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formance of some of the principal actors deliberated ten years before he came to of the Drury-lane company, as produced the resolution of publishing his notions, two or three actions of damages, which Yet if Collier is clear of plagiarisin, he the proprietor of the Journal was glad to has not a just claim to originality; the compromise, at the expense of beavy principle which he maintains with metacosts, and a handsome sum to the the physical subtlety being contained in Mír, atrical fund.

Morris's “ Theory of an Lieal World." Surrey, June 2, 1811.

J. B. I find that one Arthur Collier, of Pem,

broke College, Oxford, proceeded M.A. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. July 7, 1070; and another of both these SIR,

paines, of Trinity College, in the same A Nenquiry is made in your last Num- university, took the degree of B.C.L. A ber, page 352, concerning Arthur December 1, 1739, and doctor in the Collier, and the tracts which he pub- same faculty, April 23, 1737. Jished in defence of the Berkleian hypo. Having mentioned the excellent bishop thesis. All the information I can give Berkeley, I take this opportunity of reupon the subject, is, that Nis, Collier was marking upon an assertion in your 27th rector of Longford Wagna, near Salisbury, volume, page 257, that the romance of and in 1713, printed an octavo pamphlet Gaudentio di Lucca, was written by Mr. of 140 pages, with this title, “ Clavis Simon Berington. That book has yeUniversalis: or a New Inquiry afternerally been ascribed to Berkeley, and I Truth, being a demonstration of the non- have strong reasons for believing that he existence of an external world." Some actually coinposed it during his residence idea of the work may be formed froin the at Oxford. Be that as it may, no person introduction, in which the author says, acquainted with the productions of Be“ The question I ain concerned aboat, is rington, can believe for a moment that in general this, whether there be any such he was the author of Gaudencio di Lucca, thing as an external world? And my His principal performance, entituled, title will suffice to inform my reader, that “ Dissertations on the Mosaical Creation, the negative of this question is the point Deluge, &c.” lies now before me, and I am to demonstrate. In order to which, some reader has written on the first blank let its first explain the terms. Accor- leaf, the following note, wliich expresses dingly, by world, I mean whatsoever is very justly, in my opinion, the literary usually understood by the terms, budy, character of Mr. Berington. erlension, space, matter, quantity, sice “ The author of this book was a Roif there be any other word in our English mish priest of Shropshire, and a man of tongue, which is synonymous with all or great eccentricity of manners, as well as any of these terms. And now nothing of principles. The reader will perceive remains but the explication of the word by the perusal of this work, that he was erlernul. By this, in general, I undere very dogmatical, vet superticial, and but stanı, the saine as is usually understood little acquainted with the subjects he preby the words, absolute, self-eristed, inde- tended to elucidate. lle attacks the pendent, &c. and this is what I deny of Hutchinsonians with vehemence and ail matter, body, ertension, &c. Sen scurrility, yet abuses them for their want condly, and more particularly, that by of candour and good manners. The style not independent, not absolutely eristent, of Berington is perplexed, vulgar, and not external, I mean and contend for no. ungrammatical.". In addition to this, thing less, than that all matter, body, and to shew what a narrow-minded ertension, &c. exists in, or in dependence sciolist Berington was, he adopted and on mind, thought, or perception, and defended in his tenth dissertation, the that it is not capable of an existence, Tychonian system, in opposition to the which is not thus dependeni.

Copernican, merely because the papal In this pamphlet irequent reference is decree had anathematized the doctrine of made to Mallebranche and Morris, but the earth's motion round the sun. Of not the slightest allusion to Berkeley's Mr. Berington's elegant diction and “ Treatise concerning the Principles of profound argumentation upon this sulHuman knowledge:" though the first part ject, take a specimen, and then con. of this very ingenious work was printed clude, if you can, that the mind of such at Dublin, in 1710. I apprehend, bow. a man could have produced the Adviso ever, that Collier was really unacquainted tures of Gaudentio di Lucca. « Our with Berkeley's treatise, since in bis moderns," says he, “take it for granted, Clavis he says that he had paused and and run away with the notion hand over



bend, that it is the earth that moves To the Editor of the AIonthly IIagazine. round the sun all the while, and look sin, upon all as ignorant in philosophy who THOSE who have resided any length imagine the contrary. But, I say, is it 1 of time in a cyder country, and know absolutely certain, that the earth is the value of the apple tree to the farmer, dancing round the suit, yearly and and at how little expence it is cultivated, hourly? And we ourselves are whirling must wonder that the growth of it, iii heud over heels, at the rate of a thousand sufficient abundance for producing cyder, miles an hour, at least?"

shouici be confined to two or three of our In opposition to the Copernican doc- counties. It is certainly possible that trine, tirus reasons our philosopher, “ We the soil of those selected counties may be have the testimonies of all our senses, at more peculiarly suited to its culture than least our eyes and feeling, that the sun the rest of England; thongly, when one moves, and not the earth. We see him observes the cultivation of it extended up rise in the east, and mounting higher to the very borders of one county, and every hour. We see the same sun set in there stopping short, while in the adjoin. the west, though we ourselves stund stock ing county it is wholly neglected, one siill. Now we see hiin on one side of us; cannot bul suppose that some accidental by and by we see be is moved to the circumstance, rather than any peculiarity other' side. If we keep looking towards of soil, must, originaliv, have thus circum. the east, in the morning he burns our scribed its growih. Yet, however, it is faces, in the evening our bacles, unless we certain that there are soils which are very turn ourselves. Nay, in the longest days, unfavorable to the growth of apple trees, we find he almost moves quite round us; and in which, though they may thrive for yet 'tis we, forsooth, that move all the a while, they will seldom attain that age while, though we stand stock still. Nay, and maturity, without wliich their pro though in their precarious supposition, duce will never be sufficient to reward we should be whirling headlong from either the gardener or the farmer for the west to east, yet we don't perceive that we trouble and expence of rearing them. I mrove round upon our heels, to make the believe it is principally where gravel lies sun appear to go quite round us, as he at a little distance from the surface of the almost does in the longest days. Again, earth that the apple tree droops; and we set up marks, we erect dials and gno. therefore, where that soil prevails, it is nions in all positions, to shew and mea. loss of labor to plant it in the ordinary sure his mocions; yet we must suppose manner, for though it grows healthily and that the dials and gnomons move all the well until the sap-root reaches the gravel, wbile, not the son; yet these remain mo. yet the moment it does reach it, the tree tionless, not only by all our senses, but begins to decay, ceases to bear in any by all the experiments we can make; and abundance, and becomes fit only for fire. this in all parts of the world at all times.” wood. This happens very soon in many Dissertations on the Mosaical Creation, places. I remember a gentleman, who page S70, 8vo. 1751.

resiiled in the neighbourhood of BrentWe bere see that this book was printed ford, telling me that he had tried every some years after the appearance of Gau. method used in the cyder countries deptio di Lucca, and consequently when (where he had long resided) to reat the author's inind ought to bave bien im- apple-trees in his grounds, and had approued, and his style polished. Instead plied them to almost every species of the of this be writes upon an astronomical tree, but that owiug, as he supposed, to subject, with the ignorant presumpiion of the unfavorable nature of the soil, all his a clown, who junges only by his senses, endeavors had failed; and that of all the and who arrays his coarse ideas in lan- trees he had planted, (and he had planted guage suited to the ineridians of the many) not a single one thrived. liere, kitchen or the stable. Now is after this where the soil is I believe of pretty nearly any one can believe that the writer of the same kind, the same thing takes such nonsensical ribaldry upou a philoso-place, and I believe equal difficulty occurs phical argument, was the author of Gau. in rearing these trees wherever the soil is dentio di Lucca, le nay carry bis credue of the nature I have described, and prom licy farther and ascribe to the sanie bably there may be other soils besidor accomplisted and vigorous inind, “Alci grarel, cqnally unsuited to the cultivation phron, or the Minese Philosopher. of the apple tree. But this impediment '910 48, May 8, 1811. J. WATKINS, to the growth of these trees does not app


pear to me to be incapable of removal, Church Government of the Quakers, though some trouble and expence would which contains many palpable misrepre. undoubtedly attend it. By ascertaining sentations; it is my intention, by pub. the depth to which the sap-root of the lishing correct statements, to endeavour apple-tree usually runs, and the breadth to efface the erroneous impression which to which its other roots usually spread, many persons must have contracted in and the description of soil which is best consequence. aitapted to its culture, and then exca. This writer introduces his observations vating the earth to a corresponding depth with an affected candour, and apparent and breadth, and filling up the cavity concern for the real interest of the sowith the proper soil, and planting the tree ciety in question ; but very little pene in the centre of it, the iinpediment might tration is requisite to discover, from the be reinoved, and thus every one of our context, that it is his design to throw an counties would become capable of pro- odium on that religious body. He then ducing cider. It is true, that to form an charges its members with an avaricious orchard in this manner, would at first disposition, with a spirit prone to bigotry, occasion a considerable expence; but the and with a contempt for learning. Supo expence, once incurred, would never posing that these unainiable traits had afterwards need to be repeated, and the place in realiiy, and that they were ate produce of the trees, when they began to tributable, as is insinuated, to the disbear, would soon repay it with abundant cipline of the society being conducted interest; particularly when it is recol. by a comparatively small hody, whose lected that the home-close' of a farní- proceedings are veiled in profound sehouse, when planted as an orchard, re- crecy, even to the generality of the men). mains as fit for the purposes to which it bers, whence would the latter become was before applied as if the trees had contaminated ? Surely some communia never been planted in it; and that there. cation of improper principles must take fore the protic produced by the cider place before injurious effects could arise, inade froin the apples, would be a clear But these accusations are unfounded, and considerable addition to the former since they are exploded by the more lia annual value of the close. To gardens beral members of the community, and especially, and particularly to the garden's sufficiently refuted by Clarkson, who, of gentlemen, where expense is seldom indeed, stales it as bis opinion, that the put in competition with the attainment society has not hitherto been adequately of a desired object, the plan I have pro- attentive to the literary education of its posed is peculiarly adapted; and it might members, but admits that respectable, be applied to other trees requiring a par- schools are on the increase. Is this a ticular soil, as well as the apple-tree. proof that the qnakers “look with a jedKentish-Town,

lous eye on science and literature.” May 13th, 1811.

It is asserted, " that the really-effec. tive part of the government of the society

is exercised by the select meetings." I To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. would observe en passant, that this is an SIR,

improper term not to be found in the NONCEIVING that correct accounts official

ONCEIVMG what correct accounts official publications of the discipline of U of the principles and practices of the qu

of the quakers. On the more important religious sects' will be deemed of some question it will be sufficient to quote a importance, and relying on that impar. passage from the author I have before tiality which distinguisines the Monthly appealed to, which will serve to placa Magazine, I am induced to hope that the subject in its true light. Of the

18 will find a ministers and elders it may be observed,

that it is their duty to confine themselves place in its next number.

A paper having recently appeared wholly to the exhortation of one another under the signature of “ Verus," on the

for good. They can make no laws like the ancient synods, and other convo.

cations of the clergy, nor dictate any • I should be greatly obliged to any of article of faith. Neither can they med. your correspondents for information on these dle with the government of the church. two points, viz. the depth to which the sap- The quakers allow neither ministers nor root of the apple tree commonly extends, and elders, by virtue of their office, to intero the soil in wbich it best thrives.

fere with their discipline, Every proMONTHLY MAG. No. 914



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position of this sort must be determined that spirit of Christian charity which upon by the yearly meeting, or by the ought ever to pervade a religious asseinbody at large."

bly. And surely there can be no reason Even on the chief point upon which to apprehend unpleasant consequences this writer's arguinents rest, that " the from that deference to age and expemembers of the select meeting are self- rience, to which allusion has been made, elected," I shall prove hiin to have mis. Considering the nature of his matestated the fact. By consulting either rials, “ Verus" las certainly proceeded the work which I have just quoted, or the to the accomplishment of his design with abstract of the discipline of the society, very plausible effect. It is not therefore published under the title of “ Yearly my intention to deny him the praise of Meeting Minutes," he will find that the ingenuity; but I would press upon his elders are appointed by the recommend- serious consideration the necessity of alion of ile monthly meeting, sanctioned procuring accurate information before he by the approval of ihe quarterly meeting. Again arraigns the conduct of any sect; Fiere we discover the tottering founda. since this alone will enable him to adopt tion of that structure which Verus has with propriety the appellation he has raiset, of that which has furnished him assumed.

DEFENSOR, with a topic for his exordiuin, of that Leominster, smo. 15, 1811. on which he has introduced poetical quotition, and descanted throughout with To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. 'so much complacency. I would farther SIR, observe that the proceedings of the meer I TRUST your correspondent in the

ings of ministers and elders are not so 1 Monthly Magazine for last month, · studiously concealed as is represented, who wishes information on the effects of

since the queries proposed at these meet- vegetation on the air, may receive the ings, with other information respecting desired knowledge from the following their functions, may be found in the simple experiment, which I believe to “ Yearly Meeting Minutes."

.. have been practised so repeatedly as to George Fox is charged by “ Verus" leave no doubt of the results. with entertaining superstitious notions. If in a receiver filled with air rendered On this head candour would have pointed incapable of supporting animal life or out to him the difference which has taken combustion, (having been decomposed in place on such subjects, between the ideas its passage through the lungs of an ani. of the present age and that in which G. mal,) be placed a sprig of mint; and thus F. lived. But I cannot conceive, that exposed to the action of light, it will in a this circumstance is calculated to detract few hours be so completely altered (by from his merit, in having established a the power of vegetation) as to be restored discipline which has been defended by to a similar state it was in at the time many persons of real ability and learning, it was frst inhaled, The reason is this: and a systein, of the peaceable tendency atmospheric air is a chemical combina. of which the unprejudiced of different tion of gases, principally oxygen and nie denominations have so frequently testi- trogen. In the passage of the air (when fied their approbation.

we breathe) through the lungs, it imparts • The society is advised to adopt the its oxygen to the arterial blood, and is made of ballot instead of the means at thrown out again at the mouth in the present pursued of deciding on the sub- state of nitrogen and carbonic acid gas; jects' which claim its attention. This part of the oxygen having, as before proposition I was scarcely prepared to stated, entered into the composition of expect even from “ Verus." ' When it is the arterial fluid, whilst the other, uniting considered that on such occasions every with the carbon of the blood is throwa member is allowed to speak his senti. off in the state of carbonic acid gas; iments, and that during a series of years the nitrogen, by its superior levity, as. unanimity has been preserved; would cends whilst the carbonic acid gas, ar it not be folly to introduce a practice fixed air, falling by its gravity (being the which could only, serve to foment oppo- heaviest gaseous body known) is received sition? How much more consonant is by the vegetable organs of respiration, the method now adopted with the se. and there depositing its carbon it is riousness of the subject discussed, with evolved again; and ibe air thus freed

in the vegetable from its carbon, is again " Portraiture of Quakeriem," by T. fit for breathing. So we see the Hord Clarkson, M.A-Val.ii. p. 273.

buat is rendered, by having passed through

1811.) Facts relating to Admiral Pallon.

515 the lungs, not only useless, but even tendency of the pendulum to a state of highly prejudicial to the animal econoiny, inaction, greatest at that point where has been by the action of the vegetable, the small power of the magnets would again rendered pure. This is the pro. be exerted to counteract each other; viz. cess and effect of vegetation, not in one the midway of an arc of a circle, the particular plant, but through the whole centre of which would be the point of of nature-Not but soine plants may che pendulurn's suspension. exude effluvia pernicious to the ani.

J. BENNETT, mal economy; but fortunately they are Greenwich, Alay 15, 1811. extremely rare. I have no knowledge of any in this kingdom. An instance of one is related, said to exist in the

For the Monthly Magazine. East Indies, whose baneful effects ex.

Facts relating to ADMIRAL PATTON, ha. tend to a considerable distance.

ving a reference to the CENSURES of a The medicinal properties of plants are

REVIEW upon his NATURAL DEFENCE to be extracted only by different processes,

of an I:SULAR EMPIRE." such as infusion, distillation, &c. Proó MT HE work of a professional man upon ducts often of the most opposite qualities T a professional subject, where judg. are obtained from the saine plant by va ment and opinion are submitted to public rying the treatment. Thus, from a highly consideration, may be expected to propoisonous plant is procured the cassava duce an influence proportioned to the biead of the American Indians and the professional character of its author. The tapioca of Commerce. In the communi. art of depreciating such a work will con. cation of Dr. Sins last month, is related sist in the endeavour to lessen the profesa another instance. The leaves of the stra. sional credit and estimation of its author monium are unquestionably, as I have with the public. witnessed, highly useful in asthma; but it T he review opens its censures upon appears the effect of the seed and wood the Natural Defence of an losular Éru. are quite different. The nightshade, a pire, by ridiculing clubs of old naval offiwell known poison if eaten, I never cers meeting frequently together to extol found to affeci the air, although growing the navy of their day, and depreciate the in considerable quantities: the aroma present, not one word of which will bear or vegetable substance, is little known; the smallest reference to Admiral Pat- • it appears generally to be obtained in ton's habitudes and occupations. the essential oil. i

The reviewer seems to have been supIn answer to your correspondent on plied with a list of the naval services in the analysis of soils; I should presume which Admiral P. was engaged, which is in many instances the substitution of nie accurate as far as it goes, but it is not tro-muriatic acid, for muriatic may be complete; and it onits what was most found useful; but I submit to that gen. essential to establish the admiral's clainn tleman's consideration, whether his ap- to attention upon the subject of discri. prehensions of a false result being ob- minating the views, the wishes, the tained are not groundless; it appears to merits, the intentions, and the proper me that if the iron is already so far salu. management of seamen, which facts will rated with oxygen as to be insoluble in specify. the acid, it cannot gain weight in the In the list given of naval services, where process of destroying the vegetable mat. Admiral P, was present, the taking of the ter by fire.

Harannah is omitted, where he was made Supposing the steel ball suspended a lieutenant; and Sir Hyde Parker's ac. in the manner' an Amateur in Philo. tion off the Dogger Bank, where he come sophy describes, its vibrations would be manded a frigate, and discovered one of stopped from the following causes in the enemy's ships, which was sunk in the 1st. Although the magnetic powers might night, and brought her pennant to the at first be adjusted with the greatest adıniral. accuracy, the adjustment from the The reviewer states a circumstance to nature of the attractive fluid would be prove the impartiality of the admirally in quickly destroyed.--2dly. Were the conferring favours, in an instance which pendulum suspended according to the had Adiniral P. hiinself for its object, inost approved mechanical principles, when he was in the station of a come there would still remain a portion of mander, by appointing him to the reinpofriction sufficient to impede and evene rary command of a ninety gun ship, on a tually stop its action. Sdly. The force service of importance. This certainly of gravity would be greatest, and the was the case, and before this appoint,


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