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greater extent, but, in all other respects, with a portion of the water and mud would be totally inactive.

B. which they inbabit, into a capacious glus Chichester, May 21, 1811.

vessel. When the annual increase, of

which they are susceptible, was ascer. To the Editor of the Monthly Niagazine. tained, the practicability of breeding SIR,

them to profit would be determined. I KNOW of few of the minor desi. Judging from the general prolificy of

I derata of medicine more important their tribe, we miglit conjecture, their than that of some mode of increasing the broods of young would be numerous, and breed, and consequently decreasing the soon attain inaturity. If this proves 10 price, of that useful animal the leech. be the case, I see no reason why they How sbocking must it be to the relations might not be propagated in any numbers, of : poor man to be told, that bis case as easily as silk-worms. Probably one requires the application of perhaps a reason of their small increase in marshes, dozen leeches, when, if to be had at all, is the destruction made by other animals he is forced to pay for them three or four that prey upon them, and a want of shillings a piece; (their present price in sufficient food. If therefore a pond were most grent lowus.) And, if the late rage stocked with them, from which their for draining proceeds, it is clear that evcil enemies were excluded, and into which the rich will be unable to procure them, plenty of food was introduced, we might at any rate, as the race will soon be perhaps find them multiply with rapidity. extinct.

But to ascertain these points, we must What we want to know is, first, how know all the circunstances of their nathe great mortality ainongst thein, after tural history, their mode of propagation, being caught, may be preventer; and number of young, food, the enemies that secondly, how they may be artificially attack thein, &c. &c. These being bred. That much of the destruction know, I have great hopes that it might amongst: bem is caused by injudicious be as easy to breed these invaluable practices, I have live doubt. I have insects, as poultry; and that the cottager fow, in my possession, two individuals of would find it a more profitable emploge this tribe, which I have had for at least ment, cannot be doubted. two years, and they are as healthy as at I conclude this hasty scrawl with two first. In this time they may have been observations. 1. That any of your como applied to the process of phlebotomy respondents who can point out where the half a dozen times, at distant intervals, natural history of this animal is to be They were made to disgorge the blood found detailed, will confer a great be. taken in, by the application of salt, then neht on the public by doing so. The well washed, and returned to their abode, other; that if no such detail exists, the & capacious glass jar, half filled with Society of Arts could not offer a premium spring water, and containing a little more called for, than thirty or foriy moss. The water has been changed guineas for the institution of the neces once or twice every two or three months, sary experiments. certainly not oftener.

June 12, 1811.

C.S. . But, as it will be in vain to expect any great saving in the consumption of For the Monthly Alagozine. leeches, attention should be chiefly given JOURNAL of a recent VOYAGE TO CADIZ, to some mode of propagating them in

Cadix, Feb. 1809. considerable numbers, which there canA FTER a fatiguing ride of two days, I be no reason to doubt is practicable. A am again arrived here. I left GibAll that wants ascertaining is, such par. raltar on Thursday, in company with two ticulars respecting their natural history English friends, and re-crossell in the as can direct us into the right path. It passage-boat to Algeciras. Before we seems pretty clear, that, though they will could land, we were obliged to submit lire for yenrs in pure water, they will not our passports to examination, and our incrcase in it ciher in size or number. trunks were carried to an office, from Something essential to them then is furwhence they were soon restored, on vished by their native marshes. What this payment of a few rials. There happened is, requires to be determined, and the ex- to be some Spanish women in the boat periment may be easily made by any one with us, one of whom shewed us with a living in the neighbourhood of the places sort of pride the “New Testament in where they are found. Let three or four Spanish," which had been given to lier yair of the two sexes be introduced along at Gibraltar, and was one of those which

are circulated by the Bible Society in which is an operation performed by London, which I dare say you have beating the clothes on a flat stone while heard of: she seemed to be much pleas. inmersed in the stream. ed with the possession of it. We talked Not far froin hence we passed beof religion and politics, and one of her neath an aqueduct of about three huna companions expressed herself veheinently dred yards in length, of no great height against the Frencii, and, in the name of or width; it appeared to be very old, but her sex, said, that " if the Patriot Army without any remarkable beauiy in the should want assistance, the women of structure. The present system of engia Algesiras would join them."

neering would have conveyed this water Our first attention after we got to an from one hill to the other with much less inn, was to procure mules for our trouble and expence than by erecting journey; we had some difficulty in mak: such an aqueduct. ing our bargain, and at last agreed to The ruggedness of our forbidding road give about a dollar a league from Alge- now commenced, over hillocks, watersiras to Cadiz, a distance of about sixty channels, and fragments of rock, each of to seventy miles, besides finding wine us making the best of his own way, our and provisions for the muleteer.

muleteer leading the van. We soon beAs it was almost dark before we gan to ascend the mountains, tie mules landed, we could not see much of the and horses scrambling along the acclivia town; we ascended an exceedingly •teep tics, among the olise, the cork, and the hill from the water side, which led into a ever-green oak; sometimes our advance spacious square, in the centre of which was facilitated by getting into a gulley, is a large warble fountain, the corners which time and the rains bad formed into being ornamented with sculpture. The a deep path, but so narrow that we could houses are wbite-limed, and large, but only follow each other singly, while our poor looking, and very few of the inha- feet were now and then wrenched by bitants were to be seen: we were freely hitching in the projecting parts of rock. accosted by numbers of the female sex, Suchitracts as these are called “ Passes," who paraded in groups about the inn; and it is vain to seek for a better road and it was the first time I ever saw where none could be found, it was pese any of them admitted to such a place. fectly an “ Hobson's choice;" for, if'any I understand however that the prac- person mounted had been on the descent tice is common in Spain, and that while we were getting up, one party or the frail.ones unhesitatingly enter the the other must have made a retreat, as it. coffee-houses, &c. and take refresh would have been iinpossible for a dog to . ments. Curiosity led us into a bilo find space to pass us. liard-room, where some of the meanest On gaining the suminit we were envelooking fellows were engaged in play; loped in rain, and we felt it very cold, but their appearance, and the stench Our descent was not more agreeable to of tobacco, oil, &c. was too forbid- our terrified feelings than we had before ding for us to remain long among experienced: the mules would now and them ; indeed we scarcely saw a wellthen slide over and between the protua ng dressed person in the place, and we berances of the rock; on the edge of a beard many complaints of the want of precipice, overhanging a romantic valley, trade, and of the suffering of the town, adorned with a variety of ever-greens, since the Spanish troops, who used to heaths, broom, &c, while the sides were i he quartered here, were gone off, and fringed with periwinkles, jonquils, so inany men had been drafted into the heaths, &c. in abundance; they are also army: che place, they said, was nearly covered with quantities of a licheng deserted.

which in England is valuable, and is im. I slept comfortably on a straw mattress ported from the north of Europe for the and trussel bedstead until break of day, purposes of commerce. " when our moleteer awoke us, and, afterW e at length got into a plain about a. a refreshment of a cup of good coffee, we league distant froin Algeciras, and found, got on our steeds, laughing at each other by more means than one, that we had to see how we were mounted. .

been riding upwards of three hours. It . About a mile frora the town we cross. was now time to have recourse to our . ed a river, where a great number of alforjas (bags containing provisions), females, with their garinents neatly which ic is necessary for every one who tucked up around them, were standing travels in Spain, to provide himself with! in the midst of the water washing linen, previous to beginning a journey, or hay • MOATHLY MAG, No. 214.

3 Z


will get very little food, if any, on the ing man, and a woman, whom we had a road. It is requisite also to take wine, difficulty to prevail on to reccive any and this is carried in a leathern bottle, money for our accommodation, because having a wooden stopper, which forms we were “Capitans Ingleses,” “Englishlikewise the cup to drink from, the liquor men." being brought to the lips in a sort of We were joined here by a Spanish stream by raising and pressing the bay. messenger with dispatches from Malaya, The convenience of a glass for each per to the governor of the Isla. He rode upin sou in these cases is not thought of, and a gold lace blue uniform, with a huge fel. you have only to "wipe the cup and low behind him on the same mule, and pass it to the rest." We tied our inules presently began to bave some sausages to the branches of some cork trees, and tried; and here we were obliged to subsat on the green turf by the side of a pur- mit to the fumes of this delicacy, parling stream, enjoying our fare in the true taking of garlick and oil in its flavor, amid Quixutic style.

the smoke of chaff and the suffocation of . We re.mounted our mules as soon as charcoal. It would have been a breach possible, and continued to ford rivers, of good manners to have quitted him, or ride through vallies, swamps, and woody refused his solicitation to drink with uneven country, for three leagues, no him out of his cup, which, as is cuspart of which appeared to be cultivated. tomary, be pressed on us, requesting our It was now about noon, and we rested at company the remaining part of our a wretched hovel, called a “ Venta,” for journey. the purpose of feeding our mules and we had now about four leagues faragain relreshing ourselves. We had ther to Vegel, where we were to rest at passed what was termed an inn, but it night, and on our way thither we met looked more like an English barn than a some English travellers, with their guide, place for the accommodation of travellers. who were as bespaltered with dirt as Near it was a wooden crucifix of uncouth ourselves, and complained sadly of the workinauship, intended to inark the spot country they bad passed, which was not where a murder bad been perpetrated; a very consoling intimation to us. Our around it were a number of stones, route was, however, considerably im. thrown there by pious passengers who proved, as we had no mountains to as. had offered up their prayers for the soul cend, and the plains exhibited some of the deceased : this is always the custom signs of cultivation. We saw large herds on such occasions.

of cattle and some tillage-land. The The solitary dwelling where we now corn was just springing up; but as there rested, was even worse, in outward ap was no division for a road, we could pearance, than the former. It was built not avoid trampling on it. The cattle entirely with mud, covered with branches graze in herds, and are constantly atof trees and straw; at one end was a dio tended by a certain number of men to vision for the mules, at the other, close to a prevent their straying into the thickets ; door, an inclosure with rails about six feet to each bullock is attached a bell, wbose square, which appeared to be the sleeping sound is intended to denote where lie is, apartment, as we saw something like a mate in case he should be missing. We saw tress laying there. In the centre was a large focks of wild-ducks and turkeys, fire-place, formed by a circle of stones, and for the last league were saluted by the smoke from which issued either at the hoarse croaking of innumerable the door or through a small aperture in quantities of frogs which inbabit the the wail, which served, with the door. marshes. We saw also a number of way, to adınit the only light into this mares, in droves, which are kept solely habitation. The hardened earth was the for tlie purpose of breeding mules, as foor, a block of wood served for a seat, they are never put into the barness in and our table was like a stool which flax Spain. They now and then occasioned spinners sit on, not quite so high as the a display of horsemanship, by one of our knees. A knife, fork, or plate, were companions, who was well mounted on a things out of the question, but we had one gay Andalusian horse. The frequent glass tumbler to drink from, and a pitcher restive disposition of the animal caused in one corner of the place contained hiin much inconvenience, whicb was water, the only liquid refreshment they increased by the form of the Spanisha could give us. There was no second saddle, which is not at all adapted for Avor to the house, and we saw no one ease, but only for use; the pommel not belonging to the inn but a miserable-look. being low and rounded off like our's, but

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rising with a peak, six or eight inches; abound on the plains. On descending
which, on a trot, or a descent, is apt to the high land near the mountains of
strike the body in no very pleasant man. Conil, which is on the coast, our muleteer
ner; on the hind part of the saddle is a missed his direction, and we got within
slanting projection to suit the position of hearing of the sca; we were indebted 10
the thigh, and somewhat to wedge the à poor-looking-fellow who has watching
rider into a seat where he is more or less some goats, for correcting this mistake,
confined. The motion of riding naturally and were obliged to disinount in order to
causes unusual fatigue, from this con- descend with safety; our mules and our-
struction, to those who are not accus. selves getting down the precipice as well
toined to such saddles; but the Spaniard as we could.
cannot be prevailed on to adopt a more . We presently had a view of Chiclana,
cominodious fashion.

and of Medina Sidonia; the latter is a
* It had been dark an hour before we considerable town, but we did not pass
arrived in the town, and we found that through it; and the territory around it
we had not rode three miles an hour belongs to a duke of that name, who is
during the day; but considering that also the Marquis of Villa Franca, Ilis
much rain bad lately fallen, we were estates are among those doomed to con-
fortunate to get on as we did; the rivers fiscation by Buonaparte; and the Junta
having sweiled considerably, which have represented this nobleman, as
obliged us often to traverse the banks “ among those who have the most con-
to find a fordable passage. We entered tributed to the just cause of their beloved
the town by a bridge, but it was so dark Ferdinand; for since the beginning of the
that we could not see it, and we trusted present revolution, he has given the som
to our mules to discover the way over of fifty thousand rials monthly, (upwards
fragments of rock that lay by the side of of six hundred pounds sterling,) to the
the river. At the inn we were soon support of the armies."
visited by an old officer, who came to On this estale are extensive plantations
examine our passports and luggage; he of the pine, which do not however grow
gladly accepted a few rials, a segar, and to much perfection, as they are cultivated
a humper of our wine. The room pro- chiefly for the purpose of making char-
vided for our accommodation was about coal; we saw a number of men engaged
eight feet square, without a window, a in this occupation, and I observed that
table or chair; we were furnished with a the trees are not rooted up; but a stump
Jamp, and we converted our port- is left about a foot and a half from the
manteaus into a table and seats; and ground, from which project shoots that
were fortunate to get a few boiled eggs are left to grow, until they are large
and some brandy for supper. In this enough for the same use as the old tree.
room we slept on straw mattresses, spread I mentioned Chiclana to you in 'a
on the brick-foor, and covered ourselves former letter; and having passed it, as
with our cloaks, while the muskitoes and also the flying-bridge, we arrived at the
fleas tormented us in our slumbers, until Isla de Leon, and were detained at the
an hour before sun-rise, when the my. barrier 'a considerable time, while we
Leteer announced the time for departure. were examined by a priest, and other

It was a star-light morning; the frogs persons, who endorsed our passports, had not ceased their croaking, and the which cost each of us about one shilling, old officer renewed his visit. We sat off, 017 getting into the town we were again dark as it was, and gave the reins 'to the examined, but with more politeness, and steeds who scrambled instinctively over a we met with no farther interruption until path on the side of a hill, which none of the same ceremony was required at the us could disceri.

barrier here, where we arrived early in Soon after day-light we saw a building the alternoon, where an aqueduct worked several grist. As a kiny's messenger is about to demills, that were built over each other; part in a day or two for England, I shall the fall of water being conveyed from the send this by him, and I intend to take upper one to the lower, with some in- my passage home by the next packet, genuity in the contrivance.

I shall therefore conclude this last letser The country now became more cul- with an extract by way of suinmary, 'tivated than the part passed on the pre- from Padre Du Chesne's Compendio of : 'ceding day; but we had no other beaten the History of this Country, which you

road thai sheep-svalks, amid the heath, will probably say is the exaggerated der the broom, and other shrubs, which scription of an enthusiastic author.

“ This

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« This beautiful part of Europe is mighty rivers, and many lesser ones separated froin France by an extended they soften labour, enrich the soil, and chain of inaccessible mountains, and sure correspond to the wishes of its inhabis rounded by the ocean vn all sides. It tants, providing them with abundance of owes to nature this double wall of water necessaries. Neither the finest grain, and land; a strong defence against the the richest vines, nor the most delicate covetous irruption of foreign nations, fruits are scarce; and the better to Spain, happy and rich in itself, nei. establish reciprocal society, or the conither envies por desires the aid of inunication between the provinces, what. other countries. Its situation is in a ever is wanting in one, is happily suptemperate climate, and its fields are plied by the other. The air is generally beautitully fertilized. Divided into hea thy, and breathed under a sky at most mountains, valleys, and extensive plains, times serene and pure ; and disorders are it appears to be thus distributed, in order seldom known in Spain uuless they arise to vary its productions. Watered by from excess."


MEMOIRS of the Life of RICHARD in which he lived, without any adequate

CUMBERLAND, Esq. B. A of Cam- remuneration; and that he is one of those BRIDGE, L.L.D. of the UNIVERSITY of whose fate ought to reflect a blush on the DUBLIN, &c. &c. &c.

cheeks of their contemporaries. TT is no less true than melancholy, that while treating of the life of Mr. Com.

I the harvest of literature is rather se- berland, it happens luckily for his biogra. ductive than profitable, and that the lives phers, that they cannot justly complain of men of letters generally exhibit either of penury, in respect to materials: it is a sad series of great disasters, or an illo selection rather than abundance that is omened catalogue of petty evils. Every wanting. He passed upwards of ball a other profession repays most of its vola, century in public life, while his conversaries with bread, if not with affluence, tion and person were familiar to many All the liberal, and not a few even of the hundreds of those who passed the spring mechanical arts, hold out a prospect of season at Tunbridge Wells, or spent the successful exertion and advantageous in, winter in the metropolis, For many dustry. The pursuits of divinity, law, years his merits were annually discussed and physic, enable multitudes not only by the public, either as a writer of a play, to pass away their time in the sun-shine a novel, or a farce; he was known and of prosperity, but also afford sufficient distinguished as a man of taste; the earwealih to lay the foundations of family lier portionof his existence called forth and greatness, and either procure or trans, exhibited all the stores of profound litermit riches and honours on the part of ature; during the latter, he attempted themselves or posterity. But it is far to excel in the more difficult station of a otherwise with literature. Not to me!). critic, and either in one shape or another, tion the fate of many ancient poets and his name was constantly in the mourbs of philosophers, it cannot be recollected all those who possessed or affected a without emotion, that Dryden lived in knowledge of the classical pursuits of the jndigence, and that Olway died in want, present age. Nor was he himself forAdvancing nearer to our own times, it getful of his own fame. His life and must not be forgotton, that the earlier adventures are consigned to posterity, in part of Johnson's progress was spent in memoirs written by his own pen, and he poverty, while the latter portion of Mur- will live long in the memory of his friends phy's did not remain unvisited by do- and his family, who, although perhaps mestic calamities. It is inelancholy also not best able on account of their par to renect, that the name of the indivi- tiality to estimate his merits, a.e assuredly dual, who is the subject of the present the most competent judges of his private article, will perhaps be added hereafier virtues, bis domestic habits, and bis som to the list of those who have deserved cial converse. well of their country, without sharing its Richard Cumberland was born on the favours; that he has contributed to 5th of February, O.S. 1732. He origi amuse, enlighten, and instruct the age nally sprung from a citizen of London,


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