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•f extending her own upon its ruins, over the whole habitable face of the globe, by the empire of the seas. The speeches of JLord Sheffield) An!.hind, &C. and the annual budget speeches, proclaim triumphantly the encreasing and flourishing state of our trade, no doubt, as a vindication of the war, and as a reason for its continuance. Sheffield asserted in si speech, about five yearsago, that the cartying trade had encreased from two millions at the commencement of the war, to five miliums, in a period of less than five years.
Thus has commerce not only subsidized Agriculture to Iter purposes, but likewise the demon War, to the former of which she was once tributary, and to the latter she was reckoned a deadly foe, whose extinction she threatened by enlightened ideas, the mutunl interchange of good offices, and general philanthropy.
Thus are the ostensible objects of the war unmasked, and the real one appears to be to extend and force the commerce of England by the point of the bayonet, and the thunder of her wooden walls, over a continent deluged with blood, and an ocean stained with crimes!
It is almost superfluous to enlarge upon the bad effects of a system reprobated alike by sound policy, justice, humanity, and religion. Even in the most just, necessary, and merely defensive, wars, which may have been undertaken ibr the achievement and preservation of out liberties, and the security of our commerce, the cruelties and horrors which Lave been mutually inflicted and occasioned by armies, and the miseries endured by families and individuals, are indescribable. If then so much evil is the result of even just and necessary wars, what must be expected from a war entered into from the base and filthy motive of lucre, and from the sanguinary ambition of a shameful cupidity to extend our commerce over the face of the habitable globe? If, according to religion, philosophy, and sound policy, the means be not sanctified and justified by the end; if ■war be condemned as a sin by the divine, as immoral by the philosopher, and as theworst mode of settling the disputes of nations, by the politician, it woqld of course be the height of absurdity to suppose that the means can sanctify and justify the end. If a good cause be dis. graced by improper means used in its defence, how much more is it disgraced and injured by employing these means in promoting it, to the manifest injury of surrounding nations. Tliea indeed it
becomes a bad cause, even as to its general results, because the many become sufferers for the benefit of the few.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
MANY of your pages have tended to promote the amelioration of the condition and sufferings of the Animal World, thereby inculcating the sacred duties-of justice and mercy. On this subject you have been laudably ready to give fair and full scope to whatever illustrated or enforced it. To maintain the cause of humanity, is highly pleasing to every good man ; and more honour is derived from it, than from inquiries which tend onlv to amuse the mind, or gratify curiosity". The anecdote communicated by your correspondent, "Zoophilus," in the Monthly Magazine for September, on the effects of gratitude in a wild bull, deeply impressed and interested me. Gratitude can be the result only of kindness, either intended or received. Ane! although I recollect too many instances where the result of kindness has been ingratitude amongst human beings, it very rarely follows any marks of mercy, or even of due consideration, shewn toward animals. The example which "Zoophilus" has adduced of the wild bull, is certainly a very powerful illustration of this fact; but it would not be difficult to extract from the authentic stories of Natural History, various other instances of gratitude arising from sense of obligation, and even in the way of returning generosity for generosity, and compassion for compassion. In regard to other animals of the fiercest nature, as the lion, the elephant, the tyger, &c. I lately met with some curious particulars in the notes to an elegant poena lately published by Mr. Pratt, to which I am anxious to refer your readers ; and, by the bye, I cannot resist stating the pleasure which I lmve derived from reading that production. It is entitled, The Lower World, not referring to the infernal regions, but lower, in" a moral and rational sense, and consists of a strong appeal to mankind in favour of the brute creation. The life of the benevolent author has been devoted to constant labour, on this and other kindred subjects; and if be had not written his Sympathy, and Humanity, this production alone would entitle him to a place anions the poets of Britain. In short, Shertdstn, Pratt, Wolcot, Hayley, r ant}
|nd Cumberland, are surviving members ipondenti in general to co-operate \yit% of the old school oi literature and poetry; me. , W. S. Smith.
and it is grievous to see the triumphs of a pigmy race, while the works of the genuine bards of the country are neglected, and even insulted by that trade in venal criticism, which sterling genius scorns to court, or purchase.
I feel a strong desire to occupy nn occasional page of your excellent" miscellany, in adding my mite to the cnube of genuine benevolence, from the body of tvidence which 1 have from time to time been collecting from my own observations, or from written documents; and I hope you will encourage your corre
January .. ,," ..' ..
February «. .,
March .. .. .. ..
Apiil •• .. .. ..
June .. .. .. ..
August .. .. ..
September .. .. .. ».
November .. .. .. ..
December .. .. .. ••
Notwithstanding the great variations in several of the months for the two years, the average temperature for the whole years differs but very little, only about three quarters of a degree. The quantity of rain is much less than that which fell during the year 1809; but between the 13th of October to about the same day in December, there fell nearly fourteen inches in depth, a circumstance exceedingly unusual at that season of the year.
During the year 1810, the brilliant days, and those on which it rained, were pretty nearly equal; the proportions will stand thus:
No. of dirt. Brilliant days - • 148
Riiny - • . 142
Those on which there was now or hail 7
Cloudy or foggy days • 13
Mostkly Mao. No. 909.
but in the month of February, they were than 80°. In August even, the morning*
more frequent; and one day it was so and evenings were complained of as cold
dark, that almost all business was, for a and chilly; and so much rain fell about
considerable time, suspended. March this season, as to alarm the public at
was remarkable for the heaviest fall of targe, as well as the farmers, lest they
stiow during the whole winter, which was should have no means of housing a very/
succeeded by a vast quantity of rain.
abundant harvest. The rains however
In no part of the summer had wc what .and on the night of Christmas-day, there)
may be denominated sultry weather, was a deal of lightning for several hours;
The hottest day was on the 25th of June, in some quarters during the whole night,
sky. The first swallows this season were »een on the 6th; they were numerous on the 18th.
May. The mean temperature of this month, 48° 4', is extremely low for the season. The weather was uniformly cold and dry, with brisk parching easterly winds, which proved very unfavourable to vegetation. The mountains were frequently covered with snow.
June. The extreme drought which prevailed during this, and the two preceding months, was severely felt here as well as in every other part of the kingdom. The weather this month was generally bright, the days hot, and (he nights cold and frosty. The quantity of rain, 1,6 inches, fell chiefly on the 28th and 29th.
July. The moist and showery weather experienced this month was productive of the most beneficial effects to the grain crops. The highest degree of temperature, 71°, is unusually low for the season, yet the average for the whole month is nearly equal to that of the same period of former years.
Augutt. The weather this month was, on the whole, very favourable for the season. On the 3d and 4th we had some vivid lightning and loud peals of thunder; also on the 31st, a dreadful storm of thunder and lightning, which commenced in the evening and continued nearly all night; during the former part of the storm, rain, mixed with hail, fell in torrents.
September. On the 1st of this month we were visited by another violent storm of thunder, lightning, and rain. Two women were struck down by the lightning, and btunncd fur several hours, but fortunately recovered; four cattle were killed by the electric fluid in this neighbourhood. A monument in Stanwix church-yard was struck by the lightning and much shattered; two massy stones cramped totethir, of which the pedestal was composed, were separated to upwards of a foot distance. The torrents of rain and hail which fell at the time deluged the streets of this city to such a degree, that many of the ground-floors were covered with water. During the night of the 2d, the sky was illuminated with incessant gleams of lightning, when at the time it nas quite serene and cloudless. The heat of this and the preceding day was uncommonly oppressive. The weather afterwards continued fair, calm, and brilliant, and extremely fine throughout the whole of ihe month. The days
were hot and the nights cold, with heavy dews. The hirundines disappeared tha beginning of this month; the preceding year they continued with us till the ''M of October.
October continued fair, brilliant, and exceedingly fine, till the 18th, during which period the mid-day heat was uncommonly powerful. From the 18th till the 23d, the weather was very wet and stormy; the remainder was variable, when we had some sfong frost in the nights. At the conclusion of this month many of the highest mountains in this neighbourhood were capped with snow; and, with regard to the weather, winter may be said to have commenced its reign.
November. In the former part of this mouth we had some considerable falls of snow, particularly on the 8d and 6th; that which fell on the latter day did not disappear from the fields before tha 10th. The weather continued variable, with intervals of frost and mild rain; towards the latter end of the month it was sometimes bright and pleasant. The wind, with some trifling exceptions, was moderate, and on eight days we experienced a dead calm: the mountains were generally covered with snow. Notwithstanding the very fine autumn, we never remember a corn harvest continuing for so long a period as the present; it commenced in this district the begin, ning of August, and was scarcely completed at the end of this month; in the higher districts of this county some fields at this time were not reaped.
December. The unseasonable mild weather experienced during the greater part of this month, was, as usual, attended with violent winds and much rain. The only frost worth recording, was on the 9th, 10th, and 11th. On the night of the 20th, we had some extremely vivid lightning and distant thunder; on the following day the wind blew a violent hurricane from the S.S.E. from which time till the 26th, the weather continued very stormy, with lightning in the nights; the last three days of the mouth were calm and pleasant, and inclined to frost. The two extremes of the barometer for the whole year happened this month, within the short period of five days, namely 28-67 on the 85th,and 3070 on the 30th. The mountains were frequently covered with snow.
Carliile, January 2, 1811.
43 ClaggetCs Piano-forte.—Food for Silk-Worms, [Feb. I,
y'o the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
I FEEL pleasure in complying with the request, in your last Number, of the Rev. Mr. Smyth, "That I would state what I know with respect to an instrument invented by Mr. Clagget, viz. hit forks struck by hammers, as on the square piano-forte;" because I conceive practical experience cannot be too frequently, collated with theoretical speculation, iu order that their reciprocal advantages snay be usefully employed in perfecting •ientific and mechanical discoveries.
On this particular invention, however, I fear I shall be able to add but little to 'the information Mr. Smyth already possesses.
An, instrument that would continue always in tune is undoubtedly an important desideratum in the musical world; >mt the various and expansive experiments of Mr. Clagget, leave but little hope, in my mind, of the speedy accomplishment of an object so desirable.
The invention enquired after, Mr. Clagget intended to name the Ever-tuned 'piano-forte, and it was designed to resemble that instrument in appearance; l.i;i instead of strings, a series of metallic forks were arranged in octaves to the lame compass and pitch; and the tones were intended to be produced by striking tlitin with hammers, for which purpose the usual movement attached to the keys was employed. 'It was found, however, that the force with which they could be struck, was inadequate to produce the desired effect. To obviate this difficulty, the weight of the hammers was considerably increased, and their extremities rendered less elastic, by which means Ifie tone came out, but it was preceded bv one discordant and insufferably distinct, occasioned by the necessary momentum of the blow. This objection has been Jjitherto found insuperable; as every attempt to overcome it has proportionably lessened the audibility of the trile tone of the fork.
Experience seems to indicate that, to produce a full tone from these metallic substances, the vibratory cause must be « continued one, as in the aicuton.
If, indeed, percussion could be employed at all, its momentum on every note must be proportioned to its relative quantity of matter; which would render the fingering unpleasantly difficult. And I know, although contrary to some established theories of musical «ouad, that, in this instrument, the gra
vity and ncuteness of the tones were so much affected bv the variable force of tl\a blow, as to be clearly apparent to every musical ear; and accounts for that inequality of voising noticed by Mr. Smythj. I must observe that there was no difficulty whatever in the application of dampers; but it was unnecessary to attend to these* particulars, while the essential requisite* of the invention remained unaccomplished.
Upon the whole, it attained but^i small degree of relative peifection with the aieuton ; and although Mr. Clagget generally adhered, with a ruinous tenacity, to his inventions, yet he was induced to give up this from a reluctant conviction of its impracticability. This is all tha information I am able to give, in answer to Mr. Smyth's enquiry. It is extremely superficial; but, perhaps, it may reach the, extent of his curiosity. E. Lydiatt.
London, Jan. 14, loll.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
THE amusement, if not the profit, .derived by many from the urce-ding and management of the silk-worm in England, has induced me, through tha medium of your much-circulated miscellany, to make known the best substitutes for mulberry-leaves.
In the year 1747, and following years, some curious particulars were published, respecting the breeding of silk-worms; I have read nothing which does not give the preference to mulberry-leaves, as their food; but should that foliage faij, Nature has still furnished a supply by the buds of the elm, lettuce-leaves, arid even . the leaves of poplar, oak, apple-tree, crab-tree, cherry, and plum-tree, bramble, dandelion, young nettles, &c. taking care to gather all your forage dry and clean.
Thus the important obstacle of your correspondent, "Pamphila," may possibly be wholly removed, as she admits that our climate is favorable to the breeding, but despairs of bringing them to any perfection, as far as relates to a sufficiency of food, or the manufacture of their silk. It seems that a gentleman, who was particularly curious in experiments on these worms, wound the silk with great facility on a card, after dipping the bottoms into warm water, mixed with a little spirit* of wine: the chrysalis, placed erect on the smallest end, in clean paper pans, afterwards assumed its new slats, as well