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Conceiving that a few observations upon been made in modern typograplıy, he the present state of the “ Ars omnium should carefully select his type, and have artium conservatrix,” may not be unin. the whole of his work printed upon the teresting to your readers, I am induced same. If he prefer the bold letter, the to request your insertion of my remarks, thin sliould not be perinirted to mingle most of which I think must have pre- with it; if the thing the bold should be sented themselves to every person who is excluded, and the ill-shaped of either in the habit of perusing modern publica. kind should be rejected. I am pertions, and those of former times.
suaded a little attention to these obser. The old printing types are distin. vations, would efféctually remove that guished by a character of rude symmetry. patch-work kind of printing which disThough they have no pretensions to ele. graces our press, and that, by a careful gance of shape, they have a roundness and judicious selection of types, British and uniformity that are not unpleasing. typography might attain a much higher
Every reader must be aware that the degree of excellence. most extensive works published before London, March 6th, 1811. the last twenty years, were printed almost invariably upon the same type, and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. have a general appearance of barmony SIR, and respectability. At present it is sel. TRELAND has been said, by a learned dom that the volumes of a large work I theologian, to imply, the Land of the correspond; they are frequently printed Aloon: its inhabitants may therefore be at different offices, with different types, rendered Lunatics, In like manner, some of which are bold and some thin, Herculeu, Heraclea, or Herculaneum, some new and some worn out, in one (for all these mean the saine) has been volume long ss are probably used, and in stated to come from Hercules, and to the next omitted; which irregularity pro- mean the universal light, or the sun : duces an effect disgusting to the eye of the inhabitants then of Herculaneuin, taste and disgraceful to modern typo- must have been the Illuminati. But so graphy. . .
many contrary opinions have been of Yet it cannot be denied that we have fered on this word, by authors mentioned the means of great improvement upon in the Herculanensia; and so many difa our ancestors. The shape of types is fering criticisms have issued from monthly carried nearly to perfection, and some of and quarterly publications, on the sube the works that have issued from the ject of the grand luminary of the world, presses of Bensley, Bulmer, and White that we are become sun-blind; and no tingham, are of unparalleled beauty. more light can we now perceive from I shall first endeavour to point out the these learned lucubrations, than we had reason of our defects, and then suggest a before any entrance was made into this remedy. In the first place, alibough once famous old city. That it comes some of the present types are extremely from Hercules, is an opinion most ge. elegant, others are in a most barbarous nerally believed; and I think too, that taste. In some we observe the greatest this is as certain as that froin king Lud beauty of shape, in others proportion and came London. When we have formed symmetry are totally neglected. Some an opinion, we wish quietly to enjoy it; make a clear and delicate impression, and in Etymological Romance, it is a sin uthers a mere blotch.
to doubt. But Er, Ir, or Ire, in Erin, I do not mean to condemn the bold or or Ireland ; and Er, or Her, in Ercolana. the thin style of types, both are good or Herculaneum, are not so different in when properly applied, and both are sus signification as above judged; and Treceptible of beauty; but I assert, that the land may imply the Border, or Utmost type proper for a hand-bill, is not the best Landi. for a book. In our modern publications, There are several promontories, which the bold and the thin, the elegant and have the name Heraclea, Heracleum, the barbarous, are blended not only in Herculeuin, or Herculis Promontoriun. the same work, but frequently in the .A point of land runs into the ocean, same page.
formerly named, Artavia, or the SeaThe remedy I shall propose is simple bead or Point: it is now Hartland, or and easy. If an author or publisher be the Head or Point Land. . These names desirous of sending into the world an represent to our minds, the portion of clegant work, and of taking advantage of land to which they refer; although they the improvements that have certainly are supposed to be derived from Here
cules, cules. Many individuals of this nation nations, supposed, that these heroes and are also called Hartland, whose names men, gave names lo headlands, towns, were derived from this and like lands; provinces, kingdoms, and, in fine, to and we can scarcely suppose that any every part of nature. men convey such representations to the In like manner, the moderns have de. mind, as Headlands; or that these Head. rived Warwick from King Gwaur; York, lands were named originally from them from King Ebrauc; Carlisle, from King
We have, moreover, persons of the Luil; Colchester, from King Coel; and names of Hill, Rivers, Ford, &c.; but Cantabrigia, from King Canteber. Hart. we do not even dream that these men ford has been considered as indisputably represent to our minds, Hills, Rivers, derived from the Harts; Buckingham, and Fords; or that these parts of nature from the Bucks; and Ely, from the Eels. were not named before these men, or The Ordovices, have been rendered The their ancestors of these names, first ex- Honourable Vices; the Selgorie, Plunisted; and therefore we do not suppose, derers; and the Gadeni, Robbers and that Hills, Rivers, and Fords, received Thieves. By tracing old names of their names originally from them. streams from adjectives, instead of sub
Let us transfer this reasoning to the stantives, we have our Black Water, our Ileadlands of Italy and other places, White Water, Brown Water, Green and we shall not find the wisdom of the Water, Red Water, and our Blue Water ancients, in attributing their names to Streams. The common way of naming heroes. But I will bricfly shew some hills, authors have asserted, was drawii causes of our errors, in mistaking one from the several parts of the human body; thing for another. There are, it is said, we have therefore some called, Bald several hills in Wales of the name of Pates, some named Skulls, some ForeEsgir; and Mr. Lloyd supposes, as heads, Sides of Faces, Eyelids, and Eyes; Exgir is Welsh for a leg, that they took some again, Mouths; some Necks, Arms, their names from it. There are also in Breasts, Bellies, Buttocks, Hips, Legs, this principality, two little streams, and Feet. Thus travelling metaphowhich are known by the names of Cock rically, from head to foot, we have all and Hen; and the inhabitants around these inapplicable terms. Much more believe them so named from our fowls information on these matters might we of these names. Now the hills, named give, but we must return to Herculaneum. Esgir, were formerly written, Aisgear; Shropshire has an hill called Ercol, and this comes from Ais, an bill, and there is also Child's Ercol, and High gear, short or steep; these bills, there. Ercol, all derived, without the assistance fore, mean the sharp or steep hills: of Hercules. The same as to Ercolana, Cock and Hen, for water, come from Ock, or Herculaneum, it was originally sealed o: Vicke, and An varied to in. (ch, re- on an eminence, on the border of Mount ceived the pretix c, as it does in the Vesuvius, and upon the sea-coast, benames of many other places and streams. tween two rivers. It was defended by a Thus, An water, takes this prefix in Can, citadel, built on a kind of natural inole, a lake. An, is also varied to En; the or neck of land, which advanced con. E was always aspirated in pronunciation, siderably into the sea. The word Er, or and hence En becaine Hen.
Her, might therefore imply Point, of The word Promontory, seems to have Border : Cul, or Col, the head; and Lan, been attached to many names by the the land: and the whole word, the ancients, and so continued by the mo. Point, or Border-Head Land; and this derns, from not understanding the ori. exactly described the old settlement. " ginal appellations. Should the reader I have 'thus shewn that lartland doubt of the unskilfulness of the ancients, Point took not its naine from men in the etymologies of old names of named Hartland, That the names, hills, places, he may consult their writers. rivers, fords, &c. were not derived from From what I have hefore written in your individuals of these names,' The name Magazine, it is certain, that at a very Esgir, for IIill, I have proved, means early age, our old names of places were not a leg; and Cock and Hen, for Water, first given: that they were also in some imply not fowls. I have gone further, centuries after chiefly forgotten, is equally and shewn that Hercules gave not deno. cerram froin the writings of the ancients, minations to Head-lands, which took That places gave names originally to their names before his existence. More heroes and men, may easily bę proved; still may I recite, that Ireland, as a part And yet the Greeks, Romans, and other of this globe, is not Land of the Moon;
ang and that Herculeum, Heraclea, Hera- best interests of those societies; even if cleum, Herculaneum, &c. head-lands he may sometimes have to disclose unof Italy, will not be found in the sun, pleasant truths. The members of the moon, nor stars.
A, B. religious society, called Quakers, though
in many respects highly cominendable, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazinè. are generally considered as being more GIR,
strongly influenced by a desire of gain, I SHALL be obliged, if you will have and more attentive to their own per.
the goodness to enquire, by means sonal interests, than those of any other of your extensively circulated Magazine, society, except the Jews. They are also the mode used by Mr. Nicholson, the supposed to possess, what in religious artist, of laving or erasing the strong language is called, a “narrow spirit," in lights in water-coloured drawings. judging of other societies; and if they do
An early attention to this will much not prohibit, they certainly look with a oblige,
AN AMATEUR. jealous eye on science and literature, and Ereter, March 16, 1811. i
on such of their members as are sus. P.S. If I do not mistake, Mt. Nicholson pected of having a hankering after had a premium awarded him by the Society “human learning,” or what they call of Arts for this discovery, and of course the “ the flesh-pots in Egypt." receipt is no secret. .
Many of the best informed members
of the society are ready to admit, that For the Monthly Magazine. such are the “ easily besetting sins of On the DEFECTS in the chURCH GOVERN• their community.” It would not be difMext of the QUAKERS.
ficult to trace the cause of these defects I HAVE read with much pleasure the
to their true source. They arise from I two letters of your correspondent,
an imperfection in their forin of church " Cinson Sense,"' on the self-annia
government, which produces the moral
and intellectual poyerty of close corpo. hilating spirit of close corporations.
rations, so well described by your corEvery public body, or religious society,
respondent “ Common Sense.” It is in which the superior officers, or rulers, are elected by the rulers themselves,
erroneously believed, that the Quaker
form of church governinent is purely rewithout the choice of the majority of the
i presentative, and that the deputies members at large, might derive much pre
elected from the smaller districts, to their benet, if they would read these letters
quarterly meetings, and from the latter at every general meeting, or public din
to their general annual asseinbly, held in ner, as a part of the regular service of
London, transact all the business of the the day. The poet Akenside was much im.
society, and decide by a najority of
voices. But the really-effective part of pressed with the pernicious effects of the
their government 'is exercised by the self-elective system of the magistracy in
members of the “Select Meetings." The Holland; on his return from Leyden, he
business of these meetings is transacted adverts to it in the following lines:
secretly; the members are elected by « Ye too, the slow.eyed fathers of the land, themselves, without any interference of With whom dominion steals from hand to the society at large; they are called, ... hand, i
“ Elders." The acknowledged preachers Unown'd, undignified, by public choice, &c." are also members. Their appointment
The sclosh torpor of the Dutch cha, continues for life, unless some notorious racter, which contributed to the debase- inconsistency should require their expul. ment and the destruction of their state, sion. It is the highest honour which the may fairly be attributed to the self. society can bestow... elective system of their government. The degree of sanctity and authority
The pages of your Magazine liave never which this appointnient is supposed to been stained with illiberal abuse of any confer, the awful mystery and secrecy of corporate body, or religious'society; but their transactions, and the title of Mipublic badies and sects, like individuals, nister, or Elder, which the members are have " their easily besetting sins," and invested with, give to these selecè meet. he who endeavours to point them out, ings the real government of the society. and to trace the causes which have led The common uninitiated members, fornto them, and the means by which they ing the body of the society, know less of may be removed, is a rcal triend to the the particular business transacted in these
secret meetings, than the journeymen sist in preaching, after they have desired taylors in London know respecting the him to be silent, he would be publicly discussions in the cabinet council. admonished; however desirous the man
The business of the "select meetings" jority of the society at large might be, is never made the subject of conversation that he should " exercise his gift." by the members, except amongst them. It cannot be doubted, that a mysleselves. In public meetings of discipline, rious exclusive system, which operates to which all members are admitted, I am without any known or definite law, has well informed, questions are not decided a tendency in every religious society, to by the majority, but, in general, the re- destroy openness and sincerity of cha. commendation of a few “ weighty friends" racter, and substitute a servile obsemembers of the select meeting, will quions deference to the members exsilence all opposition. They are, in fact, ercising this undefined priestly authority; the self-appointed rulers of the society. thus producing at artful, evasive, cunning,
The motive of preference in the elec. babit, in the members at large. tion of the members of the select meet. It would be a great improvement in the ings, to fill up vacancies, is not known; church government of the quakers, if the but must of course vary in some degree, members of their select meetings, or in according to the temper and character of other words their elders, or rulers, were the electors. In general, judging from chosen every year by ballot in their pubthe choice made, we may in fer, that the lic“ meetings for discipline," every member must be a weighty friend; member of a certain age, and of irrewhich implics, that he must have much proachable character, having a vote. solemnity of manner, and an obsequious The effect of such a change would soon deference to the opinions of the ministers be perceptible, it would infuse new life and elders; he must not have a cape to and spirit through the whole; sincerity his coat, his pockets must be inward, and would take place of formality, and a if they be thought weighty too, it is so more direct, more manly, and generous, much the better. It were, however, tone of feeling, would characterise both injustice to assert, that more regard is the individual members and the society had to wealth than uprightness of cha- as a public body. If such a change were racter, in the appointment. He must to take place, the more enlightened memnot be known to have committed anybers would no longer have to deplore ingross act of immorality; and he must be stances of ignorance and bigotry, which regular in his attendance on meetings of would disgrace the darkest periods of worship on week days. Such are the papal superstition. The following cir. real rulers and legislators of the society, cuinstance was communicated to me by they are in fact a close corporation or a highly respectable member of the sochapter electing their own members. ciety. It occurred whilst he was at the Every unprejudiced mind, who contem- place, and from it we may infer that the plates the exclusive spirit of such a system, American Friends have need of the same will not be surprised to learn that the "reformacion in their church government, members of this select religious corpo- as the Friends in England. An apration are jealous of their own power, proved female preacher, and very amia. alarmed at a spirit of free inquiry, and ble woman, was reading the Scriptures hostile to the progress of knowledge. with her husband, who was also a Like the superiors of all other close preacher, and both of thein members of corporations, they are generally the most one of the select meetings in the United ignorant and prejudiced part of their States. The part which engaged their own community.
attention was the book of Jonah; the hus. Persons not acquainted with the so. band expressed his astonishment at the ciety, suppose that the ininisters are self. extraordinary deliverance of the prophet; appointed, or have no other call to the when his wife unfortunately said, she oltice, except a real or imagined call of had always considered the swallowing of the Spirit. When a member has, or Jonah by the arbale, as a figurative ex. supposes he has, such a call, he is for a pression, implying that he had been *time permitted to obey it ; but he never thrown into deep distress for his disobebecomes an acknowledged minister, dience, and afterwards relieved from it until he has received a notice from the by divine appointment. An opinion so) select meeting, appointing him a member reasonable, and so modestly expressed, of their body, or signifying their appro- if it did not excite approbation, night Lation of his musuy. Should he pere have been expected to escape censure:
such was not the case, the husband It is an insidious task to expose unne. whose admiration of the marvellous cessarily the weakness of a good but would probably have been better pleased inistaken man (for. such í conceive had Jonah swallowed his deliverer, was George Fox to have been); but it becomes so much shocked at bis wife's impiety in a sacred duty to detect the errors of ina doubting the personality of the whale, dividuals when they retard the progress that he informed the members of the se- of truth, in any class of our Christian lect meeting of her erroneous opinions brethren. Amidst alli the eccentricities on this important article of faith ; she was of this extraordinary man, he had one immediately suspected of being tainted excellent object in view, which was to with the heresy of Hannah Barnard, she lead mankind from the superstitious obwas degraded from her rank as minister, servance of external forms, to the opera. her fair character and peace of mind ţion of religious principle upon the mind. were wounded, and, if I am rightly ina In pursuing this object, however, he freformed, she narrowly escaped public ex. quently appears to have mistaken his pulsion from the society, for thus daring path and exchanged superstition for en. to exercise the right of private judgment. thusiasm; and, as an elegant historian has The circumstance is of recent date. well observed, “the road from enthu. Were the reformation I have suggested siasm to imposture is short and slippery." to take place, respect for liberty of con. Was it the unerring spirit of truth, by science and honest independance of which he professed to be invariably mind, would prevent such illiberal per. guided, that dictated this account of his secutions from disgracing the proceedings miracles ? A withered arm immediately of a society, whose genuine doctrines are bealed by his potent command, “ Arise mild and tolerant.
and stretch it forth”; a stone in the bladI am well aware that the attempt to der dissolved by the efficacy of his prayer; sound an alarm in their spiritual Zion, a broken neck set straighit; and, as El to turn out the Pharisees and money- wood, his revisor, observes, “ many more changers who defile the sanctuary, and things did he which would not be believed thus to reform the church government of in that unbelieviag age.”* After the the Quakers, will be considered by many lapse of one hundred and fifty years, we of their self-appointed rulers, as an act may presume the present generation is of daring impiety. . They will imine. not more credulous ihan that which witdiately cry out, “ Our forefathers were nessed with disbelief such astonishing directed by the unerring spirit of truth, manifestations of supernatural power. to adopt the form of church discipline These miracles of George l'ox will now which we now enjoy, and we have mea. be considered as proofs of the weakness surably been influenced by the same spin and presuinption of all modern claims to rit to preserve it to the present day. the guidance of an infallible spirit. They Shall erring and finite creatures op- are more suited to impress the minds of puse the dictates of that divine light his followers with huinility than to enwith which we have been so highly fa. liven their faith.
VERUS. roured as a people?” It may, however, be right for all who have such high pre For the Monthly Magazine. tensions, to examine well the foundations APHORISMS rclative to PUBLIC CURRENCY on which they rest. George Fox, the
and CREDIT. founder of the society, laid claim to as
1. plenary an influx of the holy spirit as any CIURRENCY is the medium by which of his followers. He informs us in his the exchange of commodities is Journal, that he was one day passing effected, and, being intended to pass through a field, in which were several old as the representative of property, it women seated round a fire, when the ought to be of intrinsic value, and alspirit of the Lord came upon him, and ways worth the property which it reordered him to go another way, for these presents. women were witches. “Ex pede Herculem!”
The stability and intrinsic worth of From this we may judge whether the currency is the foundation of the comspirit by which he was inspired, was the mercial system, and the basis of public uncering spirit of truth or no. Some confidence in all transactions and con. may perhaps be more inclined to believe siderations relative to property. that the man who supposed himself in, a spired to discover these old women were
Vide Fox's Journal; consult the Index
under the head “ Miracles." wiiches, was himself no conjuror.