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and in every other circumstance differ- acid are produced. The woody parti ent from that of combustion. This phie and muscular fibre, do not uudergo ia losopher obtained the prize on the same these changes any essential alterations, subject the last year; his present re. The phosphorescence of the wood is searches have considerably enlarged the chiefly owing to a glutinous principle, results of bis former experiments. He that serves to unite the woody fibres; defines phosphorescence to be the ap. and that of the fish, to a gelatinous pria. pearance of a durable or transient light, ciple, which unites the muscular fibres. unattended with sensible heat, and not M. Dessaignes has endeavoured to exfollowed by any alteration in inorganic plain the luminous appearance of The bodies. This phosphorescence presents sea, and to support his reasouing by a itsel: under diferent forms, and like so- nunerous collection of facts relating to lar light is decomposed by the prism. spontaneous phosphorescence. He me From some bodies it seems to enianate tributes the light of the sea to two causes; slowly and regularly, in others by scina 'first, to the presence of phosphoric anitillation. Its colour is blue, but appears malculæ, and the enianation of buiginous tarnished in those bodies which contain matter produced by them; and, secondly, iron; it may, however, be rendered to the simple presence of this matter clear, by.separating the metal from the dissolved and mixed in the water, pro. bodies which contain it. In general, it ceeding not only from these animalculæ, has appeared to M. Dessaignes, that but from molusci, fisii, &c. those bodies are the inost phosphoresen Mathematics. The subject of the cent, that contain in their composition double prize of 5000 francs to be distri. principles which can pass from a state buted by this class, in its sitting, January of gas, or liquid, to a solid form. Al ith, 1811, was the following: . . bodies give out light by compression, “ The theory of those planets which whether they are fluid, soliid, or gaseous. have an inclination and eccentricity too Ile has also discovered that points have great to admit the calculation of their the same effect on phosphorescence as irregularities with sufficient exactness by upon the electric fluid. M. Dessaigne's known methods." . distinguisies two kinds of phosphores. The class aid not require a numerical .cence ; the one transient, the other per. application, but only analytical formaga inanent. Amongst the first we may state, laries, disposed in such a manner that au that which takes place when a certain intelligent calculator could apply thern quantity of water combines with quick with certainty to the planet Pallas, and Time ; amongst the latter, that of rotten to every other which are or may he dis. wood, and other organised substances covered. Two memoirs were presented in a state of putrefaction. It appeared which were not satisfactory; the class important to deterinine whether the therefore proposed to reserve the deter. phosphorescence that takes place in mination of the prize to the 1st of Ja. those bodies, which become luminous nuary, 1816, that geometricians may have when their temperature is somewhat sufficient time to resolve this iinportant increased, 'is owing to conibustion. question. M. Dessaignes made experiments in ato' The medal of M. de Lelande for the mospheric air, in oxygen gas, and in the most interesting observation, or the most torricellian: vacuum, to ascertain this useful memoir, on astronoiny, for the point; but he could perceive no differ- last year, has been given to M. Poisson, ence in the intensity of the light under for his works relating to the secular ine: the different circumstances, when the qualities of the mean motions of the -experiments were made on inorganic planets, the stability of the planetary bodies; but the light of organic bodies systein, the rotation of the earth, the was encreased in oxygen, from which change of place of the poles at the surface, the author concludes that some part of and the equations on which the more. this light in the latter is owing to come ments of its axis depend. These works bustion.

lave merited the gratitude of astrona. These luminous organic bodies more mers, to whom he has demonstrated in particularly occupied his attention; be the most complete manner bitherto , made experiments on fresh water fishi, done, the fundamental points of the sea fisti,' and various kinds of wood. systein of the world, which are the base The results have proved, that the phos. of all astronomical calculations. phorescence of each is a species of coin- Geology.-Messrs. Curier and Bronze bustion, in which water and carbonic niart, lave discurered, in the environs of

Paris, very extensive beds of stone, that its natural dryness? There are difficul. contain only fresh water shells, which ties attending all these explanations, appear to have been deposited in ponds particularly the two last. · How could or lakes. Some of these beds of stone such important changes have taken place are separated by intermediate strata of afier the construction of the temple, and marine formation. This seems to prove have left no trace in bistory or in the that the sea has made an irruption on the memory of man! They frequently speak continent, which it had formerly aban- of the eruption in the year 1528, when doned, and confirms the traditions of a the bill called Monte-novo was formed, deluge, so universally spread amongst and when the sea invaded a part of the different nations. Upon beds of gypsum coast; but there is no tradition of sucin the same neighbourhood, which con- cessive revolutions. Near this temple tain the bones of repuiles, and of fish, has been discovered a particolar variety with fresh water shells, and petrified of marble, of which M. Cubieres has trunks of palm trees, repose beds of read an analysis to the Institute. It is stone, containing innumerable quanti- white, semi-transparent, and receives a ties of marine shells only; and again fine polish; it dissolves with difficulty in upon these, other beds of fresh water the nitric acid, and gives sparks with shells, but of a kind entirely diflerent steel; it contains twenty-two parts in froin the former. It is impossible to every hundred of magnesia. M. Cue have more clear and manifest indications bieres has called it the Greek magnesian of the revolutions which have taken marble, and thinks it is the same which place on the surface of the globe. the ancients made use of in constructing

M. Sage and M. Cubieres have directed their temples without windows, that re the attention of philosophers to a sin- ceived light only through the transparent gular fact, which has excited innume. walls. rable conjectures. In the neighbour- Physiology. The following question hood of Puzzoli, three erect columns of was proposed two years since, but, no a small temple have been discovered, satisfactory answer having been received, thirty French feet below the present le the prize of 5000 francs will be given to vel of the sea, all of them pierced and the best memoir on the subject, which bored to the same height, by dails and shall he receired before October the 1st, polades, a kind of marine shell fish, 1812: “Does there exist any circulation which penetrate into the densest stones in those animals known under the name immerged under the surface of the sea. of Asteria or Star Fish, Echini or Sea Have these columns been taken from Urchins, and Hulothariæ, ou Priapes de a quarry formerly under the surface of Mer.” In case any circulation be found, the sea? But why should they have it is required to describe the organs by chosen stones so perforated ; and how which it is carried on. The description does it happen that the perforations ex- must be accompanied with observations tend exactly to the saine height in each made upon living animals, and include column? Has the temple been succes. the vessels of respiration if there be any sively funk and raised again in a volcanic particular ones, as well as those of cire

country, subject to so niany irregular culation. It would also be desirable to .morements? But how, after such vio. ascertain the chemical effect of such lent shocks could she columns remain respiration on water and on air; but erect? Have volcanic eruptions opened this is not absolutely required. It will deep ravines which have closed at one be necessary that the descriptions should extremity, and have kept the temple be accompanied with drawings, that the confined in a kind of lake until a passage principal details may easily be veri. was opened, and restored the ground to fied..

VARIETIES

VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign. .*. Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received.

T R HUTTON has, for some time lished in quarterly Numbers. The first

1 past, been employing his leisure Number to make its appearance in the in arranging and printing a complete cole course of next months. lection of what may be considered his Dr. Edwards has nearly finished a 'original discoveries, improvements, and work in two volumes, with which he has inventions, under the title of “ Tracts," been long engaged, to ascertain tire real mathematical and philosophical, in and relative foundations of the different 3 vols. 8vo, of which the first volume is civil, political, cominercial, and indi. printed, and ready for publication, con- vidual interesis of society and nations. taining, among many iinprovements, a Mr. H. M. Browne has in the press, greatly enlarged edition of his Treatise and will speedily publish, the Apotheon Bridges.

cary's Vade Mecum, or Companion to All the readers of the Monthly Ma. the New London Pharmacopoeia, for the gazine have been interested by the com. Use of Students and junior Practitioners, munications relative to Stramonium, and Mr. Peter NicoLSON has in for. their opinions will be rendered uniforio wardness, a Dictionary of Architecture, by the valuable letter of Dr. Sims, in to be completed in two quarto volumes, the present Number. As the subject is with many plates. become of such great importance, the General Malcolm, late envoy to the editor of the Monthly Magazine has re. court of Pergia, will shortly publish a solved to collect into a pamphlet all that sketch of the Political History of India, has appeared, to add other letters in his from 1784, to the present time. possession, and to invite further coin. . Dr. THOMAS YOUNG, has nearly ready munications from the faculty, and others. for publication, in octavo, a Systein of He purposes also to annex a coloured Practical Nosology; with an Introduction engraving of the thorn apple, a botanical to Medical Literature in general. description, and some introductory ob. Dr. CURRY, of Guy's Hospital, has in servations, Communications intended the press a work, on the Nature of the to have place in the painplilet, should Ilepatic Function, which is to be coinhowever be sent immediately.

prised in two octavo volumnes. Mr. YATMAN, a gentleman of inde. The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and pendent fortune at Chelsea, alter the Council of the city of London, have conviction of eight years experience of directed that the proceedings in cominon the ntility of the Galvanic principle, as council, authenticated by the proper exbibited in the theories of the Doctors officer, and superintended by a coin. Davy and Garnet, wishes to extend its initiee, shall in future be printed, for the influence so as to be permanently be- use of the members of the corporation. neficial to the huinan body. Ile has ac- The state papers and letiers of Sir cordingly addressed a letier on this sub. Walter Aston, afterward Lord Aston, ject to the physicians of St. George's ambassador in Spain in the reign of Hospital, of which he is a governor, and James I, and Charles I. are printing this is now under the consideration of uniformly with those of Sir Ralph Sadler, the Medical Board of that charity, in two quarto volumes.

Mr. J. NOERIS BREWER, has readyM r. CliFFORD, editor of the state for press a new Romance, in four vo- papers of Sir Ralph Sadler, has in the luines, under the title of "An Old press, in a quarto volume, Tixall Poetry: Family Legend, or one Ilusband and two with notes, &c. &c. Marriages,"

The Rev. II. B. Wilson is preparing Mr. Curtt's second set of Etchings for the press “ A History of Merchant of the Antiquities of Chester will be Tavlors' School, London,” from its founa published early in May.

dation to the present time. · Mr. Thomas ORGER, husband of the Dr. Pearson's Warburtonian Leca heautiful Mrs. Orger, of the Lvceun tures, preached in Lincoln's Inn chapel, Theatre, is now closely engaged in will soon appear. making a new Translation of Ovid's Mr. BawUWEN has completed his Metamorphoses, in Rhymne, to be pubtranslation of the whole of the larger AlONTHLY MG. No, 213.

2 Z

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volume of Domesday Book; and has a powder, for several days; after which volume nearly ready for the press, which ihey may be used as tea. The imitation comprises the counties of Middlesex, is said to be so perfect as to deceive Herts, Bucks, Oxon, and Gloucester, persons not previously informed. The remaining volumes, five in number, M. Sage, kas lately stated in a mewill be published in due succession; as noir read to the national institute, at will also the counties of Essex, Suttulk, Paris, the efficacy of fluor solacile and Norfolk, which are comprised in the aikali, in cascs of severe apoplexy. smaller volume of the original.

For at least forty years,” says lie, I have Dr. Kemp's second course of lectures had opportunities of witnessing the effiat the Russell Institution, on music, will cacy of volatile alkali, taken internally, commence at the rooms of the Instij as an immediate remedy for the ape tution, on Monday evening, the 22d inst. plesy, if employed on the first appear. at eight o'clock; the remaining lectures ance of the disease. One of the keep on each succeeding Monday, will the ers of my cabinet, aged 72 years, robust, course is completed.

though thin, and very sedate, was seized, FRANCĘ.

while fasting, with an apoplexy. He Messrs. A. Porteau and P. TURPIN, fell down deprived of sense. When have commenced a work of great interest raised up he had the rattles in his throat, to the French botanist, entitled, Flora his eyes were closed, his face pallad, and Parisiensis, containing a description of his teeth fixed together. I drew ous the plants which grow naturally in the his under lip so as to answer the purpose environs of Paris,

of a spout, into which was poured a M. WALCKENAER is engaged on & spoonful of water, containing 25 or 30 Natural History of Spiders, which will drops of fluor volatile alkali, At the extend to 300 plates, designed, engraved, same time two slips of paper, the edges and coloured, by the most celebrated ar- of which were welted with volatile alkatists of Paris, and accompanied by de. li, were introduced into his nostrils. The scriptions in Latin, French, English, and teeth were speedily separated, and the German.

eyes opened. A second dose of alkali According to a report made by Messrs. was instantly poured down the throat, Deyeux and Thenard to the first class of The rattles ceased; speech and recolles the Inscitute, M. ZANETTI has discovered ion returned. In the course of an hour a mode of extracting froin maize a very the patient recovered sufficient strength fine syrup, the flavour of which is com- to proceed without assistance about parable, in every respect, to the syrup three hundred paces to his own cham. made from the sugar-cane. Instead of ber. In another hour he got up, asked pressing, as had heretofore been at, for something to eat, and has since ex. tempted, the entire stalk of the maize, perienced no return of the disorder." 11. Zanetti removes the leaves and the He reports another instance in the per external skin, so that he subinits to the son of one of his friends, who was a pressure only that portion of the vege- great ealer, and was struck with the table which contains the most saccharine apoplexy while at table. “The volatile malter. M. Zanetti has also proved alkali excited a vomiting, and after that according to the saine report, that ihe had abaced, the patient took twenty syrup of maize is susceptible of passing drops of volatile alkali in half a glass into the vinous fermentation, and that of wine. This senses returned, and in by distillation may be obtained from it two hours he was able to walk in his an excellent alcohol, liccle or not at all garden." different from that obtained from moe A premium of a million of livres lasses which has been subjected to ter; was ofered by the FRENCH GOVERNMENT, mentation.

in May last, to the inventor of the best A person of Verdun has discovered a machine for spinning thread.-1. To method of producing an imitation of spin thread for woof and warp, propec Chinese tea, by heating the leaves of to be made into a piece equal in fiveness the born-beam in a new earthen vessel, to muslin made with corion thread, placed in the midst of boiling water, till No. 400,000 metres; corresponding tu they have acquired a brown bue, lighter No. 164,000 ells to the pound weight. or darker at pleasure. They are chen The method of obiaining thread of this scented by being placed in a bux, toge. direness, must be such as to effect a sa, Iber with the root of the Florence ins in ving of eight-leuchis of spinning by

baod

hand.-2. The same for thread equal ger carts have passed, will be punished with to fine canıbric muslin : No. 225,000 great severity, metres; or No. 92,000 ells to the pound, 4. Glass of all kinds, broken boitles, lumps The saving to be seven-tenths of the of ice, earthen-ware, &c. shall be placed close labour and cost of spinning by hand.

to the houses, apart from the mud. 3. No. 170.000 metres; or No. 70,000 from the windows of any house.

3. Nothing shall be thrown into the street, ells to the pound. The saving to be

.6. The laying of any earth or rubbish, six-tenths of the cost of spinning by before the houses, or suffering it to lie more brand. In these savings are included than two hours after the caris have passed, whatever may be obtained in all the is forbidden. Earth or rubbish, laid before preparatory operations to the spinning the houses, must be removed in the course of the thread.-4. If all these condia of the day. In case of negligence, the police tions are not fulfilled, 500,000 francs, will remove it, and charge it. will be granted to whoever fulfils the 7. In time of snow, or of frost, every conditions of the second and third householder is bound to sweep away the snow, class.-5. The models must be larue and to break the ice before his house, shop, enough to be used for working, as in a

court, garden, &c. to the middle of the manutaciory.-6. The candidates must

street. They shall form the snow and ice explain the whole of their manner of

into heaps. In case of slippery ice, they shall

strew ashes, sand, or gravel proceeding from the raw material to the

. 8. It is forbidden to lay in the streets, any timest spinning.-7. The machines that

snow or ice, from courts, or from the interior abtain the prize are to become public of houses, &c. property.

. 9. It is equally forbidden to proprietors, The introduction of machinery into or occupiers of baths, dyers, washers, or the woollen manufactories at Vervins. others which make great use of water, to let Hlodiinont, Aix la Chapelle, and Care any part thereof, flow over the public way; cassonne, has given new life to the trade during frosty weather. of France; and of seven inillions of livres

GERMANY. to which their exportation in Turkey M. l'IELT2, of Vienna, is publishing amounted, before the revolution, they a work ou Butany, containing plants used buve recovered six millions. These in melicinc, in domestic economy, and machines were introduced by two E... manufactures, with the description of glishuden named Cockerill and Douglas, the methods of using them. The first and the government has bought the lwo volumes comprise the indigenous property; and given then large preiniumis medicinal plants, and the third, which is for various inventions.

the last that has appeared, contains the By an order of police, dated Novem. plants for household uses, from Acanthus ber 20, the following regulations were to Amygdalus, arranged in alphaberical established, concerning the cleansing, order. The author bas followed Murand keeping clean, the streets and pas ray's system. sages of the city of Paris. *

M. TRUMƏDORFF has in publication at 1. Proprietors or tenants of honses, are Erfurt, a periodical work entitied, The bound to direct the sweeping regularly every General Chemical Library of the Nine. day, the fronts of their houses, shops, courts, teenth Century. It consists of criticisms gardens, and other offices. The sweeping to on all new works publislied on the subextend from the kennel in the middle of the ject, and the last number contains a street, to the edge of the pavement next the review of the chiewical literature of houses. The mud to be ga:bered in heaps.on France, England, Holland, Sweden, &c. the sides. None to sweep his own mud on froin 1800 LO 1804. ko his neighbour's premises.

A shepherd, of the village of Kappel, • 2. The sweeping shall be finished at eight:

near hlagenfurt, Carinthian, founri aca o'clock in the morning, from October 1, te

cidenial!v, during the last autumil, a March 1; and at seven o'clock, from Marchi, C 19 October 1. In case of negligence, the

vein of quich silver; this discovery will police will sweep the place, and charge the

in part compensare the Austrian moexpone.

narchy for the cession of Taria; there 3. The laying of any filch or refuse, from lus likewise been discovered in Transyl. the interior of the houses, after the scaverin V ia, a mine ol quichailler, wbich piose

ciuces annually 700 quintals of that nie * The paper of our correspondent, “Con der MON SENSE," on this subject, was written The editors of the Annals of the Proin London ihree days beiure this French gress of Inventions, a work which edict,

collects discoveries, inventions, systems,

opinions,

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