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tnade, on this side t!ie feast of St. Michael the archangel next coming, in every city, town, and place, by the itiiiabiTants of every such city, town, and place, according to the law of ancient times used, and that tic said inhabitants and dwellers in every of them, be compelled to make and continue such butts, upon pain to forfeit, for every S months so lacking, 20s.. And that the said inhabitants shall exercise themselves with long-bows in shooting at the same, and elsewhere, in holy days and other times convenient. And, to the intent that ei-ery person may have bows of mean price, be it enacted, &c." § iv. and v. Thus the law not only permits, but absolutely requires, every_jjerson to have arms, and be exerciser! in the use of diem.
The exercise of the long-bow was formerly esteemed the moSt effectual military discipline for the defence of the kingdom, and is so declared in another act of parliament of the same year, cap. 6. and, therefore, as the law, at that time, required every man to be exercised in* the use of the then fashionable weapons, the reason of the law holds equally good, to require the exercise of all men in the use of the present fashionable weapons, the inusqnet and bayonet.
But even, at that time, the use of fnusquets or guns, was allowed to the inhabitants of all. cities, boroughs, and market-towns, and for the very same reason (the defence of the realm,) by a provisional clause of the last-mentioned act, § yi. "Provided alway, and be it enacted, &c. that it shall be lawful, from henceforth, to. all gentlemen, yeomen, and se/viiig-men of every lord, spiritual and temporal, and of all knights, esquires, and gentlemen, and to all the inhabitants, of cities, boroughs, and raarketfotrns, of this realm of England, to shoot wii.ii unv hand-gun, demihakc, or hagbut, at any butt or bank of earth, only in place convenient for the same," (whereby jt appears that proper places for exercise should be appointed in every town,) *' so that every such handgun, &c. be of the several lengths aforesaid, and not under. And that it shall be lawful, to every of the said lord and lords, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, and the inhabitants of every city, borough, and marketlown, to have and keep in every' of their li'iiises any such hand-gun or hand-guns, of the length of one whole yard, &c. and uot under, to the intent to use and shoot Jr. the sadie, at a bult or bank of earth
only, as is above said, whereby they and every of them, by the exercise thereof, in form above said, may the better aid and assist to the defence of this realm, when need shall require," &c. This statute is still in force.
Every temporal person was formerly liable to pecuniary penalties; "if lie have not" (say's Lambard) "and keep not in readinesse, such horses, geldings^ weapon, armour, or other furniture for the wars, as, alter the proportion of his abilitie, he ought to have and keepe." (Eireuarcha, book iv. c. 4, p. 480.) Thus stood the law so late as the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, when the book last-cited was published; and the general tenor of the doctrine, respecting the right of Englishmen to have arms, hath since been confirmed by the Declaration of Hights in the Act of Settlement, (1 Win. and Mary, st. 2, c. 2,j though it seems now to be limited to Protestant sul jects, viz. "That the subject* which are Protestants may have arms for their defence, suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law." This latter expression, "us allowed by law," respects the limitations in the abovementioned act of S3 Hen. VIII. c. G, which restrain the use of some particular sorts of arms, meaning only such arms as were liable to be concealed, or otherwise favour the designs of murderers, as "cross-bows, little short haud.guns, and little hag-buts," and all guns under certain lengths specified in the act; but proper anus for defence (provided they are not shorter than the act directs) are sb far from being forbidden by this statute, that they are clearly authorised, and " the exercise thereof" expressly recommended by it, as I have already shewn. And indeed the laws of England always' required the people to be armed, tind not only to be armed, but to be expert in arms; which last was particularly recommended by the learned chancellor Fortescue: "Et revera, non minime eric regno accommodurn, ut incola; ejus in arnns sint experti." "Indeed, it will le of no small advantage to the kingdom, that the inhabitants be expert in arms.'' (De Laudibus Leguin Anglia;, c. xliv. p. 106.) And, in the notes and remarks on this book, by the learned Mr. Justice Aland, we hud the following observations to the same purpose. "In the Confessor's laws" (says lie) it is, Dcbcut universi iilieri homines, &c. artna habere, ct ilia semper proiupta conservare ad tuitionem regni," 6re, "See" (says he)
"the * the laws of the Conqueror to the same purpose. The custom of the nation" (continues this learned judge) " has hten to train up the freeholders to discipline; V. 19 and 14. II. c. iii. and ib. § 20, and title, "War," iii the table 'o the Statutes."
Among the ancient constitution*, or Ordinances, of the kingdom, recorded in the Myrror of Justices, chap. i. § 3. we read that it was ordained, "that every one of the age of 14 years and above, should prepare him" (se apprestat) "to kill mortal offenders in their notorious crimes, or to follow them from town to town with hue and cry,'' &c.
The true purpose and advantage of having all the inhabitants of this kingdom trained to arms is farther manifested in imr old law books and statutes; as in the Westminster Primer, cap. *vii. on the case when any cattle are unlawfully taken and driven into any castle or stronV-hnld, eVc. "Le Vise'- on le Bailife pi^e ove luy poyar de son countie, ou de 6a Bail', et voile assnicr de faire de ceo rcpl' des avers a celuy qui les aver prise," &c. "That the shcriljor the bailiff shall take with him the power of his county, or of lis bailiwick, and shall endeavour to tnake replevin" (or recovery) "of the cattle from him that hath lakeii them," Sec. And lord Coke reniaiks on this, "Nbta: every man is hound by the com. mon-hiw to assist not only the sheriff in Lis office for the execution of the king's writs, (which are ihe commandments of the king,) according to law; but also his bailV, that hath the sberinVa warrant in that behalfe, hath the same authority," &c. (2 Inst. p. 193.)
The attack of a cast le or place of arm?, must require disciplined troops; and therefore it was certainly necessary that *' every man" so bound by the commonJaw to a-sist, should be trained to arms, in order to fulfil his duty. And the learned Nathaniel Bacon, in his historical Discourse of the Uniformity of the Government of England, (1st part, p. 64.) remarks, that "the strength coni sisttd of the freemen; and, though many were bound by tenure to follow their ords to the wars, and many were volunteers, vet, it seems, all were bound upon call, under peril of fine, and were hound to keep arms, for the preservation of the kingdom, then lords, and their own persons; and these they might neither pawn nor sell, but leave thcin to descend to their heirs," &c.
The cutuu»uii-law right of the people
of England to have arms is also clearly expressed by the great and learned jitttgv Bructon, one of the most ancient writers of our common-law, who is justly esteemed of unexceptionable authority. "Ei qui juste pnssidet, licitum erit cunt armis contra pacem venientem lit expellat, cum arnvis repelltrc, tit per arma tuitionis et pacis, qute sunt justitiff, reptllat iiijnriain et vim injustam, et arma injuria;," &c. (Bract, lift. iv. c. 4.) that is, "to him who justly possesses it shall be lawful with arms to repel him win) cometh to expel, with aims against the peace, that, by arms of defence and peare, which are of justice, he may repel injury and unjust violence, and arms of injustice," &c.
The late urihjsgpy tumults prove, ':it these principles (if the English constitution are as necessary to be enforced at present as ever they were; for, had they not been fatally neglected and disused, the abandoned rioters would have been quelled and secured by the neighbouring inhabitants of Westminster, &c. in their first attempts; or, in case they had advanced towards the city, if the proper harriers had been reserved, the citizens would have had time to pet under arms, to support their own magistrates in seen, ring the pence of the city ; for any attack upon the gates or posterns would hava justified an immediate discharge of firearms, or other weapon-, against tin assailants, without waiting fir the command of a peace-officer: and, as the inhabitants of each city and county ara required to make good the damages sustained on such occasions by privare individuals, it is plain that the inhabitants themselves, in their collective capaciiy, do form that proper power, from which, the law requires the prevention of such damages, and the support and defence of the civil magistrates: for, otherwise, the law ought to have directed the damages to be deducted from the last preceding parliamentary grants to the army.
If it be alleged that there can be na occasion, in these modern times, to arm and train the inhabitants of England, because there is an ample military force, or standing army, to preserve the peace; yet let it he remembered, that the greater and more powerful the standing army is, so much more necessary is it that there should be a proper balance to that power, to prevent any ill effects from it: though there is one bad effect, which the balance (howsoever perfect and excellent) cannot prevent; and that is the enormous and ruinous expence of maintaining a large number of men, without any civil employment for their support; an expence, which neither the land nor trade ol this realm can possibly bear much longer, without public failure I
No Englishman, therefore, can be truly loyal, who opposes these essential principles of thu English law, whereby the people are required to have " arm-, of defence and peace," for mntuat as well as private defence: for a standing army of regular soldiers is entirely repugnant to the constitution of England, and liie genius of its inhabitants.
Standing armies were not unknown, indeed, to our ancestors in very early times, but (hey were happily opposed by them, and declared illegal. A remarkable instance of this is related bv Sir Edward Coke, in his 7th rep. p. 443, (Calvin's case,) but with a very erroneous application of the doctrine, (as there is in many other instances of that particular report,) for which the chancellor or judges, probably, who spoke, and not the reporter, must one day be answerable. "It appeareth, by Bracton, lib. iii. tract 2. c. 15. fol. 134. that Canutus, the Danish king, having settled himself in this kingdom in peace, kept, notwithstanding, (for the better continuance thereof ) great armies within this realm." [Yet Bracton was more wise and honourable than to conceive or hint Jjfrat great armies, so kept by the king, were proper instruments " for the better continuance of peace;" for he says no such thing, this being only a disloyal conceit vuf some modern judge, concerned in the argument of Calvin's case: but to return to the words of. the reporter.] "The peers and oobles of England, distasting this government by arms and armies, (odimus accipitrem, quia semper vivit in armit,,) wisely and pojitiquely persuaded the king, that they would provide for the safety of him and his people, and yet his armies, carrying with them many inconveniencies, should be withdrawn," &c.
(This would be a proper language and! true policy for a free British parliament to adopt.) "Hereupon" (says the reporter) " Canutus presently withdrew Ins armies, and within a while after he lost his crown," &c.
Here again the judge, whoever he was that spoke, betrayed a mo-it disloyal prejudice in favour of "a government by arms and armies," which led him into a notorious falsehood! for, though the former part of the sentence is true, that king Canute " withdrew his armit'*;" \et the latter part, that, "within a nhila after, he lost his crown,"is totally false; and the judge, by asserting that ground- . less circumstance, seemed inclined to insinuate, that the withdrawing the armies occasioned the (supposed) loss of the crown, which was far from being the case. The great and noble Canute reaped the benefit of his prudent and generous conformity to the free constitution of this limited monarchy; for he enjoyed a long and glorious reign, after he sent back his Danish soldiers; whicli, according to Matthew of Westminster, (p. 403,) was in the year 101!!; and he held tlie crown with dignity and glory to the end of his life, in the year 1035, when he was buried at Winchester with royal pomp (regio more, ib. p. 409): and his two suns also, who separately succeeded him, died likewise kings of England, for they lost iiu. the kingdom but by natural deaths, and the want of heirs.
Happy would it have been for England, had all succeeding kings been as wise and truly politic as the great Canute, who feared not to commit the care of bis own person, and those of his foreign friends that attended him, to the free laws and limited constitution of this kingdom.
The old English maxim, however, against " a government by arms and armies," ought never to be forgotten: "Odiums accipitrem, quia semper vivic in armis."
Extracts from the Portfolio of a Man of Letters*
STIGAKD, ABCHBISnOP OF CANTERBURY.
HE was infamous in life, altogether unlearned, of heavy judgment and understanding; sottishly serviceable both to pleasure and sloth; in covetousness beneath the baseness of rusticity, insomuch 31oj.Tm.-i Mao. Sso. 209.
as he would often swear that he had not one penny upon the earth, and yet, bv a key/ which he did wear about his neck, great treasures of his were found under the ground. And this was a grief and sick. ueas to honest minds, that such spurious F and
nitd impure creatures should sustain, or rather distrain, die reverence and majesty of religion.
The chief factors of Italy have been
miles from Bath. Here was found A munument very admirable both for its antiquity, form, and structure; from tlie top, three or four foot deep, it wa» fourteen foot long and sixteen foot
Grisons; and they told me, that as the broad, made of stones of several colours,
trade of banking began m Lombardy, asblue, red, murray, and white,delicately
so that all over Europe n Lombard and
a banker signified the same thing, so the
great bankers of Lombardy were Grisons,
and to llits day the Grisons drive a great
trade in money. For a man there of one
hundred thousand crowns estate, hath not
perhaps a third part of this within the
country, but puts it out in the neighbour*
I heard a Capuchin preach here; it was the first sermon I heard in Italy. And I was much surprised at many comical expressions and gestures ; but most of nil with the conclusion, for there being in all the pulpits of Italy a crucifix on the side of the pulpit towards the altar, he, after a long address to it, at Inst, in a forced transport, took it in his arms and hugged it, and kissed it. But I observed that before he kissed it, he, seeing some dust on it, blew it off very carefully ; for I was just ander the pulpit. He entertained it with a long and tender caress, and held it out to the people, and would have forced tears, both, from himself and them; yet I saw none shed.
Prince Cromwell, who was now wholly out of action, having laid his scene in the counties mid boroughs for elections
cut, not above an inch broad; curiously set, and strongly cemented. The floor was very delightful to behold: round about it were placed divers figures ; and in the midst, a bird standing on a sprig. 11 is thought to have heen a convenience lor water. A work of great cost and labour, and which shewed the excellency of much lost art. ,
GKEATRAKES, THE STBOAKr.R.
About this time (1663) the fntne of Greatrakes the Stronker rilled the mouths of the people both in city mid country. A novelty not unfit to be mentioned, see* ing that at that time, many wise men were affected with it. They that knew him, reported him for a civil, frank, and wellhumoured man, born in .Minister, of English extraction; and sometime a lieutenant in Colonel Fart's regiment. He was master of a competent estate, and performed strange cures by stroaking or touching; for which he took neither money nor presents. That which first created th* wonder was, that he passed without contradiction ; and such multitudes followed him as only they could believe who sa# them. Hewassaid to admire himself that gift which he had. Had he stayed among the ignomit Irish, his fame might have continued longer; but the infidelity <lf
to the entuing Parliament, gave himself the English, made him often fail in his
and the town a little recreation. It hap petted on a Friday in July, that, desirous to divert himself with driving of his c«ach and six horses in Hyde Park, with his secretary Thurlow in it, like Mephistophilus and Doctor Faustus careering it in the air, to try how he could govern horses, since rational creatures were so unruly and difficult to be reined;
divinity, and his reputation once bit
JAMES NAY LOR, THE QUAKER
. James Naylor, a quaker, who, resembling in his proportions and complexion the picture of Christ, had, in all other things, as the setting of the beard and lucks in the same fashion, dared to counterfeit
like another Phaeton, he fell, in the expe- our blessed Lord. To this purpose be
rimeut, from the coach-box; which was had disciples and women ministering to
presently posted into the city, and many him, whose blasphemous expressions and
ominous and true conjectures made of applications of several parts of scripture
his certain catastrophe; one of the inge- relating properly to the loveliness and
ninus songs on the occasion, ending in transccndaiu excellency of Christ, to this
this presagious rhyme
Every Jiy and hour hath shew'd us his power,
But now he hath shew'd m his art:
His next will be from a cart.
Tuere was a curiosity discovered at a jilace Ch.icu Bald Hatu-iurd,
impostor, will (if repeated) move horror and trembling in every christian. Ilia first appearance in this manner -was at Bristol, where a man, leading his horse) bare-headed, and one Dorcas Ei bury,and Martha Symmonds, going up to the knees in mire, by his horse's side, sung aloud, three Holy, holy, holy, Hosaana, &c. For
this they were seized by the magistrate?, and, being complained of to the parliament, were brought up to town, into which (as in all places) they entered singing the same blasphemies. At the bar of tUe House, in December (1656) he was sentenced to be set in the pillory twice, and whipt twice, and his forehead lu he stigmatized with the letter B. and bored through the tongue ; with which he used to answer to any question, Thou hast laid it, ami the like. He was likewise whipt at Bristol, and thence returned to Newgate. One Mr. Rich (a merchant ofcre«!it) that held him by the band while he was in the pillories, with divers others, licked his wounds. The women were observed some to lay their head in his lap, lying against LU feet, others to lean it upon his shoulders, &c. After three days wilful abstinence, having weakened himself even unto death, he begged some victuals; and then was set to work, which be performed, and caiue by degrees to himself and to reduction. At the return of the Rump, he got bis liberty, but survived it not; his additional pretended divinity having attenuated and wasted bis humanity, and that body sublimed and prepared for miracles, went the way of all flesh.
INVESTITURE OF CROMWELL.
Being seated in his chair, on the left hand thereof stood the Lord Mayor Titchbouror, and the Dutch ambassador; the French ambassador, and the Earl of Warwick, on the right; next behind him stood his son Richard, Fleetwood, Claypool, and the privy council; upon a lower descent stood the Lord Viscount lisle, Lords Montague, and Whitlock, with drawn swords. Then the speaker, (Sir Thomas Whiddrington) in the name of the parliament, presented to him a robe ot purple velvet, a bible, a sword, and a sceptre; at the delivery of these things, the speaker made a short comment upon them to the Protector, which he divided into four parts as followeth.
1. The robe or purple : this is an emblem of magistracy, and imports righteousness and justice. When you have put on this vestment, I may say you are agijwiiiiii-.il. This robe is of a mint colour, to shew the mixture of justice and mercy. Indeed, a magistrate must have two hands, to cherish and to punish.
J. The bible is a book that contains the Holy Scriptures, in which you have the happiness to be well versed. This bank of life, consists of two testaments, [he old and new; the first shews Chris
tum velatum, the second Christam revelatum : Christ veiled, and revealed. It is a book of books, and doth contain both precepts and examples for good government.
8. Here is a sceptre not unlike a staff, for you are to be a stall" to the weak and poor; it is of ancient use in this kind. It is said in Scripture, that the sceptre shall not depart from Judah. It was of the like use in other kingdoms. Homer, the Greek poet, calls kings and princes, sceptre-bearers.
4. The last thing is a sword, not a military, but civil sword : it is a sword rather of defence than offence; not to defend yourself only, but your people also. If I might presume to fix a motto upon this sword, as the valiant Lord Talbot had upon his, it should be this, Ego lum Pomini Protecloris, ud protegendum. populum meum. "I am the Protector's, to protect my people."
This speech being ended, the speaker took the bible, and gave the Protector his oath: afterwards Mr. Mantnn made a prayer, which being ended, the heralds, by sound of trumpet proclaimed his highness Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging; requiring all persons to yield himdueobedience. At the cud of all, the Protector, with his train carried up by the Lord Sherard, Warwick's nephew, and the Lord Roberts, his eldest son, returned; the Earl of Warwick sitting at one end of the coach against him; Richard his son, and Whitlock in one; and Lord Lisle, and Montague, in the other boot, with swords drawn; and the Lord Claypool led the horse of honour, in rich caparisons, to Whitehall.
RIDICULOUS SUPERSTITION AND IGNORANCE OF DU. PULK:
Who re utei li in his hook of Meteors, that the river Rhine in Germany will drown all bastard children that are cast into it, but drive to laud those that are lawfully begotten. And also he says, there is a well in Sicily, whereof if thieve* drink they presently become blind.
This poet was a native of Gloucestershire, a man of great natural pails, but little education. He wrote several poems which were dedicated to Kin^Jamcs and King Charles the First. For some time he kept a public-house at Lone Acre: and upon the murder of King Charles, set up the sijn of the Mourning Crown j but this open piece of loyalty, in those days, obliged him to pull it down; upon