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ment took place, the admiral command- complete seaman are fully recompensed ing at Portsinouth, had given bin an in time of war; besides very high wages, acting commission for the same ship. if he be sober he is almost certain of These circuinstances seem to infer a con- attaining the station of a mate ; and if fidence at that time placed in his profes- otherwise qualified, that of a master. sional qualifications. But the reviewer From receiving very bigh wages, and the does not mention an important occure prospect of these advantages, such men rence which took place on this occasion, are forcibly taken by the impress (they When at sea, the crew of this ninety gun never enter voluntarily) into the nary, ship actually mutinied. Capt. Patton to be put upon a footing with inferior took the instant means to quell this mu. seamen. These were the circumstances tiny, had the ringleaders secured, sume that influenced the opinion of Capt. Pale inoned the ship's company upon deck, ton, who apprehended, from what he explained his orders, the nature of knew and observed, that the common their crione, and the tendency of their sufferings of so many men, wrested from disobedience, and then ordered ex. better situations, debarred froin higher emplary punishment to be inflicted. prospects, confined to ships under miliDiscipline was hereby completely esta. tary discipline, and withheld froin ered blished; and before he quitted his com. seeing their families or relations, ought mand, he received strong marks of ato produce some shock disastrous to the tachment frog the ship's company. British fleet. Strongly impressed with About this time (the close of the Ame- this apprehension, he drew up a memorican war) several routinies took place in rial upon the subject, pointed out the ' Jine of battle ships: let the reviewer en danger, and suggested the remedy; which quire the result of those mutinies, and was to give complete or prime seamen whether discipline or mutiny was trium- encouragement in the navy fully equal to phant!

what they received in the merchant ser. There was an obvious cause for this vice, by adequately raising the wages of tendency to mutiny in the navyłat that such stations and situations as complete zime, traced by Capt. Patton to the pe. seamen alone could fill, and which could culiar hardships in the situation of the not be occupied by inferior seamen. first order of seamen in the king's ships. This and other indulgencies, which would Upon the renewal of the war, the same artach thein to the service, would remove causes produced the same effects, or ra. all cause for discontent in them, and ther the causes and the effects were aggra- prove an absolute security against mutiny tated. The difference between complete in his majesty's ships, because the prime and incomplete seamen is unknown to seamen are always the leading characters landmen, and not always sufficiently on ship-board. . attended to by professional men.

This memorial was presented to the Upon this subject Lord Nelson seems first lord of the admiralty, and to the mito acknowledge the acquisition of expe. nister, two years before the general murience, in a voyage he made to the West tiny took place : but it was disregarded; Indies in a trading ship*. It is in the and no wonder, for there was not anomerchant service that the merits of a , ther professional man who bad the same

view of the subject. In the language of The following is an extract from his own the reviewer, Capt. Patton was tben Memoir of his Services, in his Life lately pub beld, as Admiral Patton is now con lished. “But this business with Spain being sidered by him, to be a croaker. Time, accommodated, I was sent in a West India however, brought forth the dreadful ship, &c. with Mr. John Rathbone, who had event he had predicted, which his dis. formerly been in the navy in the Dread. cernment, or his attention to circuit nought with Capt. Suckling. From this stances overlooked by other professional voyage I returned to the Triumph at Chat.

men, enabled him to foresee. It was ham, in July 1772, and if I did not iniprove

then acknowledged that his rejected mein my education, I came back a practical sea.

morial had proved prophetic. Han that man, with a horror of the Royal Navy, and with a saying then constant with the seamen:

memorial been attended to, and the • After the most honour, forward the better

means used which were there pointed man!" The better man meant the better out for attaching prime seamen to the seaman. His lordship adds, “ It was many service, how much would the nation have weeks before I got in ihe least reconciled to a gained? what a waste of money would man of war, so deep was the prejudice rooted.” have been saved, which has been use. This illustrates the ideas of practical seamen. lessly, because indiscriminately, applied!

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The prime seamen, who have been the praise! This is certainly true, and to cause, would have proved the security this expedient, which Lord Melville dia against mutiny.

rected to be carried into execution with. Of the unparalleled mutiny which took out the intermediation of the Navy possession of the British fleet at Spit Board, to avoid protraction or delay head, this primary class of seamen were twenty-two line of battle slips were ra. unquestionably the first movers and the pidly equipped to join the Britisb fleets sole conductors. Such men never can be at sea; and thereby the fleets under Sir satisfied when only put upon a footing Robert Calder and Lord Nelson were with inferior or incomplete seamen; who sufficiently reinforced to engage and de. are not their peers on shipboard, either feat the enemy, in the great and impor. in their own estimation, or in that of the tant victories obtained by those distin, ship's company. The general rise of guished adinirals. seamen's wages has failer of giving the In this statement, the discernment, the intended satisfaction, it recompensed in- promptitude, and decision of Lord Melferior seamen beyond their deserts, but ville, by which so eminent a service was was inadequate to the services and the rendered to his country, is most justly merits of priine seamen, upon whoin the praised. But the following statement of peculiar excellence of the British navy facts ought also to be made knowir.' depends.

The person who informed Lord Melville The desideratun for ensuring to the of Mr. Snodgrass's plan of refitting ships. state the services of the navy, is to attach was Admiral Patton; to every other perthese men, without whom your ships son at the Admiralty it was unknowite cannot act; the hardship of whose situa-. He extracted the passages from the work, tion, under the present compulsory sys- to render it intelligible to Lord Melville. teni, in case of a peace supervening, and urged its adoption; and he also rea without adequate encouragement to them, commended to his lordsbip to issue his may drive many of them from their native own immediate orders for carrying this country to strengthen the future fleets of service into execution; upon which the our enemies. Such are the sentinents success of the measure so greatly de. and apprehensions of Admiral Patton peuded. In mentioning this service, the upon this subject, which render him reviewer has brought forward an occur. anxious to avert evils which he regards rence, which places the professional as pregnant with destruction to Britain.' knowledge and judginent of Admiral P.

The quarterly reviewer, in his account in a point of view that will not corre. of Admiral P. states tha: he coinmanded spond with the impressiou his review of a short time at Deal. Mr. Pitt at that " The Defence of an Insular Empire” is time being out of administration, resided calculated to produce. It ought also to in that neighbourhood, and became per. be furtber known, in justice to the mo. sonally acquainted with Adiniral P. tives which actuated Admiral P.'s conWhen he returned to the station of primc duct, that upon the change of adminis, minister, the Admiral's command at tration taking place, which put Lord Deal was interrupted by his nomination Grey (then Lord Ilowick) at the head of as one of the lords of the admiralty by the Admiralty; Admiral P. waited upon

Lord Melville. In the conduct of this him, to inform his lordship of the advan, · able statesman at the head of the admi- . tage derived from the adoption of Mr. ralty, the reviewer finds occasion to con- Snodgrass's expeditious plan for refitting fute Admiral Po's opinion, that profes. ships, and presented him with the ex. sional knowledge was requisite for the tracts, to render it intelligible without direction of naval affairs, from a measure professional knowledge. adopted by his lordship, which producedThe Catamaran enterprize, the rean effect decidedly and importantly ad- viewer must now be informied, was un. vantageous to Britain, by supplying ships dertaken without any of the naval lords upon a great einergency, in the short pe- having been consulted. When it was at riod of a few months, for which the usual last referred to their consideration and mode of repair would have required as judgment, they decidedly disapproved of many years; this happy effect was pro- it, in consequence of which it was not duced by having recourse to the plan sug- carried into execution. These are facis. gested by Mr. Snodgrass for reftting The inference of this reviewer upon this ships expeditiously and securely; whose subject, will not apply to Admiral Pa'ton, merit in this discovery is beyond all I do not suppose that the Stone Expeditit

- bad

SIR,

had Lord St. Vincent's approbation; but his merits and motives, should, upon the oyon this subject I have no information, present occasion, be made fully known." These are the points of animadversion

R. P. in the Review, respecting Admiral P. which required the illustration of facts to To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. invalidate misapprehension and misre. presentation. As I write from recollec D EING a constant reader of your tion, there may be others: but these I D publication, I met with a passage think sufficient to illustratè Admiral Pat- in your last nuinber, upon which I beg ton's superior professional knowledge and leave te offer some remarks.' In a piece merits and his patriotic molives, in the intituled, "A Meinoir of John Franardent desire he has to secure to Britain, sham," the writer observes, of a period against the united naval world, the supe in his life, that “ Fransham was now acriority of lier fleets, upheld by the volun- quiring, or rather exercising, a marked tary services of unequalled seamen, con- detestation against the christian religion, ducted by brave and skilful officers, and This was much the fashion of the time, directed by inaritime proficiency and At the court of George the Second, the judgment.

literature of infidelity was not frowned : The reviewer wishes to represent down." Whether this is meant as an Admiral Pation as a croaker and pro. oblique reflection upon the court of jéctor, whose opinions ought to be disre. George the Third, I do not pretend to garded. But, upon this occasion, it must say. The writer by his manner, bow. be remarked that his croaking rests upon ever, seems to think that it was an ex. the same foundation with his anticipation cellency of the foriner reign. I am as of the mutiny in the fleet, contrary to the much an enemy of persecution as the judgment even of professional men. God writer, though I do not think it is for the forbid that the reality of his representa- advantage of any state to encourage intions should again be demonstrated by fidelity. The effects of it upon the mothe occurrence of the events he wishes to ral and polizical state of nations, has avert, from the obstinacy of undiscern- been such, as to furnish a warning to all ing confidence, secure in the want of in. who wish well to their country. The li. forination. Upon this subject the soli- terature of infidelity was not frowned dity of his conclusions has been fully de- down" in the court of Charles the Second, monserated. His despair of influencing the cause or consequence of which was, The rulers of the state to remedy the de- that it was the must prufigare of any feci, which has already so nearly brought court recorded in the British annals, to the nary to ruin, by the occurrence of a say nothing of its intolerance in matters general mutiny, bas induced him to offer of religion. But the writer proceeds, his opinions to the public, and finally to “ It was thought to diminish the certainty refer his statement of the situation of the and authority of theologians, and thus navy to the good sense of the nation. their asperities and persecutions." In

Ameng the arts used by the same cri- proportion as infidelity prevails, it will rie, to crea e a prejudice against Admiral naturally diminish the certainty and auP. it is proper to advert to a most uncan. thority of theolngians in the minds of did perversion of Admiral P.'s genuine sceptics; but if the remark is intended sentiments of the military force of this against christianity itself, facts do not country, under every denomination, confirm it. Christianity has suffered whose real and gallantry deserve every nothing from that examination which has praise he could bestow, which he literally been excited by deistical writers, and meant as he expressed. How the re- the generality of theologians have not viewer could pervert this into a sneer, his felt the ground, upon which Christianity intentions must explain.

stands, less firm from the strictest ine The lacis specified in the foregoing vestigation; nor consequently is their statement, were derived from Admiral certainty or authority diminished, among Partun, but not upon the present occa- those who bare viren it an inpartial con. siunt. I am perfecuy assured of their sideration. With respect to the asperitruth, and I state them without his know. ties and persecutions of theologians, it ledge or participation. I am uncertain certainly is desirable that they should be hus far lie may approve of this cxplicit dirninished, wherever they prevail; but priblication, but I think that justice to whether the prevalence of infidelity him and justice in the public, require would diminish these evils, is rather a that att the circumstances illustrative oi doubtful question, Arowej dcists and

atheists

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htheists have seldom possessed the civil And in the present day it is well known, power; but in those few instances in that there are military inen, both officers which they have obiained it, their libe- and coinmoi soldiers, who give the best rality towards those who differed from evidence of their tirm and serious faith thein, has not appeared to any great ad. in the Gospel, who have not beeii exvantage. Where has there appeared a ceeded in courage, when exposed to the more violent spirit of persecution than in utmost danger of reach, by any of their France, when the civil power fell into comrades, who have perhaps atiected to the band's of avowed unbelievers ? On despise them as enthusiasts. It is further the other hand, we may confidently ap. said that infidelity “bestows frankness, peal to the New Testament to decide strengthens the vigour, und enlarges the whether a ze al for Christianity, as there dominion of the intellect." I think the represented, would promote a spirit of author is peculiarly unfortunate in the persecution or not. To diminish the as- mention of frunkness, as the effect of. perities and persecutions of thelogians, infidelity, when it is so well known that it is not necessary to abandon Christia many of the most celebrated unbelievers anity, but 10 understand and obey its have been guilty of ile meanest disin, dictates.

genuity, in disguising their principles by
But the writer assumes a bolder tone, a pretended belief in revealed religion.
in speaking of the supposed influence of Thus Morgan professed himself a Chris,
infidelity upon the literarv and military tian in those very writings in which he
characters. « Inasinuch," says he, “as labours to destroy Christianity. Voltaire,
it unlocks the chambers of pleasure and in a letter, still extant, requested his
banishes the fear of death." By the kind friend D'Alembert to tell a direct falsc.
of pleasure bere meant, we are led io hood by denying what he was the author
understand, those pleasures which Chris- of the Philosophical Diccionary. D'Alenne,
tianity prohibits; while it allows all the bert in his answer intisried him, that he
sober, teinperate, and innocent, enjove had told that falsehond. Voltaire also
ments of life; and therefore the passage solemnly professed to believe in the Ca..
seems to intimate that infidelity takes off tholic Religion, although, at the saine
the restraints which religion lays upon time, he doubted the existence of a
our propensity to excess in the indulgence God. Coliins, though he denied the
of animal appetite, drunkenness, de. truth of christianity, qualified for a civil.
bauchery, &c. &c. and therefore confers office by partaking of ihe Lord's supper.
a benefit apon mankind. A shocking idea, Shaftesbury did the saine. Yet sucha
but it appears to be the consequence of men as these are continually declaiming
the writer's mode of expression. “And against the hypocrisy of priests. In short,
banishes the fear of death." If a man whatever may be ibe“ vigour or enlarge-
can persuade himself that there is no ment of intellect," of which infidels may
future state, no day of retribution be- boast, they have no reason to lake the
yond the grave, it inay, indeed, dininish praise of it exclusively to themselves, so
the fear of death, to such characters; but long as Christians can claim such men as
even then, annihilation is what nature Sir Isaac Newton, Mr. Locke, and Sir
dreads, and death is far from being re- William Jones, as the avowed, steady,
garded wich wditlerence. It is not easy, and consistent, professors of christia
however, for an infidel to be so esta- anity.
blished; the fear of death has often dis John Fransham, according to the me-
covered itself in all its horrors, when the moir, was certainly a man of talents,
unbeliever has apprehended its near apo industry, and learning; but it is to be
proach; this is said, by an eye-witness, lamented that he should employ them as
to have been the case with Volney, when he did. Had he impartially examined
crossing one of the lakes of North Ame- the New Testainent, the only standard:
rica, in a violent storm. But, respect. by which to judge of the religion of Jesus,
ing the military, does infidelity render he could not have considered Christianity
soldiers more fearless of death in an ene and cruelty as synonimous terms, it:
gagement, and thus more brave? What must be attributed to prejudice or ma.
- facts the writer could bring to prove it lignity, that he should enteriain such an.

I know 1104. Burthere are many instances idca, merely because some, who call
of the most cool and steady courage themselves christians, but neither 18
in mundial'thens, who have most seriously gard nor understand Christianity, are.
bellerer! the Gospel. Duch were Colo- cruel.
neis Cardmer and Blackader forderly. May 2, 1811, :, CURSIĄN US. ,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. form. This doubtless is, to fill the House
SIR,

of Commons with men who, if they are I WISH through the medium of your not exactly the representatives of the I extensively circulated miscellany, to whole nation, shall be disinterested, io. submit to the public some general re. telligent, and actuated by patriotic and jnarks upon a subject, which now de virtuous principles. To a British parservedly engages much of their atten. liament composed of such men, no good tion.

administration would object; and with Stirnulated by numerous faults or mise such a body, by whatever means they fortunes in the inanagement of our af. were chosen, all real friends of reform fairs, and by accumulating burdens and would be satisfied. A llouse of Corocalamities painful and oppressive to all mons composed of men of this descrip. classes of the people, an apparently tion, would use unremitting vigilance and large portion of the community again activity to promote the domestic interests, loudly demands a Reform in the Con and secure the domestic welfare of the inans' House of Parliament.

country. Their foreign policy would · That the state of the representation is have no other object, They would espartial and defective, can hardly be dis. tablish a system of provision for the pried. According to just theory, a body poor, and a code of criminal jurispru. professedly representing the nation ought dence, not unworthy of an enlightened in be constituted by the suffrage of all age. They would watch over the napersons having an interest in the state, tional morals, cause the rudiments of as contributing directly at least towards knowledge to be every where dissemina its support, and not incapacitated by ted, give the utmost encouragement to crimes, &c. from exercising their rights. Useful science, arts, and literatore, and Upon a purely rational principle, it would endeavour so to govern that the neces. perhaps be difficult to justify the practice saries and even the simple comforts of of allowing any person to have more than life might abound in the cottage of inone vote, as for freehoids in several dustry wherever situated, or by whomcounties, or in the capacity of freeholder soever inhabited. They would not be and member of a cerporate town. Equally misled by the delusions of ambition, reindefensible it appears in theory to be, venge, or military glory. Peace they that any towns should he privileged as would strenuously cultivate, as one of such to return members to Parliament, the foundation-stones, essential to the All, it seems, ought to be chosen upon superstructure of national happiness. one uniform and equitable principle by In addition to the arguments against war counties or other districts. But there which humanity suggests, in addition to is a most important maxim in politics, every familiar objection; they would which I trust ail zealuus advocates of re- feel and urge as another motive for de. form will keep in view ;--that very great precating this scourge of mankind, that or sudden changes in the institutions of by its burdens it depresses the people, a state are always attended with danger, while so long as they can bear those bur. generally with mischiet, and sometimes dens it exalts the executive govern. with the dissolution, for a time at least, ment. of the bonds of society. I hope that in But is a large number of men of this the very moderate plan now generally description, and also disposed and fitted countenanced, which only seeks, I be for the station of a British senator, to be Jieve, to annihilate the rotten boroughs, found? Alas my country! who will angiving the right of voting in towns to ail swer in the affirmative, and give demonhouse holders paying taxes, and in coun. stration or conviction of the fact? To ties to copybolders, as well as freeholders, rail against public profligacy and prejuto a certain annual amount, and trans. dice, would tend to no good purpose ; ferring to populous towns and counties a but let us look the real state of things nuenler of members equal to the number, fairly in the face. which had been returned from the bo- The question then occurs, whether by souglis disfranchised ;-its promoters are the proposed reform in our representation, influenced by this maxim, and do not we should introduce into our House of limit their demands, because they de Commons, a large number of independent spair at present of obtaining more, . and upright men ? More independence,

"To the consideration of our subject, at least of individuals or of government, however, the first thing that claims our we should certainly secure, and probably Hilenlion is le ultimate object of a ne a little more patriousmu apd integrity.

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