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a few months back was it 30 per cent! Such are the changes caus-d by the efforts of our brave countrymen. The trade, however, must take a considerable time to get into its usual channel. -.;

SpyiiN.—A dr-i'dful hurricane took place here the beginning nf the present month, when upwards of 150 sail or ships, chiefly lying in the bav jt Cadiz, drove outtntea ; upwards of forty sail were totally lost, and the remainder suffered considerable damage. Two of their register ships had arrived from South America, bringing remittances in dollars to the amount of upwaros of one million British sterling, a> also considerable remittances in produce 10 the Spanish merchants.

West In.His.—By the last mails, we are informed of the fleet's arrival at the Leeward and Windward islands from Cork, with a plentiful supply of provisions o> all kinds, of which the states were in the greatest want of. The islands are amply supplied, and indeed overstocked wi'h all kinds of British manufactured goods, and considerable remittances in produce were shipping lor Great Britain, &c. etc.

Sooth America.—The markets here begin to get rather more brisk tun usual, for ^1 our manufactured goods, and trade with the Spanish settlements, were brisk to a degree unknown hitherto. We however recommend our mercantile friends to be careful in not shipping off goods, (as hitherto) of inferior quality, the market already having been overstocked with large quantities of low-priced Manchester goods, for which no sale can be had.

Current Prices of Shares in Navigable Canals, Docks, Rridges, Roads, Water Works, and Fire and L'fe Insurance Companies, at the Office of. Messrs. Wolfe and Co. Canal Dock and Stock Brokers, No.9,'Changc Alley,Cornh 11, 24d Apri ,1811.—Ashby d*la Zouch Canal, L'.l per share—Croydon ditto 271. ditto.—Grand Junction ditto, 2501. ditto.—Grand Surry ditto, 981. ditto.—HuddersfirH ditto, 991. disco.—Rennet and Avon ditto, 421. ditto.— Lancaster ditto, ¥51. ditto.—Leeds and Liverpool ditto, lii.ii. ditto.—Leicestershire and. N ii tharrlit"',-hire Union ditti ,061 ditto.—Peak Forest ditto, 801. ditto. Rochdale ditto. 521. ditto —Thimes and Medway ditto, 751. ditto.—Wilis and Berks ditto, 311. dit'o.—Worcester and Birmingham ditto, 401. ditto.— East Country Dock, 751. oitto—London ditto, 126$ per cent..—Ditto Scrip, t$\ ditto premium. West India ditto, 1641. ditto.—Commercial Road ditto, 1561 ditto.—East London Water Works, (exclusive of the approp iation,) 1661. per share.— Grand Junction ditto, 91. per share, premium.—Kent ditto, 951. ditto.—South London ditto, lljl per .-.lure. —West Middlesex oi.to, 1081. ditto.—Ditto New, 111. per share, premium.—Albion Insurance Office, 571. ditto.—Globe oitto, 119J1. ditto.—Imperial ditto, 811. ditto.

The average prices of Navigable Canal Property, Docjc Stock, Fire-office Shares, 4rc. in April, 1811, (to the 25'h) at the Office or Mr. Scott, 28, New Bridge-street, London. Trent and Mersey, or Grant! Trunk Canal, 11701. the last half-yearly dividend at the rate of 4-.il per share clear, per annum.—Birmingham, 10851 ex dividend 211. dear.—Coventry, 8551. dividing at the rate of 321. per share.—Grand Junction, "ull. to 2451.—Shrewsbury, 1451. dividing 81.—Rennet and Avon, 431.to421. 10s—Wilts ano Berks, 351. 10s ta

291- Ills —Rochdale, 541- to 521. 10s.—Ellesmere, 801. tl-.'l. to841 Grand Union, 81. dis.

count-—Lancaster, 251. ex dividend II. per share, clear.—Ashby-de la Zouch, 241.—Grand Surrey, 941.—New ditto, 11. 10s. premium.—Thames arid Severn new shares, 321. to 371.

—Croydon, 301 West-India Dock Stock, 1651—London Dock, 1261—Ditto Scrip, tat

per cent, premium—Commercial Dock old shares, 1491 with new share attached.—AIbioa Assurance, 571.—Globe, ll9sjl. to 1201.—Rock, 18s. premium.—East London Water Works, 1801.—Grand Juaction ditto, 81. 10s to 71. 17s. fid, premium—London Institution, 681. 5s.—Strand Bridge 121. discount.—London Flour Company, 81—Doverstreet-road, 10s. to 11. premium.-—Commercial Road, 1351. per cent, ex hair yearly dish dend. 31.

NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT,

SIAICK.

Love's pleasing ferment gently now begins To warm the flowing blood.* >JO weather could possibly have been more acceptable at this season of the year, than that which we have experienced during the coarse of the present month. The crops are sll looking w> II. Nit have we jet had any of those furious gales which are usually eipectrd about tins time There were strong gales from west-north-west on the 3d, and from west, soutii west on the 6 h, 7th, and 8th, and these wire the only boisterous da^s we have had. The wind was westerly,or north-west, from the 1st to the 5tli,in the afternoon of which day it was south. Or. the btn, 7th, and 8th, it was west-south-west; on the 9th north-cast, and afterwards west. On the 12th it was easterly, and so continued till the 18tb, when it veered

. . ... ro»M round to west. On the 2Sd it was north, and from the following day to the end of the month easterly.

There wis rain on the 1st. 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 22d, but during all the remainder of the month the weather was dry.

March 5th. Rooks hare begun to build their nests; and diftadils are ia flower. , The capsules of several species of moss now adorn the banks of hedges and ditches, and the tops of old walla.

March 7th. The marsh marygolds (cahbafalnstrit) are in flower, and fire to all the wet meadows a golden hue.

March 8th. Several kinds of insects crawl out of their hybermcula, in old buildings, particularly spiders, millipedes, and a species of the slow-beetle, or darkling [ttscbrh mtrtiiapn of Linnaeus, blapi mortiiaga, of Marshara).

March 10th. The vernal whitlow-grass (draba vtrtia), and" purple dead nettle (Umiumfir* fureum) are in flower.

March 11th. Some of the smaller kinds of ants are busily employed in opening their ljoles, and clearing their nests. On attentively observing them, they are seen to bring our grains of sind or other small objects which incommode t hem in their habtation, and to deposit them at a little distance on the exterior of their boles.

March 12th. A caterpillar was this day seen crawling upon the road. Seven dark coloured butterflies were flitting about the fields.

March 14th. The farina of the male yew-trees is blown off by the wind in great quantity.

■The plumage of all the small birds is now in the very height of its beauty. Bird-catcher* technically call the plumage, at this season, their " wedding garments."

The flowers of some of the willows begin to fade. *

March 18th. The leaves of the lilac and weeping willow appear. Primroses and vialcri are in flower. •

March 20. Water lizards are seen in abundance in two or three of the shallow and gravelly ponds of this neighbourhood. But I have not yet remarked that they have begua tit (pawn.

March 21. The roads, which only a few days ago, had pools of water standing in almost every hollow, are now quite dry and dusty.

March 24. The leaf-buds of the mulberry-tree appear nearly ready to burst; but it is scrollable that these trees will not be in leaf for several days. The leaves of the bramble, woodbine, and elder, have been out some time.

March 26. A species of wood-bug, which I think is cimtx baccarum, was this day brought to me.

The scentless violet (viola canina) and common stitchwort (Miliaria bthltea) are in flower.

March 23. This was a peculiarly hot day for the season. Insects of numerous kinds were Sn active employment. Bees were flying about such plants as were in flower; sand-waspa (amm:phi!ai<ulgarii) about sandy banks; and tpatrmn sabulmum, seveial species of curtain, and ■mall etrabi, crawling about among the stunted vegetation of the road-sides.

March 30. Lapwings fly screaming over the wet meadows.

March 31. The easterly winds, which have prevailed for the last nine days of the month. Jure been extremely seasonable. Thry have tended considerably to check vegetation, which, daring the preceding warm weather, was making too rapid a progress for this early part of the wear. 1 have not yet remarked that any of the standard.fruit-trees are in flower,

H*mplhirt.

MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT.

COWIVG the lent corn, and potatoe planting,arc nearly completed: the lands hive worked. remarkably well, and no seed season, within memory, was ever gone through under happier auspices. The forward pease, as yet, appear thin upon, the ground. Beans and oats never looked more luxuriant or healthy. The bop-bine strong, forward, and healthy. The wheats universally or fine appearance and high promise; those which were injured in the winter either recovered or recovering very rapidly. Tares, rye, grass, natural and artificial, in the finest condition, and must rapid state of vegetation. The turnips, both Swedish and English, have b-en eked out wonderfully in the eastern counties, continuing good, and the cattle thriving upon them to the last. The blossom and shew for fruit of all kinds, most abundant and beautiful, prumiaing an uncommon fruit season, granting no blight intervene.

The sheep and lambs in a most prosperous slate of improvement, the season remarkable for the number of double births. Lamb lor market scarcely ever before so forward; great flocks m temples have, however, come to market, on account of the high price of hay, and the de»*rre of saving the grass for a crop. Markets! » lein stock, hiahet since the lite warm showersj ami the prospect lor a grass ciop. Fat stock lower than at Michaelmas. Pigs in great aban-' dnme, and cows. Horses of good quality very dear. Straw has proved indifferent in quality, but more in quantity than was expected. Stock of wheat on hand universally considerable, 01 barley and oats very great. Vast quantities of pea, bailey* and bean, meal have been consumed by live stock in course ol the season. Oil-cake 15 guineas per M., Suffolk batter 64s per firkin. The country never manifested a more general state of prosperity.

i-mithfield: Beef, 4s. 4d. to as. 2d. !—Mutton, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sd. ;—Lamb, (is. to 7s. 4d.

.—Veal, 6s. to 7s. 4d.;—pork, 4s. Bd. to 6s. 8d.;—Bacon, 7s. to 7s. -Id Irish ditto, 5s. 6*.

to As. lOd.;—Fat, 3s 8d.;—Skiruj, 20s. to 25s.

Middlesex, jipril 25, 1811.

METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. Observation* on the Stute of the Weather, from the 24ffl of March, 1811. to tht S4tA of April, 1811, inclusive, Four Miles N.N.'W. St. Paud.

Barometer.

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Thermometer* .
Highest, 71" April 22,23,84. Wind S.E.
Lowest, 2B° ——. 10. —— W.

/" In the morning or*

V I he 12th instant, the Greatest ■) J thermometer wasatthc

variationin I 22°. < freezing point, and at

24 hours, y J the same hour on that.

I 13th it waa as high as

V 54'.

The quantity of rain fallen since the last Report of it, is eqnalto nearly 2 Inches in depth. The season has, indeed, been remarkably dry, and, the easterly winds being apparently set in, we may expect much more dry weather, with occasional showers only. The gardens requite rain, but the season must be favourable for sowing the spring-corn, and alio for the wheat.

| Snow fell on the 7ih of the present month, but, en the three days prior to the presenr, we have had almost summer heat; the severe easterly wirfd of this day ha* caused a variation of 9° in the thermomttrr, and to the feelings there is a sull greater difference. There? Drive Ei-en twenty very brilliant davs in the month : the average height of the thermometer for the month is 4tt°5, and that of the barometer 2954. The wind has blown chiefly from the easterly quarters.

Ungate, .-Ifrd tb, 1811. , , ,, ■' ■

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

• TTe hate, receh'ed from Mr. Baeewall, Mincralogical Surveyor, of Warmickfburl, oninteresting Essay on the Application of the Principle! of M ineralogicat and Chemical Science to the Selcitum of the Stvnesfor the various purposes if Architecture, uhich will appear in our next.

An interesting Memoir of Mr. Paul Sandlet it oho deferred, as veil ms somt other uppiaval articlts.

Correspondents in general art•informed that if their communications do not come free f>f poslupe, they are icturned to the Post-i)ffice.

Other authenticated facts relative to Stramonium vill be thankfully received.

Some Irish Correspondents n ho complain cf difficulty in procuring this Magazine, arc informed that it may be had of the Dublin booksellers, oruith more speedaf the clerks of the reads, at the General Post-Offict.

N.li. Numbers 74. and 83 o/'Ti'E Monthly Magazine being out of Print, awl wanted la complete Sets constantly in demand, Two .shillings and S-ixfewci per Copy will be given for any of those Numbers which may be brought to No. 7, New Bridge Street.

Chryne Walk, Chelsea, April 98, 1811.

Erratum.

Lrratum.
At page 312, line 4, for <• rtw provisions," read " »c& provisions.

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Ai long at thof* who write are ambitious of making Convert!, and of giving their Opinion! a Maximum of Influence and Celebrity, the moft eatenfively circulated MiiceHsny will repay with tt< srcitcft Kfteft th« CurioHry of tiwfe who read cither for Amufementof Intrusion. JOHNSON.

THE SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER. Hitherto our Supplementary Number has been partly occupied with imperfect critical accounts of cut rent English literature, confessedly and necessarily compiled from

those fallible, partial, and corrupt mediums, the periodical anonymous Reviews, aided in/ occasional originality; in future, however, it is proposed to substitute in

place of' those wholesale criticisms, interesting cjiaructcristk extracts from the principal works published within the half year, adapted at once to gratify our readers, to qualify them to judgeofevery work for themselves, and to stimulate them to puv~

chase those possessed of evident merit. The Supplement published on the first of August, will be compiled on thiiplan; and, to assist our design, we shall feel ourselves obliged to authors and publishers, who will accommodute us with the loan of books published between Michaelmas and Lady-day last.

Pimlico, May 8, 1811.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

For the Monthly Magazine. On the application of Mineralogical

and CUEMICAL SCIENCE to the SELECTION of Stone, for the purposes of

DURABLE ARCHITECTURE.

THE remains of ancient architecture, which prove the greatness and splendour of states and governments that have long since ceased to exist, whilst they impress the mind with a melancholy conviction of the mutability of empire, excite also a kind of religious veneration for the edilices which have endured, amidst such great ""d various changes in human affairs, and have seen • long series of successive generations perish from the earth. When we compare these monuments of antiquity with the preudest structures of modern times, we are forced to acknowledge the superior skill, or science, with which the materials of the former were selected. Alany of the most splendid works of our celebrated architects are hastening to decay, in, what may be justly called, the very infancy of their existence, if compared with the date of public buildings which remain in Italy, in Greece, in Egypt, and the East. This is remarkably the case with the three bridges of London, Westminster, and Black friars; the foundations of which speedily and visibly began to perish in the very lif'etime of their founders. Tire destruction of ancient architecture has been chiefly occasioned by the ravages of wars, and the desolating hands of superstitious barbarians; the decay of modern buildings, MoHiait Mao. No. ?13.

is owing to the waht of mineralogical science in the selection of the materials, by which they were sentenced to perish at an early date. None of them will rival in duration the temples of antiquity, and remain two thousand vears, or more, after the ruin of the state, the august monuments of its former greatness. This may with certainty bo predicted from the perishable nature of the stones of which they are built; they are rapidly decaying, and require con« stant renovation and repair.

Perhaps the following remarks on the selection of materials, for the construction of public buildings, may not be undeserving attention nt this time, when two new bridges are to he built from London and its vicinity, to the southern side of the Thames. The most important quality in stone, for purposes of architecture, is durability, or the property of resisting the action jjf moisture, change of temperature, vegetation, air, and light. It is also required, that the materials of bridges, and many public works, should be capable of resisting the effects of vibration and impulse. The most careless observer can scarcely have avoided noticing, that many kinds of stone decaymuch sooner than others. It is not only in' stones of different kinds, that iha power of resisting decay is variable; even in stones of the same kind, and brought from the same place, a considerable difference in this respect is found to exist; but the principles on which the pruper selection, of building-stune should be 9 f made

made, hat been little understood or attended to. During a few months' residence in the metropolis, I was induced, by the nature of my minernlogical pursuits, to pay some attention to the different stones of which the pavements and public edifices are constructed. On walking into the court of Somersethouse, after some weeks of dry weather, I was particularly struck with the appearance of the columns on the left band, facing the west. The stones, in three columns, were some of them entirely coated with soot, when the stones above and below were perfectly white. In other parts, a white stone was between two black ones, and the division of colour as distinct as if the one had been painted white and the other black. These stones were all equally exposed, and the variation of colour could not be explained by their situation. At first I conceived, that this difference of colour might be occasioned by some substance entering into the composition of the black stone, that had a chemical affinity for ammonia, which is contained in soot; but, on examining some of the ttoncs that were within my reach, I found that those which were covered with soot, had a hard, smooth, surface, and the white stones were evidently decaying. The particles on which the soot had fixed, were.faUen off, and had laid bare the natural colour of the stone, as perfectly as if they had been recently scraped with a chissel. In other parts of tha building, I observed the visible decomposition of the stone, by moisture, particularly in the upper part of the alto relievo figures.

This edifice, like most of the modern buildings in the metropolis, is constructed of Portland-stone; a peculiar kind of lime-stone, which I shall afterwards more particularly notice. It is evident, howaver, that this stone which is considered or the same kind, and comes from the same plnce, varies much in its property of durability.

When the same' stone is constantly exposed to the action of water, the difference in its qualities of resisting decay is more apparent, as is evident from an inspection of London, Blackfriars, and Westminster, bridges, at low water.*

* The stones of Westminster bridge appear to have been selected with more knowJedge, as they are much less decayed than those ot" EUckirufL.; the architect wjs, g

frenchman.

The best kind of Portland stone is ill suited to resist the decomposing effects of water, the two former of these magnificent bridges, constructed at so much expence, are perishable monuments of the neglect of mineralogical science.

In stones of the argillaceous genu, more striking instances of rapid decay occur. I have seen stones of this kind, in tbeir native beds, or quarries, snms 'hundred feet under the sarface of the earth, so extremely hard, that they resisted the pointof the pick-axe, and could only be removed by blasting with gunpowder; yet, when the same stone was exposed to the air for. a few months, it became soft and shivered into small pieces. The cause of this sudden decay, I shall afterwards explain. It rarely hnppens that builders or architects have any acquaintance with mineralogical and chemical science, to enable them to anticipate the changes which will be effected jn the materials they select, by the actioR of the agents to which they are to be exposed. The loss and disappointment which this ignorance has occasioned in' the construction of many public works, is well known.—A remarkable instance of this kind lately took place at Paris. A gentleman was walking with an eminent mineralogist in one of the newly-erected public edifices; they were pleased with the appearance of some large columns in the interior; when the latter had examined them more closely, he predicted, from the nature of the stones, that they would perish in less than three years, About ten months after, the gentleman happened to pass the same place, and observed the stones of these columns were shivering so rapidly, that workmen were then engaged in replacing them; which had become necessary to secure the roof. In forming the tunnel of the Huddersfield canal, which is three miles in length, the workmen in one part bad to cut through a bed of stone of considerable extent, so hard that they were obliged to remove it by blasting. It appeared so compact and firm, that it was thought unnecessary to wall and arch the passage; but, in a few months after the access of nir to it, it shivered and fell in; and the removal and repair occasioned much delay and expense. It was a, dark compact argillaceous stone, containing oxyd of iron, and resembling some kinds of basalt; but its shistose or slaty structure was soon apparent, son* it became as soft as the bituminous shale which accompanies coal. Some kinds of

stan*

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