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the earth's orbit; instead of which it was chylus, Euripides, and Sophocles; the actually the whole radius of the earth's energetic inspirer of the most amiable orbit, added to the comet's distance from and exalted passions and affections, as the sun, or about 163 millions of miles exemplified by Timoleon, and first and distant from us when nearest. The dif- second Brutus; such, and more than such, ference is nearly 4 to 1.

is Alferi! One inust be dead to all exBut its head subtended an angle, in- cellence of imagination, intellect, and cluding the diffused coma, of above 4'. thought, to all power of numbers, senAnd, apparent diameters being inversely timent, and the purest and noblest at the distances, its bead would have energies of lhe drama, not to feel, after appeared equal to more than 16', or reading his immortal works, an enthusiabove the mean diameter of the moon, astic love and veneration for his name. if the earth had been on the side of her orbit nearest to the comnet. Under the actual circunstances it was

Plan of erlending the number of disbrighter than Jupiter, and perhaps equal

· TINCT SOUNDS of the OCTAVE of the to Arcturus. And, liglit being as the

he PIANO-FORTE, without PEDALS. squares of the distances, it might be ex. My plan for improving the extent pected, had it been on the side nearest of the musical scale of the piano-forte, to us, that it would very far have ex- and other keyed instruments, and bringa ceeded the brightness of Sirius, or any ing it nearer to wind instruinents, as the ocher heaveuly body, except the sun. fiure, &c. and to those which are played Its train too, would then probably have without keys, though having strings or appeared more than 200 in length, and wires, by the bow or immediate applie of proportionate breadth; so that it cation of the finger to the string, as the would probably have been as conspi. violin, harp, &c, and to diminisha greatly cuous and beautiful an appearance, as the teinperament, is very simple. that of the comet of 1743 is related to It consists in this known principle : have been.

that the diameter of a circle is to its cir.

cumference as 1 to 3 nearly, and, conON ALFIERI.

sequently, the chord of the semicircle to I have obtained the translation of the circimference as 2:3 or 1:14. the Memoirs of ALFIER!, written by I would therefore propose that the himself. I should be greatly obliged to clavier, or finger-board, be made concure any of your corespondents, who would to the performer, and the keys disposed inform ine whether the original Italian on a semicircle; or rather an elliptic arch, be procurable here in England. It is very nearly approaching to it.In conthat which I wanted, and have in vain sequence of this, eighteen sounds, distinct sought.

from each other, would be found on each An Italian nobleinan in those days, a octave, instead of twelve, without increatrue, ardent, and constant, lover of free. sing the distance between the extreme dom; a youth surrounded with all the keys; and, if the space on each side for temptations of rank, fortune, and dissi. the stops and air-chest were made equal, pation, and personal advantages, edu- and the back of the frame and of the caring himselt; a Piedmontese writing sounding-board rounded off, that semithe pure and illustrious Tuscan language, circle would consequently be in the cenin such perfection, notwithstanding all tre of an elegantly crescent-forined instruits difficulties; a man who travelled so ment. The keys would strike off at equal much, and was agitated by such strong distances as radii from the centre : those passions, successfully commencing Greek which are now most remote, would be as at the age of fitty; adding to Italy one of near (and nearer) as those in the centre the last, and highest, and only wanting of to the hand of the performer, on right her poetic palms, by his admirable and and left; and the centre would still be unrivalled Tragedies: master of dramatic at a sufficiently convenient distance, not diction, sentiment, character, incident, requiring to recede at the centre more atid at the same time of Grecian sim. than eighteen inches, or about two feet, plicity and severity in the fable and where there are the additional keys. conduce of his drama; nobly and awe. The appearance in playing would, I fully pathetic, free, animated, sublime; think, be even more easy and graceful rivalling on the same subjects, and in than at present. My reason for having some important respects excelling so the additional short kcy's somewhat longer,

and

and a little below the level of the present perament. But I thought, and think, short keys, is to prevent collision or auko, it very desirable to introduce so many ward:ess to the fingers when so many as should include all the most requisite; more short keys are added. I do not especially if this can be efiried without thok any material inconvenience or dividing ihe short keys, which are sumdificulty couid arise from this construc- ciently narrow, and without encreasing tion, as to the disposition of the wires. the distance from the perforder on the And if not, I think it would, as far as it extreme keys. The dificuity arising from goes, he preferable to pedals for the the number of keys would be inuch less reasons assigned by Mr. Farty and Mr. to be regarded in the present so mighty Alerrick..

improved system of fingering. A stry Performed as I have been accustomed you.g lady has done ine the honour of tu hear it, any periormer, or hearer, saving, that she thought this difficuky would be content indeed with this most would be soon overcome. delightful instrument as it is. But that I have never had an opportunity of is mo reason against any possible adsan.. seeing any of the instruments mentioned, tage to so exquisite and noble an instru so as to examine the mechanisın : though ment. And no one would be bound to I have heard one of them, the Temple Use the additional keys.employed for this Organ, even when a child, with eso purpose. That the same nutes on the ceeding delight, when I went with my scale should be brought so much nearer father, and it was played by SJANLEY. to be in unison with other instruments, l an always obliged when referred 10 and with the voice, where unison is in- so admirable a writer as ROUSSEAU, tended, does not seem to be an inconsi- The passage had not occurred to my re. derable object cither for correcuiess or collection. With Dorn's and Mr. Max. gratification. Ninety musical sounds well's Tracts I am wholly unacquainted. instead of sixty-one the coininon coin- I own I should much like the introduce pass, and so on in proportion where the tion of colour'd keys; both for distinc. extent is greater, seem to me worth tion and convenience, if the short keys gaining.

were much incieased, and as illustrating Il, however, I have erred I am very to the eye the beautiful discovery of Newa willing to be corrected.

TON, of the harmony and coincidente I agree in the hint that semilong is not between ihe musical and audible scale; proper to express a short hey, though between prisiatic colours and musical used for the purpose of sounding the sounds. Dr. FRANKLIN had the rims of principal seinilones. But it is a common his glasses coloured on this principki, in and convenient synecdoche, and deceives his Harmonica. no one ; as we say on seeing a mile.stone The Rev. Mr. Charles Smith knows there is another mile : using the certain my great respect and esteem for, hiin. sign for the thing itself signified. Any He will allow me to mention another as otherwise interval, is not proper; for the at least a convenient cause of the bass keys, or touches, G, A, B, D, G, are not being the upper part in the ancient scale, intervals, but signs of termini, or in contrary to whai it is considered by us. struinental limits, which command in. It is known that their principal instrutervals in music; and between them inent, the lyre, had its grave strings to are intervals definite and indefinite, re- the right, and its acute to the left. ducible and irreducible, sensible and person of the name of Riley, who insensible, to the hunan ear; but as trarelled for seventeen years with a marking the intervals between ihese de, double octare of musical tells, on which terminate musical sounds, they have ac. he had taught himself to play, disposed quired a name from lint which they thus the bass to his right and the treble to his express. And thus “ Note" as the sign left; probably because the bass required, or symbol of a certain musical sound, is when he began the practice, a greater used without any danger of misleading, force of percussion than he cou'd othera for the sound itself: and we say those wise well manage; of which the right are șweet notes;-hat note is too sharp, land, as being most exercised, is minst that ion flar,

capable. He died about March, 1806, I never imagined that without pedals on the road in Gloucestershire, aber I could pracrically introduce such an 56 years old, He was the son of the encreased extent of live scale of the sep. parish-clerk of St. Mary, Cambridge. tant, it seplaye, as should make the lle was not unworthy of being thus far O gan, Ilarpsichord, or Piano, complete remembered, · He played with twa in this respect, and should save all iein, sticks covered with cloth, not unlike to painting sticks. He has often given every yard. The number of carriages in great pleasure here and eisewhere; es. this united road is very considerable. It pecially in playing the slower Scotch ai's. is calculated that there are at least one Ile had wo extra bells for the occasional hundred public coaches and twenty wag. sharps or flats, in each octave.

gons daily, and even these form a very Troston,

CAPEL LaᎯᎰᎢ. small proportion of the aggregate, as the June 1, 1811.

carriages of pleasure, of business, and of

Agriculture, are extremely numerous, For the Monthly Magazine

Ju therefore became an object of serious

consideration, as being one of so inuch ARCUWAY through UIGIGAT6-HILL,

public importance, that some plan should A Sthis great public work is an object be devised, not only to reinove the labo. A of much importance, it is hoped rious task to which so great a number of that a description of it will not be wholly valuable horses are daily subjected, but devoid of interest; but it appears neces. also to save the great loss of time, and sary to preface it with a brief sketch reduce the number of those serious acci. of ihe present line of road, its inconve. dents which but too frequently occur, niences, and danger

from the sudden rise and declivity of the Highgate is a populous hamlet, little present line of road*. Various plans at more than 41 iniles north of St. Paul's, on different times have been suggesied, but a bill upwards of 450 feet above the level the first ever subinitted to parliament of the Thames. It stands in three pa. was in 1809. The projector, Mr. Rorishes, bui principally in those of Horn bert Vazie, engineer, proposed that ibere sey and St. Pancras. From the city should be an archway formed; twentyThrough Islington and Holloway, and four feet wide and eighteen feet high, from the west end of the town through through the bill. The first, or east, Kentish-town, pass two roads, which unite branch, to commence at 'he verge of the on the suminit of this hill and forin the hill on the llolloway road, and from great worth road, leading through Barnet, thence pass in a northern direction to &c. to all the northern parts of the king a vale in the centre of the line, where dom. There are other roads over this there was to have been constructed a hill, but they are of less importance and large shaft or central opening, the arch. little frequented, Formerly the only way was then to have extended from thiş roads to Barnet were from Clerkenwell spot to the Barnel-soall, near a brook and Gray's Ion Lane, through Maiden- below the fifth mile-stone from London, lane and {{ornsey-lane: and, after taking In order that passengers travelling from this circuit eastward round the hill, ran the west end of the town might also be through Hornsey-park to Colney. Hatch, accommodated, another branch was to &c. But, as Norden states, “this have been constructed, from Kentish, road, being very miry and deep in win- town ļo the central opening. Each of ter, it was agreed between the bishop of these archways, from one side of the hill London and the landholders in this part to the other, would hare been 880 yards, or the country, tbat a new one should be or half a mile in length. A great oppos made by the former through the park at sition was made in this plan by the inha. Highgate hill, and that he and his succes- bitants of thighgate, and on the third sors should be authorised to collect a toll reading of the bill it was lost by a majo, froin all passengers." This road passed rity of forty to thirty-nine. The follow, through a high gate, from which this ing year (1810) Mr. Vazie submitted to place is supposed to have derived its parliament his second plan, which is now najne, and which was taken down and executing, and already in a considerable the road widened at this spot, in 1769,' statı of forwardness. The objections (many years subsequent to the first form. which were made to the former being ing this road) at the expence of the now removed, bx altering the line of the Islington and Whetstone Trust, for the road to the east side of the hill, which hetter accommodation of the public. From the late surveys, which were made * Th writer of this article, during the with great accoracy, it is proved that a last three years, has had under his care, (wa carriage, travelling from Holloway over

persons with compound fractures of the leg!, this hill, has to ascend 240 feet in less

who suffered amputation; two simple frace than half a mile, and on the Kentish town

tures; a boy who had lately his skuil frac,

tures, and died a few hours after; besides a line, 244 feet, which ascent, for a consi.

Variety of contusions, &c. from the falling of derable distance, exceçds Iqui inches in horses and oversetting of carriages.

reducer reduces the length of the archway sosited in the adjacent vales, and thus an much, that it will not excecu 300 yards, easy regular ascent is preserved the and where, from the diversity of the scene whole length of the line, which will be ry and extensive views, the beauty of one mile and an half. This work, al. the line will be exceedingly great, has though it did not commence till July already produced the effect of reconciling last, is in a state to create confidence, the minds of those who so violenty ope that in less than twelve months the pub. pocedit. The entrance to this road from lic will be accommodated. To render London is immediately at the foot of this design complete, there has been the bill in Upper Holloway. It com. procured during this session, an Act to mences by a deep cutting on the right of enable a direct line of road to be formed the present line of road, which is conti- froin the Assembly House, at Kentishnued, encreasing in depth, until it reaches town, to the archway. This great unthe intended archway, a distance of 550 dertaking, for want of heing sutliciently yards, where the vertical lieight of the understood, was in its infancy ranked surface above the line of the road is up- among some of those ephemeral schemes wards of sixty feet. This open cutting is never to be executed. But the promptnearly completed, the slopes on each side ness and ability with which this work has of the road are cultivated and fenced bitherto been conducted, will in the li with osier, holly, and hawthorn, and pre- beral and enlightened mind be an object sent a pleasing entrance wthis great work, of much consideration, and is highly hoThe archway is not yet coinpleted: but, nourable to those engaged in it. To the as an auxiliary, however, a drift has experiinental arts, and experimental been cut, (an pening 41 feet wide and philosophy, the greatness of a nation 5 feet higli) through this wing of the owes much; and almost all our pubhc Dull, by which means the favourable qua- works hold out a feld, not only for dis. lity of the earth has been ascertained. playing, but frequently an opportunity of This drift was executed by sinking per- improving, practically these important pendicularly ibree shafts or wells, from sciences; and hence, by such enterthe surface to the level of the intended prizes, lasting national monuments are road, at the distance of one hundred raised of; our strength in intellect and yards apart, and from the bottom of each industry. The naturalist and geologist a direct line was formed to the extre, have, in the excavations made in these mities of the hill. From the information works, much to engage their attention, I have been able to procure, it appears as the fossils are numerous and inter. that the arch will be ihe segment of an esting. It would exceed the limits of ellipsis, having its longer axis vertical this article to enter into a minute detiventy-eight feet, and its shorter axis scription of them, I shall therefore only horizontal (went; -four feet, the under enumerate a few of the most striking. part of the arch being drawn to a radius The bill is composed of alluvin! earth, of twenty-six feet. The space for car. and different strata of clay. The straziages and foot passengers to pass each tum of brown clay is interspersed with other, will be twenty-four feet in widtli, finely crystallized selenite, or gypsum, and renty feet in height. The sure and the common argillaceous iron stone rounding earth will be supported by brick of kurwan, or Septariæ, formerly known and iron work 80 brinly cementeri, by the name of Ludus Hclmonti. These as to become one solid ina's. The stones, when burnt, form a cement, well breadth of the arch is considered ause known by the name of Parker's cement, ply sufficient to admit the passing and and will prove a considerable acqurilion ropa-sing of the largest carriages, and yet in forining the archway. In the blue to allow a fool-path on each side. It is stratum these stones are also very abun. the intention of the promoters of this dant, brilliantly studded with pyrites, undertaking, to shorten the aichi as much and often contain a variety of sinall às the nature of the surrounding earth shells. The septa of these fossils, in will permit; and it is now coufidently botii strata, are composed of calcareoue siater, that the length of the archway spar, or findly crystallized carbonate of will not exceed three hundred yards. . fume, having a beatutul veiset appear.

The remainder of the line, to the rorib ance, 'of various lues. Here also are of the archway, is in a considerable state found some fossil recth, communiy called of forwardness. It is formed by deep shark's (eeus, sometimes swordösties cuttings through the east and north teeth, but unlike either; petrified fish, wings of the bill, the earth. beig depuje fruit or nuts, inore resembling the palı

nul,

nut, and a great variety of shells. The tirely from the inside of the flowers, and Dautili are generally larger than those when they were closed, ceased; the day, usually found in the fossil state. Petri., had been very hot and showery, with fied wood is very abundant, much per- much distant thunder, the sun was just forated by the teredo; these perforations set, the evening calm, and the dew Palla are lined with calcareous spar. A pe.. ing. I mention these circumstances, as culiar resinous substance, not yet de- I have been frequently on the waichu scribed in any of our works, is dug up in since for the same appearances in a considerable quantities. This substance different state of the weather, without emits, when rubbed, a peculiar odour, success. similar to that of aiber, it is slightly It is observed by Dr. Smith in the 8th electric, insoluble in water, soluble in volume of Sowerby's English Botany, alkohol, spirit of turpentine, and ether; that the scarlet pimperuel (unagullis microus acid, baving a similar effect upon arvensis) froin opening only in tine weait as on other resins. That found nearest ther and closing infallibly against ram, the surface is partially decomposed, ex· has been called the poor man's weatherLiemely porous and earthy, filled fre- glass. I wish to bear testimony to the quently with pyrites;-that deeper is more extraordinary fidelity of this little motransparent and emits a stronger odour. nitor, and strongly to recoinmend it to Highguie. JAMES GILLMAN. the attention of baymakers and others

interested, it being a very common weed. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. in all cultivated land, and flowering pleur, SIR,

tifully all summer long. . I TOW often was it not been remarked, One trifle more, it your room and pati11 that there is nothing new under ence will admit, and I bave done. 'The the sun; the inost brilliaut and famed dis. roots of the ornathogluin umbellarum coveries having been made long before are said (I think in the same work) to be the time of those who reap the glory of good eating when boiled. Query, as their invention,

what umc ut the year?-Certainly not in This remark forcibly struck me in June.

F. stumbling upon a passage the other day Rylon, June 13, 1811. in Hasselquist's Travels in the Levont, from which it appears that the remedy,. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lately introduced into the Materia Me SIR, dica, with such success for the tape-, T ET the light of reason acquaint worm, or at least one analagous, has been U your Reverend Correspondent,' administered for ages in the East. lle (page 403,) and his R. R. Bishop, that tells us (page 388,) that, a: Cairo, petro-, Cicero and Cæsar impose no penalties leum was given as a certain specific for infidelity, nor is it of any alleged against this insect, and the attinity of this consequence who wrote their professed, to oil of turpentine I need not point out. Their matchless, works. The argument,

B. 1. therefore, is worse than childish!'

They kuow very well that such testi-, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, mony as they affect to call.good on this SIR,

subject, would not convict any man of a IT was remarked by a danghter of Lin. petty larceny, or be received in deciding. I næus, that the flowers of the nastur- on the slightest question in any court of cium (tropaolum majus) emitted sponta- law. . . ALPHA-OMEGA. i neously sparks like those of electricy, visible only in the dusk of the evening. I To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. do not know whether any one has SIR, observed that the oriental poppy (pan THE object of your correspondent. paver orientalej exhibits the same phe. 1 who has proposed a magnetical, nomenon in a very remarkable manner. query in the last number, is, I conceive, Walking in my garden the other evening to produce a perpetual motion. The with a friend, we were both struck with experiment would not succeed because this appearance at the same instant, the the descent of the iron pendulum would sparks (or Nashes rather) were very bril- be as much retarded by ihe attraction of liant and in quick succession, the petals the nearest magnet, as its ascent was at the same time closing frequently with accelerwed by the same force. The two sudden jerks. The flasbes proceeded en- magnets would render the oscillations of

, greater

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