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profuse liberality to Baxter, Calamy, 1. Theorists consider the whole and others of the Presbyterian party; thickness at the vertex as so much wall but they were in return expected to standing upon a mathematical curve." sell themselves entire to the sect which 2. Emerson's leading proposition is, to had so basely defrauded them, by vio. find the extrados from a given intralating engagements the most solemn. dos. Their noble disinterest rejected all hush. 3. This proposition is not true, nor hire. The purest atonement which does it apply to the question, because its can now be made for the perfidy, is to result " differs from that of the simple repeal the act of uniformity, and to catenaria." open the church to the defrauded sec. 4. “ The authority of the Woolwich taries.

Academy has imposed Einerson's TheThe most important feature of the ory of Arches," but the true theory is Enquirer's plan is however not its eccle- that, which Lapicida “ attempts to detail siastic operation. Au alert statesman frojn Dr. Gregory's paper, aud Dr. would have perceived in it the only Hooke's conclusion." practicable way of enabling government 5. Dr. Robison admitted the falla. to avail itself of those revenues of the ciousness of the theory, and adduced, as church, which are in the gift of the the “clearest proof of it, that arches crown, for purposes of civil patronage. very rarely fail where their load ditters Without any infringement of private most remarkably from that which this property, with new indulgence to pri- theory allows." vate judgment, it would enable the inie 6. The theory of domes, founded upon nister to give among Edinburgh and the same principles of equilibration, Quarterly Reviewers, the prebendal stalls stands “like the full and perfect warning ånd sinecure preferments of the church, which a wreck offers to the heedless and thus render needless many an in- marier." crease of the pension-list.

7. The theory of piers “is a part on

which little has been written, and still To the Editor of the Monthly Magngine. less understood, except by those who

have been nursed in the practice." SÍR,

8. “The methods by analysis and A LAS! Mr. Editor, how melancholy it geometry, resemble the progress of a A is to trace the progress of poor Lapie young and old hound.” cida's disorder! A year and a half ago 9 . “ There are mathematical hermits," I administered some medicines, and to whom “the common practices of pointed out a regimen, that I hoped mankind are mysteries." would have proved salutary, and ulti- Now, in replying as briefly as possible mately have restored the patient. But to these, allow me to say, the equilibratio-phobia, under which he First. That in Gregory's Mechanics, labours, having not yet been introduced page 141, vol. 1, ihere may be seen a into any of our modern systems of no. demonstration of this proposition: “ The sology, it is certainly difficult to know force of a voussoir depending on the when to forin a favourable prognosis. magnitude of the angle, formed by its The disorder, however, seems now ra. sides, the impelling force, and the repidly hastening to a crisis; but the ea- sistance to be overcome, is on the first coethes scribendi, with which the poor account directly as the radius of curva. gentleman has been all along troubled, is ture of the arch at that point ; on the à most unfavourable symptom. Like second, as the square of the sine of the Gratiano, he “talks an infinite deal of angle, included between the tangent of pothing, more than any man in all Ve- the curve at the given point, and the vernice. His reasons are as two grains of tical line passing through that point; and , wheat, hid in two bushels of chall; you on the third, as the side of the same shall seek all day ere you find them; and angle.” From this proposition the obwhen you have ihem, they are pot worth vious corollary is deduced, that “if the the search." I have gone through his last height of the wall incumbent on any paper, which you have indulged with in- point of the intrados, is directly as the sertion in your Magazine for this month, cube of the secant of the angle, formed (April) in order to pick out this grain or by a tangent to the voussure at the given iwo, which be sets against the genuine point with the horizon; and inversely as theory of equilibration, and bere they are. ile radius of curvature; all the voussures

are

The

E

r will endeavour to split the arch with been stated accuratein hyp

paved equal torces, and will be in perfect equin authors; carev. drs.

b off librium with each other." Here the gory, M. M 3. ssutina

Op on theorisi oves not consider, 2 lapicida assert 121 1144

Boden prete 14.*imaginart wal. upor an fal, and ereccell

each w ia loai upor. VOLS been * TUTTI I

ima-'-

- $0 10. E propositor COTTE to ac*TIDI . 1

: SDN c TIT. Ir it results wit tiw€ ive to the nor":

sand of " . I Di Dua o ric, they are utar :

vards prove. LINDEEDuter uttet. cacse 0: the E

ure of SE STIILI, 7110Le Loresan at the actunlı regur te ir nered, a te tum u nthi. 7 E

thou. U FIE PE i jerzl est maua. : r.

id on pr 11 Oriene le ch gejmerrs Tree

infined fama prosed IDUDL, 2.lt iluues that thr' 11" qanu it but sure of the most ST 012- pies alway-093

ck preThird y and fourta'y, the resets of a elemecia EL

has not theory difering " from that of the sim. the COIDIST 2.

erefore, ple catenaria,” are no proofs of its in- anr' 16

cely any accuracy. Here both Lapicida's autbo. 279.

's. The rities are against him, though he is so caGu: € 100.

furnished lamentably ignorant of the subject as aires +

and now pot to be aware of it; as I shewed at

ted from page 362 of your valuable Magazine for SD

Ise, potaNurember, 1809; to which I now relea, pene

re brought in order to avoid repetition. But I TIS

is now conbe permitted to remark, that ii ias

tation is so cida's malady had not heen of the mai n

lowers, and desperate kind, the wholesome Cei Hande se

1 throughout then administered, would have p

a few small ucer a perfect cure.

tuberances of Fifthly. The instances of a cave

lly belong to duced by Dr. Robisno, kare a tt

d there see the do with the question, as I see

Jom, Magazine, and at the page a re

for the sake of to. But it is, on the coca po

their sustenance

- in point to remark, tha 1 P TC

e rock, where they arches with recrilinea: el. .

h faces prone ther horizontal or slec: O Bar e to meet over the verei s

mbent on its brow, 'found that, after te wert

he scene outspread arches is struck ass move

tretching far away, at the crown and

to the distant main." WIE · for this is eiactyr e

ition with Spain being equilibration, a l os

5 come in daily with absurdly cal., VUT

ules, loaded with bread, Sirthly. D. Era 3

They drive in their Lapicida's ar

: sheep, neither of them directly in tye .. .

: The beef is not fat, Domei.

, T.1 .

all, that a quarter often Ency. Br212. +

nore than forty or fifty same tben

< sheep are also lean and tigate tie ir

cost about two dollars and a same

id weigh fourteen pounds per princE5

wool is generally black, and wha: 62. . .

se, and with the skin is sel.

more than a shilling. The ! y good. Goats and kids are pn; a kid may be bought for

í a dollar Bread is plentiful, · about two-pence-halfpenny per it is not however of very good

quality,

2 scanty herb,

posed to be at variance are in unison, was five days on the water, instead of and thus compel these “lesser stars," twelve hours. We entered the straights your Lapicidas, your Wares, and your with a gentle westerly wind, and had a Gwilts, to “bide their diminished pleasant view of the Spanish and African heads." This will have many advantages; coasts; Gibraltar appearing like a cloud and among others will save me the trou. at intervals behind the other mountains ble of quilling the Combination Room(as in the neighbourhood. It was night be. I have now done) when I bave only drank fore we could anchor, when the numerous half a bottle of wine, to expose the blun- lights from the houses extending over the ders of such insignificant scribblers. rock, glittered with a very pretty effect.

Philo VERITAS. We entered by a narrow draw-bridge, C- College, Cambridge,

that communicates from the ramparts April 10, 1811.

with a flight of wooden steps, or circular P.S. I have just to add on the subject of stair.case erected on the beach, called Mr. Garrard's communication, that, from an Ragged Staff; this is the principal ena examination of the work to which he refors, trance into the garrison from the hare it appears that he did not, in 1792, de mon bour: the other entrances are at two strate the proposition he says he then in.

moles. The communication by land is vented. Three demonstrations are there

over a narrow road, just wide enough for given, but none of them is Mr. Garrard's,

two carriages to pass, and is about five To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine.

hundred feet in length. The sea washes

up to it on one side, and on the other is SIP, W E hear a great deal from many

a pond of still water, reaching close to

the rock. This road is mined, and, if it V quarters about, what are called,

were destroyed, the garrison could not be the abuses of governments in great coucerns; and this makes so loud a noise,

approached but by passing through the

tide. that minor evils seem not only to be

The rock is about three miles in ciroverlooked, but even those who live by

cumference, it is long and narrow, and them appear to gain courage from the

not accessible on the eastern side; the clamour.

north end boldly rises seventeen hundred Among the most shameful of these, and easiest to reform, allow me to men.

feet, which is its highest elevation, and tion the exhibiting Westminster Abbey

on the extreme height is a large mortar, and St. Paul's, for money, to that public,

called the “ Rock-mortar.” who out of their own pockets have paid

Here the famous galleries or excafor the monuments and the building. A

vations are formed. These are champhilosopher, an artist, a country gentle

bers containing guns, extending from man, wish, froin various views, to visit the

two to four hundred yards in length, in tombs of our ancient kings, poets, and

several tiers some hundred of feet above heroes, to see the progress of art, or to

the base. They communicate with each fill up some chain of history; or a person

other by stair-cases, cut within the rock, of pious feelings desires to enjoy them

and leading into some large apartments, there, instead of dissipating thein in the

distinguished by the names of St. George's crowded streets. These no sooner enter,

Hall, Cornwallis's Hall, the Star Chamthan a demand is made of money before

ber, &c. The only light they receive is they can pass the barrier, and unless they

admitted from the holes where the guns pay to the church one shilling and nine

are pointed, and some parts of the paspence, there is no admission! St.

sages are quite dark. The guns are in• Peter's, and all the fine churches, in Italy,

clined in the direction tu defend the apopen their gates, their chapels, their

proach to the town, from the Spanish sacristies, their vaults, to Christians of

main, and their elevation is so great as all ranks and all denominations. The

to render it almost impossible to fire a Whore of Babylon would shrink with

shot into the galleries; the men are, conscorn from a proposal to take one shilling

sequently, not exposed to injury from an and nine-pence to shew her ornaments !

enemy's fire. These works have been Com G.C.

. very considerably extended since the

siege in 1782, and at that time the

Prince de Condé, who had permission to For the Monthly Magazine. enter the garrison a few hours after the JOURNAL of a recent vorage to Cadiz. truce, said, " that the undertaking was

Gibraltar of such a nature, that none but the EnI LEFT Cadiz to come 'round here, glish could have accomplished it." The 1 in a beavy-sailing merchantman, and vestiges of a strong work are to be seen

near

near here, called the “Moors' Castle,” street, badly and disgracefully paved and extending in a line from the bottom and dirty; many less ones branch off almost to the top of the rock; but they on each side, gradually winding up on are useless in modern fortifications, the side of the rock, where the wooden and shew numberless marks of the ene. houses, or wooden sheds, overtop each my's shot. It would be uninteresting other. for me to enumerate all the bat. The inhabitants, or residents, are teries that are on the rock, such as computed at about twelve thousand Willis's batteries,” of which there are souls; of which two-thirds are Spaniards many; the “grand battery, and the and Barbary Jews; besides a mixture of grand cavallier,” at the land port, are all nations, and of all languages. The formed of two tier of guns, thirty- troops now amount to about tive thou. two-pounders, and thirteen inch-mor- sand, whose abodes are scattered on tars, defending the north end of the various parts of the rock, in confined town. The ditch at this place, it is said, barracks or bomb-proof casemates. Bonaparte has declared he will fill with A very small portion of the rock prehis dead, and march his storming party sents a cultivated surface, as it has not over their bodies in the event of his be any natural soil; it affords, therefore, sieging the place!

not any sort of pasture, or scarcely any At one end of these batteries is the new thing like food for the inhabitants. The Mole, where the merchant ships lie in supply of most necessaries is furnished time of peace; during a war they cannot chiefly from the African coast, and now anchor here, as they are exposed to the the intercourse is uninterrupted from fire of the Spanish battery of fort St. Phim Spain. Salced provisions, pulse, potalip. It is a convenient and safe anchorage, toes, cheese, and butter, are brought but the roadstead is very dangerous, from England. The glacis is now conparticularly in the winter months, when verted into gardens, and vegetation is so the winds prevail from the south and rapid, that cabbages, cauliflowers, and the west ; wrecks are then frequent. other esculents, are grown throughout

The Mole is inclosed by extensive the year. There are also a few small works, erected while Sir Thomas Trigge gardens between the protuberances of was governor, in 1804, (as appears from the rock, which principally belong to an inscription over the gate-way), and by officers; and we bere and there see the the celebrated battery called the “ Devil's almond and orange in bloom. Tongue,” which extends into the bay A few goats are kept for the sake of upwards of three hundred feet, and is their milk, they find their sustenance mounted with twenty-four pounders, and among the herbage on the rock, where they thirteen inch-mortars. It rises just above

- With faces prone the level of high water, and to the And eyes intent upon the scanty herb, enemy is very formidable, though it ap- lt yields them; or, incumbent on its brow, pears to them so small that during the Ruminate heedless of the scene outspread whole of the late siege, they were not Beneath, beyond, and stretching far away, once able to throw a shell into it. From inland regions to the distant main."

The King's bastion, at the water's The communication with Spain being edge, about the centre of the rock, is open, the natives come in daily with another five work, erected by General their asses and mules, loaded with bread, Boyd, previous to the siege; it was before poultry, &c. &c. They drive in their this battery, that the celebrated floating cattle and some sheep, neither of them batteries of the Spaniards were burnt by of good quality. The beef is not fat, the red-hot shot of the garrison. General and is so sinall, that a quarter often Boyd is buried within it; and casemates weighs not more than forty or fifty for a great number of soldiers, are in- pounds. The sheep are also lean and clo-ed by it.

small; they cost about two dollars and a Near this bastion is mounted, a brass half each, and weigh fourteen pounds per mortar, weighing eighty-seven hundred quarter; the wool is generally black, and pounds; and there are upwards of four always coarse, and with the skin is sel. hundred pieces of artillery mounted on dom worth more than a shilling. The the rock, there being scarcely any part pork is very good. Goats and kids are of it unfortified that could receive a gun. often eaten; a kid may be bought for

The town is not extensive, the houses about half a dollar, Bread is plentiful, are necessarily built low, and are in ge- and costs about two-pence-halfpenny per peral very small. There is one principal pound; it is not however of very good

quality, quality eitlier in flavour or appcarance. ing them is calculated to have been not Wheat is brought froin all parts of the less than forty thousand pounds sterlingo Mediterranean, hy Greeks, who come Europa Point, which forms the south here on speculation. The sailors have an end of the rock, and has its name from ilerest in the sale of the cargo; and if being the extreme pont of land in Eu. the market be disadvantageous, the men rope, is a flat space, covered with rouyla get nothing for the voyage, as they are fragments, and inequalities of the rock, hired for a venture, and their recom- about six hundred feet in diaineter; and pense arises from the profit on the cargo. can scarcely ever be approached by Fish may be liad in abundance, but the boats, owing to the many small projecte fishermen do not like the restraint they ing rocks which run a considerable disare placed under, of taking out a li- tance into the sea. cence; and this has been imposed on On the top of the rock, near this place, them in consequence of a vast smuggling General O'Hara, while governor, erected trade that was carried on with the coast a signal tower, called St. George's Tower, of Spain, during the war. Tobacco was (now O'Hara's Folly.) It was intended an article extensively dealt in; the boats to supersede the use of another signal, at used to go armed, and the Spaniards some distance froin it; but a violent came to the shore in bodies of two hun. storm, accompanied by lightning, shat. dired men at a time, to meet the ad- tered and nearly threw down the whole venturers, who were generally paid in fabric, soon after it was built; and it is dollars for their commodities; but Lord supposed that this effect was produced in Collingwood and General Dalrymple put consequence of the stone work being an end to this illicit traffic, and occa. fastened by bars of iron. sioned a serious loss to sonie individuals It was to Europa Point that the inwho had stocks of tobacco on hand, as babitants retired, in the year 1802, while well as by the capture of their loaded the plagle raged with such violence, as to boals. The Brazii, or black tobacco, is carry off upwards of seven thousand the quality consumed on the Mediter people belonging to the place. The ranean coasts; and the white, or Virwant of sufficient and efficacious medical ginia, in the other parts of Spain.

assistance was much felt, and the apFiring is supplied from England; the proach of the winter season was the only Duke of Newcastle furnishing the troops powerful aid that destroyed the conwith pit-coal, free of expevce, excepting tagion. It was reinarkable that the the freight; and, as the issues to thein are porters, who are natives of Barbary, hberal, and often exceed their wants, the should in general have escaped the fever; surplus is sufficient for the use of the they used to attend on the sick and the juliabitants, who purchase this article at dead, without contracting the disease. about twelve or fourteen dollars per At this period, a duck or a fowl cost two chaldron.

dollars; and turkeys, ten to fourteen dole Toward the southern end of the rock lars each. is the dock-yard, where the men of war · The rock, from its great height, afforda can only be partially repaired, as there numerous points of observation. The sige is no dry dock. I could not avoid re- nal-house, in the centre of the suinmit, marking, over the entrance, a board with coinmands the Atlantic, beyond the coast a public notice written on it, in English, of Tangiers, so that not a ship can enter and an atteinpted translation into a the straighits unobserved. The levelled broken language between Italian and space on which it stands is about thirty Spanish; retlecting, at the least, no gramne feet diameter; and from it a ship of matical credit on the author, whether he the line has a very diminutive appear. were a government clerk or not.

ance. The prospect is altogether des The victualiing departinent is near the lightful; toward the Mediterranean we yard; it is a small building, but a mag. distinctly see the mountains heyond Ma. nificent one is beguil, the cost of which laga, called the “ Sierra Nieva," from is estimated at lifieen thousand pounds the circumstance of their being always sterling. Here are also some extensive covered with snow: they are distant, in tanks, excavated in the rock; they are to a straight line, about one hundred and be filled from the water that accumulates twenty miles. The towns, on the sea. in the rainy season; and are calculated coast, are numerous, and the country to contain a sufficient supply for ibe navy around is very picturesque. It is bounded

for twelve months. They are divided into on all sides, as far as the eye can reach, · compartments, and the expence of make by losty mountains; the valleys and

plains,

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