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it in full perfection, as the rays of the perusal of L's communication; and to setting sun glistened on a part of the ex- that end, I shall avail inyself of a remark panse of water, and threw a soft and it contains. He says, that “in dry, glowing shade on every feature of the sandy, and calcareous, districts, they landscape. As the shades of evening know little of disease among their poul. Legan to obscure the distant objects try.Then might not a poultry-yard be from our sight, we quitted our rocky so constructed, as to combine all the ad. station, and sought the banks of Gold. vantages of such a soil, by laying upon it rill-beck, a stream issuing from Patter- a straium of sand, gravel, lime, or other dale, where there are several pleasing dry earth, of a sufficient thickness; and spots, rural, simple, and interesting. by raising it in the centre, and letting it

Having now conducted you to the ex. slope off to the sides, so as to resemble, tremity of Ullswater, I shall take my in shape, a mirror? By the latter leave of that truly beautiful lake, reyrct. means, the rain would flow off to the ting I do not possess the charming de, extremities of the yard; and the little scriptive powers of a Radcliffe, to convey hill, thus created, would always be dry. to you a inore just idea of its thousand The boundary of the yard might be placed lovely charnis; if it were possible for a little way within the rise of the ground, language to convey an adequate idea of so as to exclude, from the part occupied the richness and variety of its banks, the by the poultry, the level which the water, woods, the rocks, the pyramidal cliffs, flowing from the centre, would naturally and mountainous precipices, which, mine find: and it might be adviseable to cut a gled with rural spots, ornament and small trench, or ditch, round the exencrease the beauty of the most charm. tremity of the yard, (outside of the ing of scenes.

boundary fence,) in order to carry off the In length, Ullswater is about nine water coming from the raised ground. miles, and not more than two and an As the winds which blow from the north half at the widest. It abounds in char, and east are in this climate the most eels, and trout, of the richest flavour. severe, and the most likely to give cold Report informed me, they are caught to to the young chickens, shelter and pro. the iiomense weight of twenty-five or tection from their effects are objects of thirty pounds; but, having scen none but consequence, and might be effected by of an ordinary size, I dare not affirm the building ihe poultry houses on the north assertion. And now farewel. In my next and east sides of the yard. you shall have an account of an alpine March 10, 1811. . excursion we bad planned, and which actually took place on the succeeding for the Monthly Magazine. day. Pray let me hear from you soon, CRITICAL REMARKS on SHAKESPEARE. and believe me sincerely,

KING JOHN.-Act l, Scene 1.
THE WANDERER. So hence! Be thou the trumpet of our wrath,

And sullen presage of your own decay.
To the Editor of the Monthly hagazine. « DY the epithet sullen,” says De.

S!R, V OUR correspondent L, in the D Johnson, " which cannot be ap1 Number of your Magazine for p

o plied to a trumpet, it is plain that the December last, page 40s, furnishes some

poet's jinagination had suggested a new useful and interesting information re

idea, as if he had said, “Be a trumpet specting the diseases incident to poultry,

to alarm; be a bird of prey to croak out and the treatment proper for their cure;

the prognostic of your own ruin.' But

Mr. Malone sees not why the epithet acquired, apparently, by much experience in the breeding of poultry, and

suilcn may not be applied to a trumpet equal care and ability in referring those

with as much propriety as to a bell. And,

in Henry IV. part 2, we read, “ sounds diseases to their real cause. But then trouble, care, and ditticulty, necessary to

ever after like a sullen bell.” The epi

thet, however, as applied to a bell, is their cure, are, as your correspondent

der eminently happy. Milton has adopted justly insinuates, so great as to render the means of preventing the occurrence

it with grand effect in his Il Penseruso. of those diseases far more desirable to be

Oft on a plat of rising ground, knowil, ihan the means by which they I hear the far off curiew sound, can be cured. I shall therefore, through

Over some wide-watered shore,' the medium of your Magazine, propose a

Swinging slow with sullen roar. 11.ethod of prevention, suggested by a But the sound of the trumpet is sprightly

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and animated. “Farewel, the neighing despite of brooded watchful day," &c. steed and the shrill trump," says Othello. This nonsense Mr. Pope, with true poeAnd I apprehend that the allusion is not tical feeling, had altered to “ broud-eyed to a bird of prey, but to a passing bell, watchful day." But Mr. Steevens tells and that decay in this, as in other pas- us, “ that this emendation, however elesages, bears a sense equivalent to disso. gant, is unnecessary, for that all animals lution. Thus in Act iv. Scene the last wbile brooded, that is, with a brood of of this drama, we read that,

young ones under their protection, are

The comment vast confusion waits,

remarkably vigilant.” As doth a raven on a sick-fallen beast,

must be acknowledged worthy of the The imminent decay of wrested pomp.

text. To speak candidly, however, Lewis, stand fast; the devil tempts thee here,

Shakespeare is unquestionably indebted In likeness of a new untrimmed bride.

more or less to all his annotators; but it Act III. Scene 1.

is surely high time that the golden ore of The word "untrimmed," Mr. Steevens the dross.

their criticisms should be separated from tells us, means “ undressed,” in proof of which he adduces several superfluous

RICHARD II. examples, shewing that “trimmed" signifies" dresi," or rather perhaps gaily.

* Mr. Pope has justly remarked " that dressed, " Trimm'd like a voucher

or the rhyming couplets in this play are so prancing to his love," &c. But he offers much ilerior to the composition in geno instance in which trimmed is used neral, as to appear of a different hand.* for undressed. On the contrary, the

It is now fully ascertained that there quotations of Mr. Tollet sufficiently

existed an old drama on the same subject, evince that “untriinmed" means simply

which is referred to both by Camden unadorned.“ Sad, pale, and untrim

and Lord Bacon; and these rhyming pasmed, &c.I am of opinion with Theo

sages, with divers other passages not in bald, that we should read, “and trim. "

rhyme, but which are equaliy distinguishe med," tha: is, accomplished or adorned able, were in all probability burrowed froin

that antient historic play. As for instance, by art and nature.

the garden scene at the close of the 3d If the midnight bell

Act, the greater part of the resignation Did with his iron congue and brazen mouth

scene in the 4th Act, and alınost the Sound on unto the drowsy race of night.

whole of the 5th Act. The long and Ibid, Scene 3.

tedious soliloquy of Richard in his prison Dr. Warburton, wi:h that happiness of Poinfret castle, in particular, exhibits which marks many of his emendations, no trace of Shakespeare's pen. And the for on reads ONE. Mr. Strevens, how- only two scenes in this act which appear ever, has a long note to justify the absur- to ine entirely genuine, are those very dity of the old blundering text. This we short, but very excellent, ones; in the are accustomed to, and it might be borne; first of which York describes to his but it exceeds the common limits of pati. dutchess the entrance of Richard and ence, when we see the first note followed Bolingbroke into the inetropolis; and in by a second, assigning bis reasons for the last, which passes at Windsor, the doubling and finally rejecting his own new king complains of the conduct of his explanation. When may we hope for son the prince of Wales, whose cha. that great desideratum, an edition of racter is sketched with great force and Shakespeare, combining in one felicitous felicity. assemblage, the perspicacity of Warburton, the elaborate research of Steevens,

RICHARD II.-Act II. Scene 3.

Seek you to seize and gripe into your hands and the dignified energy of Johnson; and

The royalties and rights of banished Here

The at the same time exempt from the extra

ford? vagance of the first, the criticalimbecility Is not Gaunt dead and doth not Hereford of the second, and the deficiency of the

live? last in the language and literature of the Toke Hereford's rights away and take from age of Elizabeth? Few readers of time Shakespeare will fail to recollect that the His charters and his customary dues; ghost in Hamlet makes its appearance. Let not lo-morrow then ensue to.day. *the hell then benting one."

Be not thyself, for how are thou a king In the same noble speech from which But by fair sequence and succession ? the passage we are now criticising was It is apparent from this speech that York Jahen, the old copy bas, “ Then in knew nothing of “the right divine of kings tu govern wrong." For he founds This passage has been the subject of the prerogative of the crown and the much critical contention. Dr. Warburriglits of the subject on the same basis, ton proposes trempe for damp. Dr. "fair sequence and succession." The Johnson entrails, and Mr. Steerens proud boast of the infatuated monarchentrunts, for entrance. The thirsty enhimself, indeed, in a subsequent scene, is, trance of the soil, apparently means the Not all the water in the rough rude sea,

dry or parched surface of the ground, Can wash the balm from an anointed king; which the king declares shall no more be The breath of worldly men cannot depose

damped or invistened with the blood of The deputy elected by the Lord.

her children, or the natives of the land And this at a period when, to use the si

ie or a neriod when to me the slaughtered in civil contest. The perwords of Scroop,

sonification is somewhat harsh but not

unpoetical. . The very beadsmen learnt to bend their 'Ibid. Scene 2.- There's neither hou. DOW

nesty, manhood, nor good fellowship, in Of double-fatal yew against his state,

thee, nor thou cam'st not of the blood “Ilere,” says Dr. Johnson, somewhat royal, if thou darest not cry Stand for triumphantly,“ we have the doctrine often shillings." indefeasible right expressed in the stron The coins formerly most in ose were gest terms." True, and the venerable the mark, 3s. 4d. the noble, 6s. Bd. and Bishop of Carlisle makes use of the same the angel or royal, 10 shillings. To the arguidents in his speech against the de- latter of these Falstaff alludes., Queen position of Richard, which furnishes, in Elizabeth, it is said, once attending chaDr. Johnson's opinion, another proof of pel service, the preacher in an affected Shakespeare's "elevated notions of the strain of adiniration, exclaimed, “My right of kings." But Shakespeare, care angel queen!" And soon afterwards, fot only to adhere to the truth of history my noble queen! Upon which the queen and the preservation of character, might turning to one of her courtiers, whis. possibly bold the bishop's arguments in pered, “What am I ten groats worse as much contempt as ibe Earl of Nur. ihan I was?” thumberland, who disdainfully replies Act V. Sccne 3.-" If Percy be alive 6. Well have you argued, sir, and for your I'll pierce him. If he do come in my • pains,

- way so if he do not, if I come in his, wila Of capital treason we arrest you here." . Tingly let him make a carbonado of me." But ere the crown he looks for live in The declaration of Falstaff respecting peace,

Percy, is merely a humorous boast in. Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' sons, tended for the prince's hearing. The reShall ill become the flower of England's face. maining part of the speech is spoken as a

Act III. Scene 3. soliloquy after the prince's departure. Mr. Theobald thinks we ought to read, HENRY IV. Part II.-Act. I. Scene 1.

be fluor of England's face.” And Sir - Even so my limbs Thomas Harmer, "the flowery England's Weakened with grief, being now enragéd with face." Dr. Warburton, not without grief, reason, rejects with contempt these Are thrice themselves. Hence therefore efforts at emendation, and asserts “that thou nice crutch; the flower of England's face is a finc and 'A scaly gauntlet now with joints of steel,

this haod. noble expression to denote her choicest youth." But, as the learned annolator Mr. Malone does not like this grief upon has not deigned to explain to us how the

e grief, and proposes to read weakened words will bear this construction, I

with age or pain, “ because the crutch should prefer, and with defererice pro. was used to aid the infirmity of limbs pose, reading “the flower of England's . weakened by age or distemper, and not ruce."

by grief." And be observes that, when a

word is repeated without propriety, in HENRY IV. Part I..Act 1. Scene 1.."

the same or in the succeeding lines, there No more the thirsty entrance of this soil Shall damp her lips with her own children's Is great reason tosuspect some corruption

from the negligence of the transcriber. blood, No more shalt trenching war channel her

helt freme hing war cannal her This remark, however just, is not applifields,

cable to the passage in question, which Nor bruise her flow'rets with the armed, bears the genuine stamp of Shakespeare. hoofs

y. The word “grief” is used ambiguously, Oi kostile faces.

and means first amiction arising froin

disease,

fate,

disease, and next amiction arising from liable to ludicrous imputations; and he inisfortune.

even makes no scruple, at least on one Then happy low lie down,

occasion, to abandon the point of honour, Uneasy lies a head that wears a crown.'

and un a pressing einergency to owe his Act III. Scene 1. safety to " a fetch of wit." Those who

are of opinion that it was intended by The singularly happy and beautiful emen. dation of Dr. Warburton in this place of

Shakespeare, to exhibit him as a poltron, “ low lie down," to " lowly clown,” is

must explain away the following facts, rejected by Mr. Steevens, as almost

among many others, which milicate every other improvement of the confessoas

against that hypothesis, edly corrupt text of Shakespeare, for the

1. Even in the disgraceful affair of sake of an unintelligible explanation of

Gad's-hill, Falstaff does not retreat till

be is abandoned by his dastardly com. nonsense. An acquaintance with black letter lore, and “all such reading as was

panions; and after having inaintained the

contest singly for some time, against his never read," is not the only requisite in a

two youthtul and vigorous assailants, the commentator of this poet.

Prince and Poins. His subsequent aco heaven! that one might read the book of count of this business is humorous ex

aggeration, mere rodomantade, not inAnd see the revolution of the times,

tended for serious belief: though the unHow chances mock! O! if this were seen,

expected detection of his wild and whime The happiest youth, viewing his progress through,

sical fictions deprives him totally of the What perils past, what crosses to ensue,

advantage of a grave defence. Would shut the book and sit him down and

2. When the formidable rebellion, die.

Ibid, Ib.

headed by Percy and Douglas, broke Dr. Johnson remarks a difficulty in the

out, and forces were levied for its sup

pression, the prince procures for Falstatt, line, “ What perils past, what crosses to

a charge of foot." Would he have ensue,” because it seems to make past

done this in a moment of imininent perils equally terrible with ensuing cros. ses. The idea of the poet seems to have

danger, for a base and notorious re

creant? been that of a youth opening the book of fate in the midst, and casting his eye

3. Falstaff hastens his march to the backward as well as forward, no portion

place of rendezvous, wbere he is told by of the events there recorded being ante

the earl of Westmoreland, “that the

king looks for them all." He is found rior to the moment of consultation.

among the number of those who surround This is the English not the Turkish court,

the king's person, when Worcester de. Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,

livers his message. He is addressed, in But Harry, Harry. Act V. Scene 1.

comion with o:her distinguished leaders It may be remarked, that at the accession of the royal army, by the king, and takes of Henry V. A.D. 1413, there had been his station in pursuance of the royal no instance of an Amurath gucceeding to command. He was engaged, as it apän Amurath in the Turkish court. Theo pears, in the heat and thickest tuinult of bald has pointed out another chronolo. the battle, where the greater part of his gical error, relating to the Turkish his. soldiers were slaughtered : and at length tory in the last act of Henry V. wliere the he encounters Douglas in person. In king talks of “ going to Constantinople to this unequal condict, he had recourse to take the Grand Turk by the beard," many a stratagem totally incompatible indeed years before that imperial city, to the with that high sense of honour, which disgrace of Christendom, fell a prey to ought to characterise a soldier, but perthe attacks of the most odious and fero. fectly consonant to the humour, the cious of barbarians.

hilarity, the eccentricity of the fat knight, · Ibid, Scene uit." Stand here by me, who, after "the deeds in arms which he master Robert Shallow, I will make the bad done that day," would, on so extra. king do you grace, &c."

ordinary au eitiergency, he certain to The celebrated “Essay on the Cha. meet with the indulgence, perhaps even sacter of Sir John Falstaff," has demonthe applause, of the world, strated, that the popular idea of Falstaff 4. İlis great enemy, the lord chief as a constitutional coward, like Parolles justice, allows, “ that bis day's service at or Pistol, Bessus or Bobadil, is a very Shrewsbury has gilded over his night's inistaken one: though he is designedly exploit at Gad's-hill." And, after menplaced in situations whicb render hinn tioning the intelligence he had received, MOSTHLY NAG, No. 219.

that

2 T

that Sir John Falstaff was going with lord That some has been felt in Africa, there John of Lancaster, against the earl of is good reason to believe, but whether Northumberland, he prays Heaven “ to any has, to the unhappy victinis of bless his expedition," without noticing as avarice in the Islands, is to me unknown. untrue, or reprehensible, Falstaff's boast, I was one, (among many, I imagine, who “that not a dangerous action can peep had great hopes that the Act would not out its head, but he is thrust upon it. only free Africa in a considerable degree, If you will needs say I am an old man, froin one of the greatest evils which affict you should give me rest," he exclaims mankind; but that the slaves already in the with some colour of reason,

West Indies would find their bondage less · 5. It appears that sir John Falstaff was severe than formerly. Whether this is originally page to Thomas Miowbray, the case or not, I must wish to be induke of Norfolk, and that he was dis. formed by some one who has lately vitinguished in his early youth for spirit sited those parts. The abolition of the and courage; ihat he had the flattering trade was only a part (and a very conhonour of being noticed by John of siderable one) of the object which the Gaunt and had risen through many mi- friends of justice and humanity should litary gradations to his present com- have had in view, and which no doubt mand.

many bad; the other is the abolition of 6. He is represented as ready to en- slavery itself—ihe preventing one human counter Sir John Coleville of the Dale, being from selling another. “ a famous rebel," in single combat. When we are told, that as soon as a “ Do you yield, Sir, (says be) or shall I man sets his foot in England, he is free, sweat for you?" To which Coleville re- how inconsistent does it sound to hear plies, “ I think you are Sir John Falstaff, that the British legislature cannot in. and in that thought yield me:" thus ex- terfere with the government of the plicitly acknowledging his high inilitary Islands, so as to abolish slavery there! reputation. Sir Jolin Falstaff is indeed Ifthousands of pounds are annually spent severely blamed by prince John of Lan- there, of money raised by taxes here, caster, “ who does not love him," for the for the protection of the colonies, is it tardiness occasioned by his unseason. not reasonable to conclude that our par. able visit at master Shallow's; but he liament should have a right to legislate, engages, though with an ill grace, to so far as to protect the inhabitants from make a favourable representation of his cruelty and oppression? A statement of subsequent services, " a better report of what is generally reckoned to be the him," to use the prince's own words, connection of the colonies with this “at court than he deserved." To which country, might be interesting to many of Falstaff replies with spirit, “I would you your readers, and be of use to those who had the wit; 'twere better than your are concerned in the welfare of the dukedom."

negroes. It is certainly somewhat reThat Shakespeare, in bis delineation of markable, that out of the numerous á character so difficult to pourtray, so writers on the subject of the slave-trade extraordinary, so original, should have and slavery, some years ago, few, if any, deviated in certain points, and to a cer- have otlate taken up the pen to vindicale tain degree, from the unity and integrity the righes of the oppressed Africans in of his design, may per haps be allowed. the Islands. If the abolition of the trade The colouring is in some places a little has made any alteration in the conduct too high; but, taking it as a whole, the of the slave-holders, communications on execution is as masterly as, the con• this subject will much oblige, ceprion was felicitous; and Sir John.

" A CONSTANT READER. Falstaff will ever remain the most ex- March 11, 1811. quisite and delightful of dramatic cieations.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. TT is rather surprising that in an age, SIR,

1 in which so much attention has been THE Act of Parliament for the abo. paid to Aldus, Caxton, and their vene.

1 lition of the slave-trade having table fraternity, the great alteration, inpassed very nearly four years, it may deer the total revolution, that has taken well be expected that considerable be- place in typography during the last netit should have arisen frein it, both in twenty years, should have been so little Africa' and the West India islaods. comniented upon by our modern Ameses.

Conceiving

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