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change resulted, either from ascensive There is nothing in the historic orie or descensive opinion, the chance would gin of this acc to render its stability be in favor of increased harmony. Proe honourable. In the year 1662 a bill bably not many congregations would un- was brought into the house of comdertake or undergo any alteration at all. mons on the 14th of January, and carried

The Enquirer, however, attaches little by a majority of 186 to 180, which value to a confornity of opinion be provides as that all and singular ministers tween clergy and people. In his idea shall be hound to say and use the mornthe teachers ought to be a wiser order ing prayer, evening prayer, and all of men, and to hold a purer creed than other common prayers, in such order the multitude, and to be at liberty and form as is mentioned in the Prayerto say so. Angels of heaven, they book; and that all such ministers as should be constanly lifting the erring omit declaring on or before the foldupes of fanaticism out of the mire of lowing 24th August, being the feast of 'superstition, and cleansing them for the Saint Bartholomew, their unfeigned asa serener region of truth. Be it left to sent and consent to all and every thing sects to elect ministers down to their contained in and prescribed by the book own narrow bigotries, and credulous 'shali, ipso facto, be deprived of all their articles of faith; but let the magis. spiritual promotions." This law soon intrate not impede the progress of in. troduced a monotonous uniformity of struction.

worship throughout the parish churches The pursuers of uniformity, to have of England. Seven months were found any prospect of success, must always sufficient for the conversion of ninea prefer the average creed of the people tenths of the clergy to the agreed for. to the creed of the enlightened class: mulas. About two thousand priests knowing a better, they must choose a were ejected from their benefices by the worse, religion; and, perpetually fire regulation, from a double battery at superior illu- The act of uniformity was to have mination, and at groping blindness. been a compromise between the epise Happily uniformity is as impracticable copalian and the presbyterian clergy. as it is unnatural; and, wherever there who professed to be willing to accomis tolerance, different sects are found modate one another, provided those into arise suited to the various shades of tolerable sects, (as Baxter called them) insight and hues of temper prevalent the Papists and Socinians, could be efa among men. This is best for the sectually excluded. The terms of com. public; the great awakener of intellect prehension were for a long time dis. is controversy; where there is no discussed; but, as soon as the king had cord, no competition, the stimulus to received his crown at the hands of the acquire learning and to display elo- episcopalians, these conferences were quence, is wanting. Spain, Portugal, closed. The king, in a declaration is Italy, bare sunken in the rank of lie sued prior to his coronation, had ex. terary nations, for no other reason than pressly promised, that half of the chapbecause an universal consentaneity of ter' attached to each see, 'should be religious profession was exacted by the elected by the Presbyterians; but this guardians of the press. Water, if stag- introduction of the elective principle nant, putrifies; but, whether it ebbs or into the constitution of the legal hierar. flows, it diffuses lustre and fertility. chy, which would have rendered the It is so with the tide of opinion.

church more independent, was never The true interest of the magistrate offered during the conferences at the is to subdivide society into sects so nu- Savoy. The Calvinists waved every merous, that no one of them shall in- frivolous difficulty: they agreed to acclude a majority of the people, or be cept liturgic forms of worship; they 80 powerful as a coalition of the rest. agreed that the ecclesiastic superinten. Toleration is in that case the permanent dents should be called bishops. But interest of all denominations of per. the Bucerists' retracted the very prosuasion, and is likely to be inforced by mises inade under the signature of their the sovercign, with the concurrence of king; and scrupled not at having obtained all religious parties. What method so the co-operation of a great pariy, by the conducive to this desirable multiplication offer and promise of concessions, no of heresies, as a repeal of the Act of one of which was eventually to be Uniformity?

realized, Preferment was offered with Montuly Mag, No. 219.

31

profusa her other motions into account, we may the query proposed hy Coperniens, jun. find that this is corrected; for example, 'Without such queries and conjectures

her quick motion in acceding to the sun, upon them, when demonstration cannot • to a considerable degree Dearer than be brouglit directly forward, advance in what the earth approaches, and again arts, science, or literature, cannot be receding to a greater distance; by the expected. Although advances in either one, the sun will produce a greater effect of these are not to be formed upon conupon her rides than upon the terrestrial jecture, at the sanie tiine, queries and tides, and by the other a less, from which conjectures may be so improved, as to her spring and neap-udes will arise, but produce at last a demonstration; or sucha Loth will tend to encrease the agitation a degree of certainly, as by natural con. of her walers, which, together with her sequence may be considered not to fall other motions, commonly designed irre short of it.

OBSERVATOR. gularities, will regulate the motion of her waters so as to be similarly equal to the For the Monthly Magazine. . effects produced by the terrestrial tides; A VINDICATION of the PROPOSAL .t and thus the primaries and their secon- REPEAL The act of UNIFORMITY, daries are mutually beneficial to one VOUR Correspondent H. at p. 29, another.

1 professes to examine a paper con. . But as Copernicus, jun. very pro- cerning the value of uniformity in re

perly observes, that, a great part of the ligious opinion. Full of his own pre. moon's surface does not receive the be- conceptions, and inattentive to the ar. nefit of light reflected from the earth; to gument advanced, after talking about compensate this, that part of her surface to:eration, which is not the topic hante is screened froin the powerful effect of dled, he decides against the enquirer's the tides, which would be caused by the proposal to repeal she Act of Unifor. direct attraction of the earth upon the inity, as intolerant toward the members waters of the moon, except at change, of the establishment. and which the other motions of the Toward what members of the esia. Boon, particularly in her spring rides, blishment? . would cause to be so much accelerated, ls ic intolerant to the clerical order, as to render her cvast not habitable for who would thereby be set at liberty to some miles from shore; her bigh tides read prayers and to preach sermons, making so great incursions upon her exactly consonant with their own in. land.

dividual sentiments? Without fear of But what the opposite disk of the deposition by the consistorial court, moon is composed of, can only be the Mr. Stune might then deny the persoo subject of conjecture, taken from the pality of the Holy Ghost, or Dr. George supposed similarity she may have to our Somers Clarke, the existence of proearth in that respect.

phecy; Mr. Overton might preach his It is observable, that so soon after calvinism, and the bishop of Lincoln change, as a small part of her illuminated bis arminianist, unrebuked. Clerical disk comes in view, the disk oppo. opinion would no longer be amenable site to the sun, and turned to the earth, before any inquisitorial ecclesiastic ju. likewise appears'; and, under some cir- risdiction. cumstances, is rendered very discernible: Is it intolerant to the laity? Less so if at such times that disk, and such parts at least than the present system. By of her opposiie disk as are turned to the allowing the priest to accommodate his earth by her libration, be attentively obe liturgic and homiletic addresses to the serred, in order to discover whether it surrounding state of public belief, the be serrated like the other parts of her risk of discordance between the parson disk, or whether any parts of it are more and the parishioners must evidently be smooth; and a comparison made between diminished. Something would be done its appearance, and the appearance of to meet the wish of the neighbourhood. the suriace of water at night; if such ob- Ecclesiastics of a compromising spirit, servation and comparison be carefully are more numerous in the proportion made, we might perba ps form a pretty of ten to one, than ecclesiastics ambi 'true idea of the composition of the op- tious of proclaiming that they think fuc posite hemisphere of the moon. I have themselves. Where an autonomous no doubt that Doctor Herschel would mind 'exists, it is mostly attended with teadily undertake these observations. a spirit of proselytism, which slowly I bave thus.sisked, a conjecture upon makes conrerts, Thus, wherever I

change change resulted, either from ascensive There is nothing in the historic oriaor descensive opinion, the chance would gin of this acc to render its stability be in favor of increased harmony. Pro- honourable. In the year 1662 a bill bably not many congregations would unwas brought into the house of comdertake or undergo any alteration at all, mons on the 14th of January, and carried

The Enquirer, however, attaches little by a majority of 186 to 180, which value to a confornity of opinion be provides as that all and singular ministers tween clergy and people. In his idea shall be bound to say and use the morn'the teachers ought to be a wiser order ing prayer, evening prayer, and all of men, and to hold a purer creed than other common prayers, in such order the multitude, and to be at liberty and form as is mentioned in the Prayerto say so. Angels of heaven, they book; and that all such ministers as should be constanly lifting the erring omit declaring on or before the foldupes of fanaticism out of the mire of lowing 24th August, being the feast of 'superstition, and cleansing them for the Saint Bartholomew, their unfeigned asserener region of truth. Be it left to sent and consent to all and every thing sects to elect ministers down to their contained in and prescribed by the book own narrow bigotries, and credulous 'shali, ipso facio, be deprived of all their articles of faith; but let the magis. spiritual promotions." This law soon intrate not impede the progress of in. troduced a monotonous uniformity of struction.

worship throughout the parish churches The pursuers of uniformity, to have of England. Seven months were found any prospect of success, must always sufficient for the conversion of nine prefer the average creed of the people tenths of the clergy to the agreed forto the creed of the enlightened class: mulas. About two thousand priests knowing a better, they must choose a were ejected from their benefices by the worse, religion; and, perpetually fire regulation, from a double battery at superior illu. The act of uniformity was to have mination, and at groping blindness. been a compromise between the epise Happily uniformity is as inpracticable copalian and the presbyterian clergy, as it is unnatural; and, wherever there who professed to be willing to accomis tolerance, different sects are found modate one another, provided those into arise suited to the various shades of tolerable sects, (as Baxter called them) insight and hues of temper prevalent the Papists and Socinians, could be era among men. This is best for the fectually excluded. The terms of com. public; the great awakener of intellect prehension were for a long time dis. is controversy; where there is no discussed ; but, as soon as the king had cord, no competition, the stimulus to received his crown at the hands of the acquire learning and to display elo- episcopalians, these conferences were quence, is wanting. Spain, Portugal, closed. The king, in a declaration isItaly, bave sunken in the rank of lio sued prior to his coronation, had exe terary nations, for no other reason than pressly promised, that half of the chapbecause an universal consentaneity of ter' attached to each see, should be religious profession was exacted by the elected by the Presbyterians; but this guardians of the press. Water, if stag- introduction of the elective principle nant, putrifies; but, whether it ebbs or into the constitution of the legal hierarflows, it diffuses lustre and fertility. chy, which would have rendered the It is so with the tide of opinion.

church nore independent, was never The true interest of the magistrate offered during the conferences at the is to subdiride society into sects so nu. Savoy. The Calvinists waved every merous, that no one of them shall in- frivolous difficulty: they agreed to acclude a majority of the people, or be cept liturgic forms of worship; they so powerful as a coalition of the rest. agreed that the ecclesiastic superinten. Toleration is in that case the permanent dents should be called bishops. But interest of all denominations of per. the Bucerists' retracted the very pro. suasion, and is likely to be in forced by mises made under the signature of their the sovereign, with the concurrence of king; and scrupled not at having obtained all religious parties. What method so the co-operation of a great pariy, by the conducive to this desirable multiplication offer and promise of concessions, no of heresies, as a repeal of the Act of one of which was eventually to be Uniformity?

realized, Preferment was offered with MONTHLY Mac, No. 219,

profuso

profuse liberality to Baxter, Calamy, 1. Theorists consider the whole and others of the Presbyterian party; thickness at the vertex as so much wall but they were in return expected to standing upon a mathematical curve." sell theinselves entire to the sect which 2. Emerson's leading proposition is, to had so basely defrauded them, by vio. find the extrados from a given intralating engagements the most solemn. dos. Their noble disinterest rejected all hush 3. This proposition is not true, nor hire. The purest atonement which does it apply to the question, because its can now be made for the perfidy, is to result “ dillers from that of the simple sepeal the act of uniformity, and to catenaria." open the church to the defrauded sec- 4. “ The authority of the Woolwich taries.

Academy has imposed Emerson's TheThe most important feature of the ory of Arches," but the true theory is Enquirer's plan is however not its eccle- that, which Lapicida “attempts to detail siastic operation. An alert statesman froņn Dr. Gregory's paper, aud Dr. would have perceived in it the only Hooke's conclusion." practicable way of enabling government 5. Dr. Robison admitted the falla. to avail itself of those revenues of the ciousness of the theory, and adduced, as .church, which are in the gift of the the “clearest proof of it, that arches

crown, for purposes of civil patronage. very rarely fail where their load differs Without any infringement of private most remarkably from that which this property, with new indulgence to pri- theory allows." vate judgment, it would enable the inie 6. The theory of domes, founded upon pister to give among Edinburgh and the same principles of equilibratiou, Quarterly Reviewers, the prebendal stalls stands “like the full and perfect warning and sinecure preierments of the church, which a wreck offers to the heedless and thus render needless many an in- marinier." crease of the pension-list.

7. The theory of piers “is a part on

which little has been written, and still To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

less understood, except by those who

have been nursed in the practice." SIR,

8. “The methods by analysis and A LAS! Mr. Editor, how melancholy it geometry, resemble the progress of a A is to trace the progress of poor Lapi- young and old bound." cida's disorder! A year and a half ago 9 . « There are mathematical hermits," I administered some medicines, and to whom “the common practices of pointed out a regimen, that I hoped mankind are mysteries." would have proved salutary, and ulti-' Now, in replying as briefly as possible mately have restored the patient. But to these, allow me to say, the equilibratio-phobia, under which he First. That in Gregory's Mechanics, labours, having not yet been introduced page 141, vol. 1, there may be seen a into any of our modern systems of no. demonstration of this proposition: “ The sology, it is certainly difficult to know force of a voussoir depending on the when to forin a favourable prognosis. magnitude of the angle, formed by its The disorder, however, seems now rae sides, the impelling force, and the repidly hastening to a crisis; but the ca- sistance to be overcome, is on the first coethes scribendi, with which the poor account directly as the radius of curva. gentleman has been all along troubled, is ture of the arch at that point; on the a most unfavourable symptom. Like second, as the square of the sine of the Graciano, he “talks an infinite deal of angle, included between the langent of Dothing, more than any man in all Ve- the curve at the given point, and the ver. nice. His reasons are as two grains of tical line passing through that point; and wbcat, hid in two bushels of chaif; you on the third, as the sine of the same shall scek all day cre you find them; and angle.” From this proposition the obwhen you have ihem, they are pot worth vious corollary is deduced, that “if the thie searcb." I have gone through his last height of the wall incumbent on any paper, which you bave indulged with in. point of the intrados, is directly as the sertion in your Magazine for this month, cube of the secant of the angle, formed (April) in order to pick out this grain or by a tangent to the voussure at the given two, which he sets against the genuine point with the horizon; and inversely as theory of equilibration, and here they are. the radius of curvature; all the voussures will endeavour to split the arch with been stated accurately by at least four equal forces, and will be in perfect equi. authors; namely, Drs. Hutton and Gre. librium with each other." Here the gory, M. M. Bossut and Prony. I will theorist does not consider, as Lapicida assert farther, that the most candid, skil. pretends, "an imaginary wall upon an ful, and experienced of those who have imaginary arch," but a load upon vous- been “ nursed in the practice," are ready soir; and yet the proposition corre. to acknowledge, that in general they sponds accurately in its results with those give to the piers full twice the substance of Dr. Hutton, in his book on Bridges, they apprehend may be necessary, beas Dr. Gregory proves immediately after. cause of their uncertainty as to what is

Secondly. Though Emerson left the actually required for stability. theory in perfect, as he found it, Dr. Eighthly. Whatever, in Lapicida's Hutcon does not. He gives a general estimation, “the methods by analysis and proposition to determine the intrados geometry" may resemble; the fact is, from a proposed extrados, and illustrates that the principles of equilibration are it by some of the most useful examples. always deduced from a simple and very

Thirdly and fourthly, the results of a elementary application of geoinetry, to theory differing “ from that of the sim- the composition and resolution of forces; ple catenaria,” are no proofs of its in- and that the fluxionary processes only accuracy. Here both Lapicida's autho. arise in the solutions of problems which sities are against him, though he is so cannot be touched in any other way, lamentably ignorant of the subject as except by a gross approximation, not to be aware of it; as I shewed at Ninthly. With regard to “ mathepage 362 of your valuable Magazine for matical herioits," to whom “the comNovember, 1809; to which I now refer, mon practices of mankind are myste. in order to avoid repetition. But I must rious," few of them seem to have inedbe permitted to remark, that if Lapi- dled with the theory of arches. Dr. cida's malady had not been of the most Hutton, the author against whom La. desperate kind, the wholesome dose I picida levels bis ill-directed fire, is nothen administered, would have produced torious, for his having, for a series of a perfect cure.

years, united theory with practice, to an Fifthly. The instances of failure ad- extent never exceeded, and perhaps duced by Dr. Robison, have nothing to never equalled by any other man since do with the question, as I shewed in the the time of Archimedes. We owe te Magazine, and at the page just referred him, to his judiciously blending theory to. But it is, on the contrary, perfectly with experiment, all extant that is worth in point to remark, that in semicircular knowing on the subject of gunnery: and arches with rectilinear extradosses, ei. he has done more, both as a man of ther horizontal or sloping on both sides science, an engineer, and an architect, to meet over the vertex, it is constantly to improve and confirm the only tenable 'found that, after the centring of such theory of arches and piers, than any arches is struck and removed, they settle other philosopher. Whence theu oria at the crown and rise up at the flanks: ginates this incessant tendency on the · for this is exactly what the true theory of part of men who are not able to read

equilibration, against which Lapicida so (and of course not to estimate) a tenth absurdly cavils, would lead us to expect. of his writings, to depreciate and de• Sirthly. Dr. Robison, another of spise thein? His Essay on Bridges,

Lapicida's authorities, gives evidence though published as a hasty imperfect directly in his teeth, on the subject of attempt, contains more valuable and Domes. For, in the article ARCH, (Sup. correct propositions on the subject, than Ency. Britan.) he applies exactly the can be collected from the performances same theory of equilibration, to inves- of all the mathematicians who have at. tigate the properties of Domes; I say the tended to it. I hope and trust he will same theory, though a few additional extend his researches on this interesting principles are called in : he shews to branch of enquiry, in the edition of his what extent a deviation from true equi- Tracts now announced, (I perceive) as libration may be allowed, and why; and publishing; for I doubt not, the result of illustrates his positions by references to his enquiries for so many years, will place some remarkable structures, such as the the subject in a flood of light, will sheiv

dome of St. Paul's, the Halle du Bled at in what points all various theories, sup. * Paris, &c.

posed by ivfants in science to differ, in Sepenthly, The theory of piers has fact agree, in what points authors sup

posed

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