vessels, which 'anchor near vineyards, which produce annually eighty Torre del Mar, or by ships froin the port thousand arobas of wine, of which more of Malaga. than one half is exported. The first The quantity of figs dried in this harvest of grapes commences in the month neighbourhood is very considerable, but of June, which is solely for those dried is of less importance, as an object of by the sun, the heat of which, by extract- foreign trade, than the raisins; they are ing the saccharine juice, preserves then mostly sent into the mountains, or to the without any other process; and this spe city of Granada, whence wheat and bar. cies is known through Europe under ihe ley are brought in exchange ; for, though denomination of Malaga raisins. In the some of the playas are capable of produ. month of September the second crop is cing these grains in the greatest abun. gathered, which is made into a dry wine, dance, the quantity raised is not sufficient resembling sherry, and called by that for the consumption of the inhabitants. name, but, to my taste, much inferior. Oranges, lemons, citrons, and almonds, Of late years the cultivation of the grape are much cultivated, and the more rare for this kind of wine has much increased, fruits, such as the pine apple and chiriand the merchants are not without hope, moya of Peru, are produced without that in a few years they shall rival the difficulty; the banana and plantain, vineyards of Xeres, both in quantity though not plentiful, are yet sufficiently and quality. The last vintage of the year grown to shew that every vegetable prois in October and November, and pro duction of the West Indies may be culduces those wines called in Spain and tivated here with success. other colonies Malaga, and in England PALACES OP TIIE MOORISH KINCS. Mountain; the natives of Spaid prefer I have several times visited the Althese to the dry wines of Xeres, or even hambra, the ancient fortress and palace of Madeira, i

of the Moorish kings : it is situated on There are several species of wine made the top of a hill overlooking the city, and in this district of great celebrity, one in is surrounded with a wall of great height particular, called Pedro Ximenes, is very and thickness. The road to it is by rich, and is said to be made from the winding path through a wood of lofty Rhenish grape transplanted to these elms, mixed with poplars and oleanders; mountains, where it has lost its tørtness, and some orange and lernon trees. By and acquired a rich and delicious flavour, the side of the road, or irlber path (for MONTILY Mag. No. 215.

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i is not designed for wheel carriages), country are extremely fine. The inscrip àre , beautiful marble fountains, froin tions, which are in Arabic, are worked which transparent strenins are constantly in porcelain, with exquisite skill, so as rushing down. The entrance is through to unice with the stucco ornarpents, an archway, over which is carved a key, which every where abound; they gene The symbol of the Mahomedan inonarchis. raily consist of those expressions of piety This gate, called the Gate of Judyinent, customary with the Mahomedans. The according co. Easterni 'forms," was the cieling is very beautifully inlaid with place where the kings administered juso wood of various colours, and is adorned lice. The burse-slioe arches are sup with a puinber of gold and silver orna pored by marble pillars, ornamented, in ments, in the form of circles, crowns, and the Arabian style, with bandeaus and in stars. scripcions, one of which, in the ancient The court of the lions is the most strike Cutic character, has been translated by ing part of this edifice; for nothing can some of the literati, “ Praise be to God. excel the effect produced by the corridor There is no God bui one, and Maho. which surrounds it: one bundred and med is his proplet; and there is no twenty-eight marble pillars are arranged power but from God."

for the support of the arches on which * Alter leaving the Gate of Judgment, the upper apartments of the palace rest, we passed through another, which is now in a inanner at once pleasing and magnis converted into a chapel, and with much ficent. In the centre of the court a large fatigue arrived at the Plaza de los Al marble fountain is placed, which is suyo gibes, or the square of the cisterns, uno ported by twelve lions, by no means Her which water is brought from another corresponding to the splendour of the arhill at the distance of a league : these chitecture. Upon many parts of the reservoirs are so large, and contain so building there are numerous inscriptions, · much of that necessary article, that they partly in Cufic and partly in Arabic chaprovided an ample supply for all the nú. raeters; and, in addition to the usual merous inhabitants who formerly dwelt pious sentences, others are mingled in in the Allombra. From this prospect of praise of the founder of the edifice. On the surrounding country was very line, the fountain one was pointed out, the and the niajestic Sierra Nevada seemed translation of which is, “ Blessed be he impending over us.

who gave to the prince Niahomed a haThe Moors certainly paid less attention bitation, which by its beauty may serve to the outside of their buildings, and in. as a model for all dwellings." finitely more to internal beauty, than their On one side of the court is the hall of Christian successors. The most striking the two sisters, the ornaments of wbich object which presents itself upon entering are similar to that of the ambassador's. the firsi court is a marble Fountain, in It is remarkable only for two marble the middle, with apartinents at each end, slabs, which form part of the floor, and which are supported by pillars of the measure fourteen feet in length, and see siline substance, in a very peculiar style 'ven in breadth, surrounded with Cubic of architecture. From these I passed, and Arabic inscriptions. The ball of with unch delight and wonder, through the Abencerraxes, which is on the opvarious apilltments of exquisite beauty. posite side, is so called from a vulgar The most remarkable parts of the build. tradition, that thirty-liyo members of ing are the ball of ambassadors, the court that distinguished family were murdered of lions, the ball of the two sisters, that by the King Abu Abdallah in this apart. of the Abencerrases, the royal baths, ment; n tradition so firmly believed by and the green's dressing-room, all of our guide, that he shewed us the marks which are pared with marble, and tiare of their blood in the marble fountain, and pillars of the same substance, supporting assured us, most suleinnly, that no endeaarches of the pure Arabic form, adorned pour had ever been able to remnare idee with stucco, and a species of porcelain, stains. The ball of the Abencerrases the colouring and gilding of which, after partakes of the same species of beauty a period of five hundred years, have a which is so conspicuous in the other apart frestuoss and brilliancy equal to the best ments. 'o i inimii A English or French China.“

The baths are most beautifully Gnished, The hall of Ainbassadors is a square are lighted from the top, and possess of forty feet, eighty sceť in height, with every convenience anu luxury which chanine windows, opening upon balconies, racterises the peculiar taste of the Arala. from which the views of the safrounding These batlas, QA account of the fregueet

ablutions

ahlutions required by the Mabomedan burbs., Jt is placed on a rock, with cliffs, religion, constituted the most important either perpendicular and abrupt toward's part of the royal palace, and no pains the river, or with broken crag's, whose have been spared to render them mag. jutting prominences, having a liwle soil, nificent. The queen's dressing ronjn is have been planted with orange an iffig decorated like the other apartinents, but trees... A fisure in wis rock, of great *is much inoie profusely ornamented with depth, $urrounds the city on three sides, gilding and porcelain. In one part of and at the bottom of the fissure the river the floor a perforated marble slab is in. rushes along with impetuous rapidity, serted, through which is is said perfumes Two bridges are constructed over the were conveyed. But Algore, an author fissure; the first is a single arch, resting who has paid great attention to Arabian on the rocks on the two sides, the height antiquities, thinks that this chamber was of which from the water is one hundred an oratory, and not a dressing room. and twenty teet. The river descends

The number of apartments in this from this to the second bridge, whilst palace of enchantment is very consider the rocks on each side as rapidly increase able, and I should be fearful of fatiguing in height; so that froin this second you if I atteinpted to describe thein. bridge to the water, there is the astoa The character of the whole is so remote nishing heiglic of two hundred and eighty from all the objects to which we are ac. feet. The highest tower in Spain, the customed, that the impressions of wonder Giralda in Seville, or the Monument ncar and delight which it has excited, will London Bridge, if they were placed on afford me the most pleasing recollections the water, inight stand under this srue during the remainder of niy life. This pendous arch, without their cops reaching noble palace, however, is hastening to to it. decay, and, without repairs, to which The mode of constructing this bridge the finances of Spain are inarlequate, it is no less surprising than the situation in will in a few years be a pile of ruins; which it is placed, and its extraordinary its voluptuous apartments, its stately co. elevation; it is a single arch of one huna lumns, and its lofty walls, will te mingled dred and ten feet in diameter; it is sup. together, and no memorial be left in ported by solid pillars of masonry, built Spain of a people who once governed the from the bottom of the river, about fif. Peninsula.

teen feet in thickness, which are fixed The Alhambra was the general resi- into the solid rock on both sides, and on dence of the Moorish kings; but during which the ends of the arch rest; other the intense heat of summer they usually pillars are built to support these principal removed to another palace in a bigher ones, which are connected with them by situation, on an opposite hill cnlled the other small arches. tieneraliffe, which I have visited. The It is impossible to convey an adequata foors of the rooms are of marble, and idea of it: froin below it appears sushave streams of the clearest water rushing pended in the air; and when upon the through them. A garden adjoining is bridge, the river beneath appears na * enriched with orange, lenion, and cyprus, longer a mighty torrent, but resembles a frees, and abounds in crystal fountains, rippling brook. When standing on the transparent pools, and shady groves. Of bridge, the optical delusion is very sin, late years it has been inhabited by a no- gular: the torrent of water appears to bteman, who has added some inodern rup up a hill towards the bridge, and the comforts to the ancient luxuries; and same phenomenon takes place when though he no longer resides there, it is viewed in either direction, mach frequented by the inhabitants of

SPAXISH PEASANTRY, the city, who repair to it with their pro. Having observed much of the manners visions, and hold their convivial meetings and character of the Spanish peasantry, sin halls which rival in coolness and beauty more especially within the last fourleen * the most voluptuous palaces of Asia. days, I feel I should not be doing them

justice were I to abstain from speaking TUE BRIDGE OP RONDA.

of them according to my impressions. I Among the various things which have have given some account of their figures Attracted my attention in Spain, none and countenances, and though both are s have excited so much adıniration as the good, I do not think them equal to their - singular situation of abis city, the river dispositions. There is a civilievi strangers, Gaadiarn which encircles it, and the and an easy style of behaviour, familiar bridges which connect, it with its $. to this class of Spanish society, which

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is very remote from the churlish and every man they meet with politenes, awkward manners of the English and they expect an equal return of civility; Gerinan peasantry. Their sobriety and and to pass them without the usual ex. enduracce of fatigue are very remarkable; pression, “Vaja usted con Dios," or sa. and there is a constant cheerfulness in Juring them without bestowing on them their demeanour, which strongly prepog. the title of Cabaleros, would be risking sesses a stranger in their favour, This an insult from people who, though civil cheerfulness is displayed in singing either and even police, are not a liule jealous ancient ballads, or songs which they comof their claims to reciprocal attentions. pose as they sing, with all the facility of I have been informed, that inost of the the Italian improvisatori. One of their domestio virtues are strongly felt, and songs varying in words, according to the practised, by the peasantry, and that a skill of the singer, has a termination to degree of parental, filial, and fraternal, certain verses, which says, “ that, as affection is observed among them, wbich Ferdinand bas no wife, he shall marry is exceeded in no other country. I bare the King of England's daughter." Some already said sufficient of their religion; of these songs relate to war or chivalry, it is a subject on which they feel the and many to gallantry and love : the greatest pride. To suspect them of he. latter not always expressed in the most resy, or of being descended from a Mnar decorous language, according to our or a Jew, would be the most un pardon ideas.

able of all offences; but their laxity with The agility of the Spaniards in leaping, respetto matrimonial fidelity, it must climbing, and walking, has been a con- he acknowledged, is a stain upon their stant subject of admiration to our party, character; wbich, though common, ap. We have frequently known a man on pears wholly irreconcileable with the gefoot start from a town with us, who were neral morality of the Spanish character. well mounted, and continue his journey They are usually fair and honourable is with such rapidity as to reach the end of their dealings; and a foreigner is less the stage before us, and announce our subject to imposition in Spain chen in any arrival with officious civility. A servant other country. I have visited. likewise, whom we hired at Malaga, has kept pace with us on foot ever since ;

GENERAL CASTANOS. and though not more than seventeen The celebrity of this officer enuiles years of age, he seems incapable of being him to more than a casual notice, and fatigued by walking. I have heard the the conduct of the Junta towards him agility of the Spanish peasants, and their would stamp indelible disgrace on that power of enduring fatigue, attributed to body, even if their other follies, and I a custom, which, though it may proba. fear, in some instances, their treachery, bly have nothing to do with the cause, could be forgotten. Castanos was com deserves noticing from its singularity. mander of the Spanish army before Gibe A young peasant never sleeps on a bed raltar during the last war. His police. till be is married; before that event he ness, his respect for the English nation, rests on the floor in his cloaths, which he and his friendship for many individuals never takes off but for purposes of clean- within this garrison, created a degree of liness: and during the greater part of the civility between the two hostile armies, year it is a matter of indifference whether which, though formerly common, gare he sleep under a roof or in the open air. such umbrage to the French ambassador,

I have remarked that though the Spa, who at that time ruled the cabinet of niards rise very early, they generally keep Madrid, that repeated oriers were sene fale hours, and seem most lively and to Castanos, to suffer oo kind of imlere alert at midnight : this may be attributed course between the garrispo and the cou. to the heat of the weather during the day, tinent. These orders Castanos treated and to the custom of sleeping after their with as much attention as was necessary weal at noon, which is so general, that to screen him from disgrace, but still the towns and villages appear quite de. adhered to that line of conduct which serted from one till four o'clock. The had been customary between civilized labours of the artificer, and the attention Hations, as far as his power, and the dete of the shopkeeper, are suspended during lous feelings of those who ruled bis go those hours; and the doors and windows vernment, would allow..it of the latter are as closely shut as ac W ben the conduct of Buonaparte Dight. or on a holiday..

coused the Spanish nation to oppose this Though the Spanish peasantry treat mandates, Castangs was among the first

to

to foster the rising spirit of the people. more than fifty' miles in length, and to
Unauthorised by any superior power, resist the army of France, increased by
and animated solely by the patriotism of newly arrived reinforcemeuts to 120,000
his own feelings, he opened a negociacion men, with one hundred and seventy
with Sir Hew Dalrymple, tben governor pieces of cannon, led by the most expe-
of Gibraltar, secured a supply of troops rienced geverals, and commapded by
and stores, and obtained from Lord Col Buonaparte in person. The calamities
hingwood permission to dispatch officers which followed were such as might natur
by the Adriatic sea, to convey intelli- rally have been expected, and were un
gence of the passing events to the Aus che fault of the general, but of those who
trian goverument. These arrangements equipped so insufficient an arıny, and
were settled previously to the first move weakly conceived that they had prepared
ments of insurrection in Seville; and a force equal to the defence of the kinge
when the revolution was completed, and dom.
the newly invested government in that

· SPANISH COLONIES.
city sent their secretary to ascertain if The American dominions of Spain
supplies could be furnished from Gibral. contain a population of twelve millius
tar, they learnt with surprise and plea- souls; of these, two thirds are the abo
sure, that the patriotic general bad anti rigines of the continent, whose ancestors,
cipated their wishes, and had arranged after the conquest of the country, becaine
Rith the British commander every pre subjects of Spain, converts to its religion,
paration and assistance which their situa- and obedient to its laws; and the present
tion demanded. This proof of patriotism race is so familiarized to the manners and
was too unequivocal to leave a doubt on language of the conguerors, as only to be
any mind; and Castanos, by the voice distinguished by their complexion, and
of the country, was invested with the features; there are indeed some pacis
command of an army to nppose the where die Indian race is, inore insulated,
troops of France, which, under Dupont and in others totally unmixed with Spise
and Vedel, were bastening by forced niards; these, however, are only excepe
marches to occupy Seville, and reduce tions to the general description. The
Cadiz.

negro slaves are a small body; in many Castanos collected the few regular parts not one tenth, in others, as in the troops in the district, organized the citie kingdom of New Granada and in Chili, pens, who, at the sacred call of their not a twentieth part of the inhabitants; country, crowded to his standard, and, but in the islands, and in Venezuela, the with a rapidity and vigour which has not proportion is much greater. The sexual since been displayed, fought and cap- intercourse betwixt the Spaniards and tured the first invading army of this for the Indian and Negro, race, has been midable eneiny. So long as heroism and always inore considerable than in the.com patriotisen shall continue to attract the lonies founded by Eng and; and hence praises of mankind, so long as history has arisen a much greater proportion of shall transmit to futurity the brightest those mixed races denominated Mustees triumphs of liberty, so long will the field and Mulatives, who, after mixing with of Baylen and the fame of Castanos be the descendants of Europeans for three admired by posterity. This is the generations, acquire the name, and he brightest spot in the records of Spanish come entitled to the privileges of Spaé contests, and may be dwelt upon with niards. Hence, though in the tables of pleasure, amid the dreary scenes that Spanish American population, the Spam surround it. O si sic omnia! But the niards an estimated as one sixth of the success, though not the merit, of Casta- whole people, in the estimation are innos, bad here its'termination.

cluded ibose of the inixed race who enjoy The Central Junta, induced by his the rights of Europeans, popularity, conferred on the hero of The Spaniards are divided into the Bavlen' the command of the army of the Creoles and the natives of Europe; and centre, hut basely deceived him with the latter are understood to amount to assurances of placing 75,000 men under one, twentieth of the former, or one huna his command; when be reached the dred and twentieth part of the whole poarmy he found scárcely 26,000 collected, pulation. Yet to this small body was and those were without stores or provie entrusted the sole power of the govern Sions, and badly clothed. With this in- ment. The inost lucrative offices in the sofficient, force, he had to defend a line state, and the best benefices in the church, extending froiu Tudela to Logrono, of were filled by them, whilst the Creoles,

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