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plains, here and there, interspersed with about half an hour's gentle walk up the verdure and trees. On the summit of hill. This cavern is of an unknown one of the mountains, near the town of depth, inany attempts have, from time to Saint Roque, is a spot called the “Queen time, been inade to find its bottom, but of Spain's Chair,” her Catholic Majesty without success. General O'Hara, it is having sat there to witness the expected said, descended considerably lower than surrender of the garrison in 1782... any one before him, and, thinking that
The town of St. Roque is distant about no person would venture to the depth he eight miles, and is a dirty place, like did, lest a purse with money on the spot, other Spamsh towns. Between this and which was to belong to whoever would Gibraltar, are the Spanish lines, which fetch it; a soldier went down and brought bound a cract of light sandy soil, called it up, but no one has succeeded him to the neutral ground, about one mile in the same distance. breadth, and thouc to fourin length. They It is a beautiful stalactitic cave, and are protected at each end by two large opens by a chasm about eight feet higla foris, called Fort St. Philip, on the west, and four wide, 'leading into a gloomy and Fort Barbary, on the east; on the sloping chamber, vaulted and supported, walls are a number of watch towers, and as it were, by a large pillar, naturally within the line are extensive barracks, or formed in the centre, and looking like the ranges of huts for the troops, and one trunk of a decayed tree, from the base of small wooden gateway which leads into which the descent commences. Spain.
In the front of the entrance is a small In time of war it is not uncommon for space of ground, neatly levelled and the officers of each nation to have in. turfed, for the accommodation of block: tercourse with each other occasionally on heads who decide points of honor! We the neutral ground, until formal notice pass, in coming here, through a chasma be given that it is to cease. The zig-zag sunk in the rock about twenty feet deep, approaches which were thrown up here called the Devil's Gap, it leads to a guard by twenty thousand of the enemy in one 'house at the “ Queen's Gate," which night, are still visible, though nearly filled prevents improper access to the signale with sand. Humau bones are often house; and near this is a very large mordiscovered in abundance on this spot. tar curiously formed in the rock, com
From the signal-house are also vise manding the dock-yard, and fired by a tinctiy seen the fortifications of Ceuta; train. which are, from their great elevation on a There is another cavern of smaller die rock, deemed impregnable, especially to mensions toward the north end of the the Moors. It is connected with Bar. rock; here are also a variety of stalactites, bary by an istlimus of sand, but the town and some spar running in fine veins is thinly peopled: it has a good harbour through a dark-grey stone, containing a and seems to be a second Gibraltar. kind of diamond. It is a small bright sube It is remarkable that since I have stance, which easily separates into crys. been here, the captain of the English tals, and they are often sought for packet from Falmouth, actually the purpose of making trifling ornaments, inistook Ceuta for this place, and an- which are more curious than valuable, chored there some hours, until he was The petrifactions are worked into candle. blown off by a gale of wind.
sticks, inkstands, seals, &c. &c. in great This small portion of the African coast variety. presents majestic mountains rising amid The west side of the rock is covered the clouds, particularly one called " Apes' here and there with the palın tree and the Hill," so named from the vast number of palinetta. The golden striped aloe and apes which inhabit it.
the prickly pear also grow luxuriantly Immediately opposite to the town of amid the crevices. The geranium, the Gibraltar is Algezeras, a sen-port be rose, che broom, the asphodil, &c. are in longing to Spain, containing about twelve flower; and a row of poplars at Tyrwhitt's thousand inhabitants. It is defended by Farm, are now in foliage. * small rocks which are strongly fortified; These trees and shrubs afford shelter and is a rendezvous for ships of war and to a few partridges; but a standing gare gun-boats which so much annoy the rison order forbids the use of the fowlingstraights in war time.
piece, so that they are never molested. Some excellent serpentine roads are Monkeys also find refuge among them; çut on the western side of the rock, one there is a herd of upwards of two hundred of which leads to St. Michael's cavern, of those animals, some of which are very
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large. They are seldom caught, and are ance of Ladis and Gentilmin." They daring enough to deprive a centinel of bis dress gaudily; and their scenery, stage, meal now and then, wbich they will con- and tout-enseinble, are scarcely better vey froin bois box with their usual dex- than a Bartholomew-fair exhibition. , terity. They are very susceptible of the There are now in the town upwards alteration of weather, and, when the wind of two hundred French fugitives from is from the south or the west, they are not Spain, and many more are on board of a to be seen; as they invariably change ship in the harbour, who are not per. their abode, and shelter themselves on mitted to land. Indeed, they would that side towards which it does not blow. hardly find a habitation that could shelter
As so many of the inhabitants are com. them, and it is wonderful to see the posed of Spaniards, they are allowed the number of wooden huts scattered on the exercise of their religion, and have a large rock, and still more the manner in which church appropriated to their use. A the people are already crowded into convent, which of course formerly be them. Sometimes, owing to their height, longed to them, is the residence of ihe they are drenched with rain, and engovernor; it is a spacious building, and veloped in those mists which obscure the contains some good rooms, but the signal-house for days together. church attacbed to it is sinall and gloomy. The greatest precaution is taken with It is now undergoing repair; the roof respect to the adınission of any person is ornamented with rose work in the into the garrison, who is not in a naval Grecian style, and on the walls are tablets or military capacity. Every resident to the memory of General Boyd, General is obliged to be provided with a card of O‘Hara; and to the Hon. Capt. Paget, of registry, which is granted every six the Sybille; which is an elegant sculpture. months; without this, be is liable to in• There are three libraries, one exclu- convenience, wlien he may wish to pass sively for the use of the officers of the the different gates, and, at night, it is regarrison, another a circulating one for quired that no one appears in the streets the use of the inhabitants, and a third is without a light. The restraint on the a subscription one, to which no person movements of the inhabitants extends so belongs but by ballot; it is liberally con. far, as not to allow them to rest their ducted, and has a reading-room, where arms on, or lean over the walls of the strangers are admitted on the introductiun ramparts, or to walk over every part of of a member. It is well provided with the rock without a particular permission; good books in the various languages, and and it is attended with difficulty somereceives from England the Morning Chro, times to obtain leave to see the galleries. nicle, the Star, Cobbett's Register, The power of the governor extends, Lloyd's List, and a price current; a bust not only to the military, but to the civil of Cicero graces the head of the room, departments; and his exercise of authoand there is a collection of a great variety rity has at times been such, as not to of lava; each speciinen having a label on harmonize with the inclination of the init describing the spot from which it was habitants. The soldier claims notice Laken. Spanish Gazettes, such as they and respect which the people are not are, are likewise received. A paper is disposed to grant him; and, as the garpublished here every Saturday, entitled rison is not in a state of siege, the former the “ Gibraltar Chronicle;" it has been often feel indignant when they are not established nearly four years, is well permitted to relax from what they may printed, but conducted by a Frenchman! consider, too strict regulations. The
A wretched theatre and more wretched consequence is, that each party is Spanish actors and musicians are now often involved in a quarrel; and, I under. amusing us. It is a most shabby place, stand, that there are appeals at this mo. and seldom resorted to, excepting when ment lying before the privy-council for the governor attends it, but for the pur- decision, pose of ridiculing the performers and I intend to apply for my passports tosmoking segars. They have brought out morrow, and take a jaunt overland to a piece, representing the escape of the Cadiz; bidding an adieu to a place which Marquis de la Romana, with the Spanish is deserving the attention of a traveller, soldiers from Zealand. The bills of the but who, without particular friends to performance are handsomely printed, on form a society for him, will find this spot, various coloured silk, in Spanish and if he be a sauntering Englisbman, inbroken English: one of the performers auspicious to his comforts, and very little on his benefit night, concluded his ad. inviting for a residence beyond a few dress with a wish to have the attend days,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. impressions to the minds of the same SIR,
men at different periods. M IME is the least comprehensible of This principle operates also in a simi.
1 the various relations that appertain lar and uniform manner with reference to to the nature of existence. Logicians the whole progress of the saine life. Une have always disagreed in their definitions der similar circumstances, either of sameof it; and our conceptions are little in ness or variety, time appears to become proved respecting it, since the philoso shorter as life advances, or as our famiphers of Greece puzzled themselves and liarity with it increases." liiankind on this and many other sub- Every one who has attained the age of jects, about two thousand years ago. forty must be sensible of the great appa.
These truths, however, appear to be felt, rent duration of the early periods of his that Time at once generates and devours life, compared with that of the latter all things; that it is the medium of ex- periods. The rapid stealth of time is istence, or of sensation; that we cannot the universal complaint of every one as conceive any mode of existence uncon- he advances in aye. He feels it, but nected with it, and consequently are does not examine, or does not underobliged to admit an Elernity of lime past, stand its cause. He deplores in vain and of time future.
the rapid passage of weeks, months, Yet, however sublime may be the years, and decades of years! He rememmarch of Time, as it regards existence bers the slow and solemn progress of in the aggregate, it is impossible not his school days, how he measured the to be sensible of its relative propere tardy hours from meal to meal, and ties, as it affects the mind of man. It froin day to day, --how remote was Sun. is evident that we measure it by the day from Sunday!--Now the day pass, combined variety and force of inpres- es before he can turn himself; the sions made on the mind; that we have year revolves before he can esecute abridged seasons of great vacuity or any meditated project ;-hirly absorbs sameness; and others filled with strong twenty before he could have supposed impressions, which double or treble the it; lie finds himself forty as in a dream: perceptions of any given period.
-at fifty he feels hipself mocked by the No one need be reminded of the length advance of age, and wonder what are of weeks of adversity; and there are few become of the last ten years ;-and at so radically oppressed by the knuvery of sixty his growing infirmities, by diminishe the world and of lawyers, as not to have ing his enjoyments, and his sources of felt the comparative shortness of weeks variety, reduce to a narrow span all of pleasure. Every one must also have that passes in perception of existence, been sensible of the length of periods, till, by the accelerated motion of time, accompanied by change of scene, and he is hurried into the grave! novelty of ideas; and of the relative din This universal sensation, so intimately minution of similar periods passed without blended with our existence and enjoya variety and care. We are affected in ments, has not, that I know of, been regard to Time as we are by the winds analyzed, or reduced to any practicable aud waves during a sea voyage; if the view. by any writer ancient or modern). wind is fair, and the sea unruffled, we Yet surely amidst speculative enquiries, go forward a hundred miles without this subject cannot be considered as una being sensible of our course; but if the interesting; and although we may not be wind is story, and the sea rolls violently, able to arrest the march of tinie, or post. every mile niakes more vivid impressions pone the period of our dissolution, ne than would the hundred miles under may thus be enabled to make a just esopposite circumstances. Inlike inanner, timate of our little span of existence; if we travel twenty miles on a road with and save ourselves the mortification which we are familiar, we receive few which may arisc from total ignorance of or no impressions, and the two ends of the fleeting nature of our latter days. . oor journey ás inatter of reminiscence The abstract cause of these phenomena appear to meet ; but if we travel over regarding time, may be explained in the twenty miles of a road we never travelled following manner. We measure nascent before, the impressions are numerous, or passing time by a niixed feeling arising and the apparent distance expands to out of the impressions of the moment, many times that of the orher road, with and of ihe proportion of those impressions which we are familiar. Thus it is that to the impressions we have already expeuovarying, time presents such varying fienced in the time that we have lived. MONTHLY Mac, No. 213.
In other words, having no ideas besides 45 to 50 equal to twenty, those derived from our experience, we 50 to 55 equal to nineteen, measure, in general, all fulure impres. 55 to 60 equal to eighteen slons by the number of past ones ; and After sixty. I conc ive the season of every given future period is to every active life is so far gone by, that the ela equal past period in the unverse propor fect of novelty and variets may be retion of the length of past life. Thus
duced from a fourth to a híth or sixth; supposing the powers of reason and re
so thar at three score and ten, the sixty tention to conimence a five years of agc,
months of early life will be reduced nearly the year that passes from seven to eight
tu an apparent or relative twelve months! will be one half of all past existence,
By the table then it appears, that with and will consequently be of great appa.
reference to the apparent duration of the rent duration, but the year that passes
first sixty months of rational existence, from twenty to twenty-one will be but the
the same nominal period will, from the a fifteenth part of all past existence, and
age of twenty to twenty-five be reduced will therefore in its iinpression on the
be one half; and from forty-five to fifty, niind, be greatly less than the former year. will be reduced one third. Hence the The consideration, however, is a mixed
five years from twenty lo twenty five, one. If the recollections of all events
will appear,vider ordinary circumstances were equal, and if events at different of life
ent of life, to be only bali as long as the pe. periods were exactly alike, then the ra. riod from five to ten, when the mind ae. tios of apparent time, ai different ages
quired the grealest stock of sensations of the same life, would be as above;
and recollections. But the same period but as recent impressions are so much
will apparently be half as long again as stronger than remote ones, and some the
the five years from forty-five to fifty, events mark a period more emphatically than others, the ratio is rather to be as sixtul certained froin the experience of mankind,
It appears too that the 660 calendar than from reasoning à priori. Nor can
months which elapse in a man's life be. we reduce so subtle and varied a prin
prin tween five years of age and sixty, are ciple to the nice proportion of successive
reduced by this operation of the inind nionths or years; but periods of five or
to about one half; so that the apparent ten years, which average modes of life,
and conscious existence which a man and varieties of impressions, are to be
has passed at sixty is but the half of its preferred for such a purpose. Specu
nominal duration ! Further, the tén lative mathematicians inav ainuse them
years which elapse between ten and selves by drawing out tables calculated
twenty, are equal to the twenty years for the sinallest periods, but every moral
which elapse from forty to sixty, the two purpose will be effected by the results of
periods in the table being respectively a general calculation.
equal to eighty and seventy-eighi! Dividing life then into periods of fire
Every mau's experience will verify the years or sixty months ; considering the
positions here insisted on, and his feel. period of infancy as extending tu tive ingy will justify the preceding derlucyears; taking one fourth or fifteen months
tions. Oihers may be inade by the cup. as the proportion arising from proximity, templative reader, and a variety of or peculiar force of recent impressions; strony practical lessons may be inand taking the suecessive proportions of ferrea
ferred at their leisure by moralisés avd sixty, according to the above general divines. I am content with having called principle, the following will be the num- attention' to a principle which I am per. bers indicative of the apparent length of sunded has been felt, without being unevery five years in sixty such months as dorso
such months AS derstood, and which is in all respects 100 the inind snea-ured in the first five years, "interesting to remain longer among pbilo. of rational existence.
svphical desiderata. CUMMON SENSE. 1 to 5 infancy,
Buckingham Gate, May 20, 1811. 5 to 10 enjoys the ful sirty months 10 to 15 equa' only to forty-five,
For the Monthly Magazine. 15 to 20 equal to thirty-five
To w. SAINT, ESQ. of NORWICII, 20 to 25 equal to thirty,
SIR, 25 !o 30 eyual to twenty-seven,
WHOUGH your remarks on my Ele. 30 to 35 equal to twenty.five, . . 1 menis of the True Arithunetic of 35 10 10 equal to twenty-three,
Intinites, from the asperity with which 40 to 45 equal to twenty-one, nearly, tbey are written, and the facility with 1
Dk, sir, that
which they may be answered, demand thus have to add the infinite series on my pari, that the reply to them should 1+1+1+1, &c. to itself as many vines be wriiten with at least, equal severity; as are denoted by that which is neither yet I will not so far degrade nyself in the quantity nor nothing, but which is soineconfutation of them as to act the part of thing belonging to number without being a Reviewer.
number.” Observe sir, with what fa. In your own language therefore, “Now cility this objection may be answered. sir to the point." My three first postu. According to the above citation from lates, you say, “ You readily grant;" but Wolfius, the multiplication of two terins you are averse to assent to my fourth is equivalent to the addition of one lerin postulate, which, as you say, runs thus, to itself, as often as there are units in the “ That to multiply one nuinber, or one other. Now as there are no units in series of nuinbers, by another, is the 1–1 it bring an infinitesimal, and there same thing as to add either of those num. are in 1+1+1+, &c. It will be the same bers, or series of numbers, to itself, as thing to add 1-1 tv itself, as many ofien as there are units in the other." tiines as there are units in the infinite You add, " Now to say nothing of the series 1+1+1+1, &c. as to multiply absurdity of calling this a postulate, which 1+1+1+1, &c. by 1-1. And so it is, in reality, a definition, I do not be evidentiy is according to my theory. For lieve that it conveys even your own I say, and have demonstrated that 1-1 meaning, for surely you will not say that added to itself infinitely is in the aggree 3, multiplied by 2, is the same as 3 added gate equal l 1, though in the disi ributed twice to itself-fur 3 added once to itself form 1-1+1--1+1-1, &c. it is only makes 6, and if added twice to itself it will make 9; and I cannot think, sir, that "y
1+1 you meant to say that 3, multiplied by 2, In your next objection, you think that is equal to 9." I have only to say, in you have great matter for triumph. answer, that if I am in an error in this As a demonstration that the series instance, your own favourite moderns 1-1+1-1+1-1, &c. produced froin have, uobiappily for me, led me into it.
1 And the first cause of iny error was Wols the expansion of is equal to fius, who, in bis Algebra, p. 2, says, I said “When unity is contained as oft in one number, as another in a third, the two Subtract 1-1+1-1+1-1, &c. yumbers are called factors or co-efficients, and the third is the product,
The remainder :+1-171-171-?, &c. arising from the one drawn into, or inula To this you object; "that if music ind ot tiplied by the other, and is no other than placing the subtrahend 1 over the first adding a number to itself, as often us term of the second line, I had put it over there are units in the other; but it is any of the succeeding terms in the same done sooner by multiplication.” Now live, as in the following instances, I that I should be wrong is not at all won-, should not have obtained the remainder derful, but it seems that even that great •+1-1+1- 1-1, &c. as may be modern mathematician Wolfius, is also seen on inspection. wrong according to Mr. Saint And From perhaps also, sir, you may be of opinion, Subtract . 1-1+1-1+1. &c. ihat ad for instance, is not the second Remainder is -1+2-1+1--1. &c. , power of a, but the first power of it, for a, you may say is the first multiplication From of a by itself. I however, agree with Subtract 14-1+1-1+1, &c. modern mathematicians, that 6 multi. Remainder is 1+1 +1-1 &'c. plier by 2 is the saine thing as adding 6 jo itselt twice, or 2 to itselt six tiines, and From
1 that a' is the first power of a, and a ? the Subtract 1-1+1-1+1. &c. second power of it. You add, “Now if Remainder is --1+1-1+2-1, &c. you bad to multiply the series, 1+1+1+1 &c. ad infinitum by 1-1, since you I have not inserted your secund ine have asserted in the corollaries to your stance, because it is not inteiligible, first proposition, that 1-1 is that which owing perhaps to errors of the press, and is neither quantity nor nothing, but I have corrected an error in your third which is something belonging to number insļance, as you will easily see, which without being number, you would also was perhaps an error of the press.