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of the calcareous genus, comprise all the lities of hardness and compactness, and various marbles and linestones. These in its properties of durability, as may be are generally inore free from a linixture observed in many of the public edifices with other earthis, than stones of the si. in London, which are built of this stone. licious, or argillaceous kind; and their In the construction of St. Paul's, sonie relative degrees of excellence for pure attention appears to have been paid to poses of architecture are inore easily the selection of the stones for the exascertained by their external character. terior; which are more perfect than those Besires purc lime, they contain from 45 in many buildings of a recent date; but to 50 per cent. of carbonic acid and they are evidently perisbing in the upper water. Lime when pure is soluble in five part of this magnificent structure. hundred times its weight of water; and, Portland-stone contains carbonate of even when united with carbonic acid, it lime, united with a small portion of siles is in a less certain degree soluble in river and clay. Its solution in diluted muwalers, owing to the minute portion of riatic acid gives a dark-blue precipitate, different acids, which is generally con. with the Prussian alkali, indicating the tained in them. On this account they presence of oxyd of iron, to which it owes are ill suited to form the foundations and its brownish cint; but the quantity of iron piers of bridges, or be employed in the is too small to affect its qualiy for the use construction of works exposed to the of the architect. It burns to a while action of the water. The durability of lime, losing more than ejybie parts in marbles and lime-stones might, I be. twenty of its weight, during calciation, lieve, with some certainty be deterimined According to Professor Jarnesol, roeby their relative degrees of hardness, and stone is never used for architecture, on by observing the time required to dissolve account of its speedy disintegration; an equal cube of each kind of stone in but his observations appear to have been marine acid, of the same strength, diluted confined to the varieties of this stone in with five times the quantity of water at Germany, and inapplicable to those in the same temperature. The sediment our own island. Tivo stones called by remaining will also determine the quan- the same naine, from diffcrent situations, tity of silex or clay with which the lime are seldom exactly similar in all their is combined. Magnesia enters into the properties; which indeed rarely bappens composition of some lime-stones in the with stones from different layers of the proportion of two-fifths, and renders the same bed. And where scrata of calcasoftest stones of this kind less soluble in reous stone are separated by other acids than the hardest marbles, on which kinds of stone, the upper and lower account it will be necessary to ascertain strata, almost invariably differ in bari. by.chemical experiments, whether the ness and specific gravily; on which slowness with which lime-stone is soluble, account it would be very desirable, that proceeds from the presence of magnesia; a mineralogical examination of stones but I believe it will also be found that a should be made in their native quarries, mixture of this earth, where it occurs in and that those which are intended for Time-stone, not only renders it less soluble the external part of buildings, should be in acids, but communicates to it a degree judiciously selected from the others, of durability which is not to be found in Of all stones of the calcareous genus, other lime-stones of the same degree of there cannot be a doubt that compact hardness. The high comparative degree marbles, which can receive the highest of preservation observable in the exterior degree of poliah, would be the most of York Minster, and other public edifices beautiful and durable for the exterior of which are built of this stone, may serve buildings; but their scarcity in this couns to prove its excellence for purposes of try prevents their application to this architecture.
purpose. Alabaster, which is composed Portland Stone is a peculiar kind of of lime, united with sulphuric acid, froin lime-stone, which some mineralogists its beauty and the facility with which it call roe-stone. When examined with a can be worked, is used for ornamental magnifying lens, it will be found to con- architecture and sculpture; but the sotaio a number of small round globules, lubility of this stone renders it ill-suited resembling in appearance the roes of to resist the agency of water. fishes, imbedded in a calcareous basis, 'Dr. Waison relates, lhat he suspended from whence it derives its name. It also two ounces of this stone in a paid of contains fragments of shells, and minute water for forty-eight hours, changing the calcarcous crystals. It varies in its qua. watcr several wines, and found that it
had had lost one-thirtieth part of its weight. the process of decomposition goes on till I suspect this alabaster was one of the the whole stone is changed. The argill, softest kind; but the experiment muy or clay, in these stones, is also frequently serve to show, that this stone will not capable of absorbing a greater portion of bear exposure to rain. There are no water; and the stone may be rendered other stones deserving the attention of soft by the combined operation of these the architect, but those of the silicious, (no causes. It is in these stones that argillaceous, and calcareous, genus, in the different earths are combined, in the the latter of which we may class mag- proportions best suited to the support of Besian lime-stone, the only building-stone vegetable life. into which magnesia enters in any con- Lichens and mosses fix theinselres on siderable proportion.
the surface of stones, and, by insinuating The decomposing and disintegrating the minute fibres of their roots, tend to agency of water, air, and change of tem. accelerate their decay and prepare a veperature, on stones employeel in archi. getable mould for plants of a larger iecture, is the same by which Nature is growth. The deconi position of many constantly operating to convert solid argillaceous stones, which are most nerocks into soil. The fiat of Omnipotence cessary for the support of vegetable life, “ commands the hardest stones to be is most speedily effected by natural made bread," or to become the means of capses; hence, inore caution and skill are supporting vegetable and animal life, but necessary in their selection for architecthe processes by which this effect is pro- ture. No stones of this genus should duced, are slow and gradual. The earths crer be employed, which have not had of which all stones are composed, are the test of time, without a careful mine. either to a certain degree soluble in ralogical and chemical examination of water, or are capable of being mecha. their nature and contents. This examinically suspended in it when minutely nation would always precede the applica. divided. A drop of water, constantly ruija tion of stones for public works or edifices, ning across the bardest stone, soon inarks intended to endure for ages, were engi. its path, by cutting a furrow in the sur. Neers and architects as attentive to their face; hence, the well known adage “Non future fame, and the interests of pos, vi sed sæpe cadendo." This effect, how. teriry, as to present emolunient. Besides ever, is slow, compared with that of other the chemical examination of stones, it is causes, which are constantly operating. necessary to try the effect of various des Water insinuates itself into the pores and grees of heat, and of builing water, upon sninute crevices of stones, and being ex. them, applied for a considerable time, panded by increase of temperature, se and to note carefully their encrease or pirates the parts from each other, but loss of weight and other changes. In this it produces this effect in a much greater manner wc may sumetinies anticipate degree when expanded by freezing. Frost with certainty, in a few days, what will is the niost potent agent by which Nature be the effects of less powerful, but long. operates eni inasse,' frequently splitting continued natural operations in a series the hardest rocks, and levelling iminense of years, For purposes of durabie archie portions of nrountains in a single night. tecture, no stones but those of the sili. Jo building-stones which have a ten cious genus should be employed in the dency to a slaty structure, the destroying exterior parts of buildings. In our moist cffects of frost are inost likely to be soon and variable climate, all kinds of stone perceptible, from the facility with which but the silicious will perish sooner than water can insinuate itself between the in countries where the rains are less fres lamina. lo scones of the argiliaceous quent. The present state of our churches genus, the joint effects of water and air and public buildings proves that the se. frequently produce a speedy decompo. lection of building-stones has been left sitio, even of those of the hardest kind. to ignorance or chance to determine, If a stone bare a strong earthy smell, The antients, in their public works, apo when breathed opon, its durability inay pear to have had a just regard to perpebe suspected. Tron frequently enters in fuate the glory of the era in which they Jarge proportions into argillaceous stones, lived, and to leave to posterity durable in a stare not perfectly oxydated, and and useful monuments of their skill, aiterwards combines with a further por: which should secure their gratitude and tion of oxygen, forming a brown incrus. veneration. The public architecture in tation to a certain depth, which becoines this country appears constructed on calsuft and falls off, or is waslied away, and culations of false economy and present
convenience, with little regard to the bee the Syriac version, that the former had pefit of future generations.
been altered froin the latter; but it apGranite and porphyry, on account of pears highly improbable, that the Syriac their extreine hordness, are difficult to version should have been used in the corwork; but they would well repay the ex. rection of a njanuscript written in a coun. pence for bridges and public buildings. try where the Syriac language was wbolly It was of these stones that the Egyptians, unknown. The natural inference, thereand other nations of antiqnity, con- fore, is, that the readings of the Codex structed palaces and temples, which bave Bezæ are for the most part genuine, and endured the attack of tiine and the deso. of course preferable to those of modern lating hand of superstitious barbarians, manuscripts. This manuscript was The origin of some of these structures is found by Beza, at Lyons, in the monasprior to the oldest records of man, and tery of St. Irenæus, in the year 1562, at they will exist when no vestige of the the commencement of the civil war in architecture of modern times sball re- France, Beza wrote, in the beginning main.
ROBERT BAXEWELL of this manuscript, the following account Warwick Court, Gruy's Inn.
with his own hand: “ Est hoc exeinplar
venerandæ vetustatis ex Græcia, ut For the Monthly Magazine. apparet ex barbaris quibusdam Græcis On the CODEX BEZ.E, the CLERMONT MA- ' ad marginem nolatis, olin exportatum,
NUSCRIPT, and the ORIGINALS of the et in S. Irenæi monasterio Lugdunensi, SCRIPTURES of the NEW TESTAMENT. ita, ut hic cernitur, mutilatum, postquam A CORRESPONDENT having, in a ibi in pulvere diu jacuisset, repertum, A former Number, requested some oriente ibi civili bello anno domini 1562," informacion respecting the Codex Bezæ, That the manuscript came originally from the Clermont Manuscript, and the ori Greece is only conjecture; but that it was ginals of the Scriptures of the New Testa- discorered in the monastery of St. ment; I beg leave to offer the following Irenæus in Lyons, in the year 1562, is observations, which probably comprehend the direct and positive evidence of a nail, the several subjects of his inquiries. whose veracity is unimpeachable. The
The Codex Bezæ is a Greek and Latin two following circumstances render it manuscript of the four Gospels, and of the highly probable, that the Codex Beza Acts of the Apostles. It is, however, de was written in the west of Europe: 1. fective in some parts of the Gospels, and The Latin translation was added with no also wants sone passages of the Acts. other design than to render the original The Gospels are arranged in the usual intelligible to those who were not skilled order of the Latin manuscripts: Mate in the Greek language, and it was not thew, John, Luke, Mark. The uncial added merely in consequence of the high letters, with the want of accents, of authority of the church, by which it was marks of aspiration, and of intervals be used. In that case the transcriber would tween the words, proye the high antiquity have adopted some established text, from of this manuscript, which, perhaps, is the which he would never bave deviated; but most ancient that is now extant. Some the Latin text of the Codex Bezæ is writers have thought that the Greek text found in no Latin inanuscript,' either has been altered froin the Latin version, ancient or modern. This translarion but this opinion seems to rest on no solid would have been wholly superfluous if the foundation. Though a very great nume manuscript had been written for the use ber of readings, peculiar to the Codex of a Greek, to whom a Latin translation Bezæ, are found in the Valgaie, yet this was unnecessary. 2. The arrangement is no proof that those readings were actu- of the Gospels in the Codex Bezæ was ally borrowed from a Latin version, and never admitted by the Greek church, or translated into Greek. It is, at least, in any country subject to its authority, equally possible that they might have but was the common arrangement of the originated from the Greek, as from the ancient Latin manuscripts. From these Latin; and that this was really the case circumstances it seems reasonable to seems highly probable, if it be consi- conclude, that the Codex Bezæ was write dered, that, when Jerom revised the Latin ten in the west of Europe, in a country version, by order of Pope Damasus, he in which Latin was better understood corrected it from Greek manuscripts. than Greek, and which was subject to Some bare thought, from the coincidence discoverable in a very great number of Michaelis's Lotroduction to the New readings between the Codex Bezæ and Testament.
the the authority of the church of Rome. It ters, yet it has accents and marks of aspi. was probably written either at Constane ration, which, Montfaucon says, appear tinople, or in some city of the Greek to have been added by another hand, at empire in Europe, for the use of sume no great distance of time after the ma. person or community belonging to the nuscript itselt had been written. This Latin church, between the time of Con. manuscript was probably written in the stantine and the final separation of the west of Europe, not only because it las Greek and Lalin churches. That the Co. a Latin translation, but because the dex Bczæ was written before the eighin Epistle to the Hebrews is found at the century is certain, as appears from the end; and in the catalogue of the books shape of the letters, the want of intervals of the New Testament, which is placed between the words, and of accents, and
afier the Epistle to Philemon, the Epistle marks of aspiration: for in the eighth cen to the Hebrews is not inentioned. This tury the Greek uncial characters degene Epistle is also written even by a later rated froin the square and round form, hand, and was therefore wholly excluded which is seen in the Codex Bezæ, to an obo trom the cauon by the origioal writer of long shape; marks of aspiration and accent the manuscript. Now, as the Epistle to were added, and the elegance of writing the Hebrew's was, during a considerable considerably decreased. From compa- time, rejected by the church of Rome, ring the letters of the Codex Beza wish but not by the Greek church, it follows the Greek inscriptions given by Mont- that the Ciermont manuscript must have faucon, it appears not only that it must been originally written in a country be more ancient than the eighth century, under the doininion of the former. * but that it may be as ancient as the sixth, The original manuscripts of the New the fifth, or even the fourth, century.
Testament, which were written either by The probability however is, that, from the Apostles themselves, or by amathe Euthalian sections being observed in nuenses under their immediate inspecthe Codex Bezæ, it was not written be. tion, are all lost. Their preservation, fore the fifth century.* This manuscript during the space of seventeen centuries, was sent by Beza to the University of could not be expected without the interCambridge, and published by that learned position of a miracle. “But what benebody in 1793, in letters of the same form tits,” says Michaelis, “shouid we derive and magnitude as the original band from the possession of these manuscripts, writing.
or what inconvenience do we suffer from The Clermont manuscript is a Greek. their loss? No critic in classical litera. Latin manuscript of the Epistles of Sc. iure enquires after the original of a proPaul, the antiquity of which was estis fane author, or disputes the authenticity mated by Sabbatier at 1200 years. Beza, of Cicero's Offices, because we have not who had this manuscript in his pos. the copy which Cicero wrote with his session, gave it the name of Claromon- own hand. An antiquarian, or collector tanus, from Clermont, in Bauvaisis, of ancient records, will scarcely maintain where it is said to have been preserved. that the probability of these books being From the hands of Beza it came into the genuine, is inferior to the probability Putean library, and was bequeathed by that a record in his possession of the the proprietor, Jaeques du Puy, with all twelfth century, is an authentic docuhis other. manuscripts, to the royal lic ment of that period; for though his record ibrary in Paris, where it is at present kept. is only six hundred years old, and the Mill contended that the Clermont manu- works of Cicero are thrice as ancient, script was the second part, or a contio we are more exposed to imposition in the nuation, of the Codex Bezæ; but Wet- former instance, as the forgery of antistein las sutħciently confuled this opis quities is often practised by those whose bion, and shewn that the former is by no business and profit are to lead the curious means connected with the latter, as into error. But, supposing that the ori. appears from the difference of their form, ginal manuscripts of Cicero, Cæsar, Paul, their orthography, and the nature of the and Peter, were now extant, it would be vellum on which they are written.t It impossible to decide whether they were is supposed by Montfaucon, that the spurious, or whether they were actually Clermont manuscript was written in the written by the hands of these authors." seventh century. Though in uncial let. In fact there is no reason to doubt that
the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles, of the # Marsh on Michaelis, of Michaelis,
Apostles, were written by those whose abroad through all nations. We are well names they bear. Nor is there any cause assured that the four gospels were colto doubt of the authors of all the rest. Jected during the life of St. Jolin, aud This may be proved by the testimony of that the three first received the approa those who wrote soon after thein, and bation of this divine Aposue. And iliy who lare frequently quoted their wri. may we not suppose that the other books tings, by the testimony of the Christian of the New Tetiment were githered 10churches in all parts of the earth, which gether at the same time? What renders at all times unanimously allowed those this highly probable is, that the most writings to be genuine and authentic, and urgent necessity required its being done. by an inspection of the books themselves, For, not long alier Christ's a:cension which bear no marks of corruption or de- into heaven, several histories of his life ceit. That the books of the New Testa. and doctrines, full of pious frauds and ment were in general use among Chris. fabulous wonders, were composed by per. tians, at a very early period, is a unie sons, whose intentions, perhaps, were not versal opinion. “ The book, called the bad, but whose writings discovered the New Testament,” observes the bishop of greatest superstition und ignorance. Landaff, “consists of twenty-seven dif- Nor was this all, productions appeared, ferent parts; concerning seven of these, which were imposed on the world by viz. the Epistle to the Hebrews, that of fraudulent men as the writings of the James, the second of Peter, the second holy Apostles. These apocryphal and of John, the third of John, that of Jude, spurious writings must have produced a and the Revelation, there were at first sad confusion, and rendered bou the some doubts; and the question whether history and the doctrine of Christ uncere they should be received into the canon, tain, bad not the rulers of the church might be decided, as all questions con- used all possible care and diligence in cerning opinions inust be, by vote. With separating the books that were truly respect to the other twenty parts, those apostolical and divine, from all that spua who are most acquainted with ecclesias. rious trash, and conveying them down to tical history will tell you, as Du Pin does posterity in one volume." after Eusebius, that they were owned as It is therefore evident, that the aucanonical, at all times, and by all Chris. thenticity of the books of the New Tes, tians. Whether the council of Laodicea lament does not depend on the Codex was held before or after that of Nice, is Bezæ, the Clermont manuscript, or any not a settled point; but it is a great mis. Other single copy whatever. On the take to suppose that the greatest part of contrary, it is highly probable that all our the books of the New Testament were manuscripts of the New Testament pronot in general use amongst Chistians, ceered from the collection of those books long before the council of Laodicea was made after the death of all, or the held." His lordship then quotes the fol greatest part of the Apostles. lowing passage from Mosheim's Eccle. Ravenstonedale, J. ROBIxson. siastical History: “ The opinions, or April 11, 1811, rather the conjectures of the learned, concerning the time when the books of the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. • New Testament were collected into one SIR, volume, as also about the authors of that A MIDST the numerous public sociecollection, are extremely different. This A ties instituted for the benefit of the important question is attended with great people, I never heard of one for the and almost insuperable difficulties to us protection of indigence and misfortune in these latter times. It is, however, against the tricks, chicanery, and oppreso sufficient for us to know, that, before the sion of the law and of legal peti sopgers. middle of ihe second century, the greatest The mischiess perpetrated by swind. part of the books of the New Testament lers, and sharpers, avainst whom there were read in every Christian society exist two or three active associations in throughout the world, and received as a London, and one in almost every coundivine rule of faith and manners. Hence ty, are to those inflicted by the vipers it appears, that these sacred writings and sharks of the legal profession, in were carefully separated from several the proportion of not more than one human compositions on the same sub. to ten thousand! Those take baubles; ject, either by some of the Apostles but the latter are wholesale denlers, and themselves, who lived so long, or by their carry off house, land, skin, carcase, and disciples and successors, who were spread all! MONTHLY Mag. No, 213,