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practice has obtained, and that very ex. fully performed, cannot be considered as iensively, and for a length of time, of a reasonable service, or as acceptable forming congregations or assemblies, uns prayer. limited with respect to numbers, for the "Again. Prayer may be supposed 19 purpose of offering public addresses at express the real feelings of the heart, stated seasons, to this grealest and best when it is the consequence of a disposiof Beings. These addresses usually em. tion to pray; a frame of mind suitable to brace a great variety of subjects and prayer, arising from previous meditation, ideas, and are expressed either in extem. or peculiar circumstances. Public praypore or pre-composed language; either er, however, demands a fixed time, a in words enjoined by authority, or agreed certain day, or hour, for offering up ad. on by the congregation, or used at the dresses to heaven. . But surely it cannot discretion of the minister: and public be supposed, that religious allections are prayer, regularly and statediy performed, like bodily appetites, returning at stated has been, and continues to be, strongly seasons, or that piety, or devotion, can recommended as an universally impor- be regulated by the figures of a dial, or tant duty, from the press, and from the the tolling of a bell! If the repetition pulpit.
of certain words without meaning be " To reject without reason, a custom prayer, this indeed may be performed at sanctioned by venerable authority, would all times, and by all surts of persons ; be the extreme of rashness; to continue but if true worship, be what it is said to it without enquiry concerning its reason- be in the writings commonly esteemned ablevess, would be stupid servility. It sacred, the pouring out of the heart beis my design, in the present essay, to fore God, * the praying to him who attempt this enquiry with seriousness and seeth in secret,t the benefits to be decandour, and in as short a compass as rised from it must be connected with the magnitude of the subject will admit. solitude and retirement, and cannot be
w In the first place, it will be acknow. long to promiscuous aud heterogeneous Jedged to be the most important and assemblies. essential character of every verbal ad Once more. If prayer be the exdress to the Deity, that it be, as nearly as pression of juward feelings, it must ene possible, a perfect expression of the real gage the whole attention and employ the state of mind of those who use it. But whole miod. Now public worship muse it it can be shewn, that public prayer, either be performed according to a prefrom its very nature, is unsuitable to this composed form, or in the extempore lan "purpose, it will follow, that it is not guage of one of the assembly. If a perreasonable.
petually recurring form be made use of, ,“ Prayer, indeed, may well be sun. let the experience of those who have posed to possess this character, when it assisted at our' liturge worship for is the language of a single person, who, any length of time, determine, whether feeling his heart happily disposed for by frequent repetition it does not become communion with God, has entered into a mere simulacrum mane, an empty form, his closet, and shut the door. But devoid of spirit and of truths. Let the when we consider how various are the yawning and lolling attendants on the conditions, characters, views, senii. written or unwritten forms of our distalents, and feelings, of the several indie senters testify, wberber they have not viduals of a public assembly, it seems found the long prayer, hardly posible that any prayer, much - more tedious than a tale twice told, less any long prayer, can at the same Vexing the dull ear of a drowsy man.” tiine express the real feelings of the mi
« If 'the latter method, extempore nister, and of the majority, or even of
prayer, be adopted, the ability of that * any considerable number of his congrc
man must be very extraordinary, who, 'gaiion. If I make use of words which
while his own mind is directed to heaare prit into my mouth by another, or
ven, is able to pay so much attention to attend to words uttered by him, which
the selection and arrangement of his express lois feelings, but not mine, or
words, throughout a long service, as to those of neither of us, but of him who
avoid giving pain and disgust to his more originally composed them; this exercise,
calm and dispassionate heaters. So however ingeniously contrived, or grace
that though public prayer may in some * Matthew vi. 6.
Psalm lxii. 8. fully † Matthew vi. 6.
instances occupy the mind of the person person, together with the highest sides officiating, it can hardly in any cave en- and the largest fortune, the blood of gage the whole attention of the audience, the Beautoris and the Tudors, devoting or be properly - said to be the prayer of the latter part of his life to liberal and the congregation.
candid inquiries concerning religion anı! "Secondly. Public prayer cannot be politics, Let it be recollecied also to reasonable, because the consequence to his honour, that notwithstanding the be expected from it, in a moral view, many high offices filled by him, and the and in a certain degree, the actual effects extensive patronage he more than once of it are pernicious, of which I think it possessed, yet the siuke of Grafton never unnecessary at present to mention more secured to himself, his children; or ree than two instances. The one is, that latives, any place, pension, or reversion, the house of prayer ever has been, and whatsoever. from its nature must be, while it exists, In person, he was somewhat less than the nursery of hypocrisy, and the theatre the middle size, but leail, slender, and of ostentation,
active. His countenance greatly re, "In the retirement of the closet, there sembled that of his roval ancestor; and can be no dissembling. No man can be amidst the delirium of youth, of honours, so foolis! as to hope that he can deceive and of fortuna, he at one period miglie the Being, who is “acquainted with all have been thought to resemble hiin in his ways, and who understands bis some other respects. His manners were thoughts afar off'; and from every other agrecable, bis conversation replete with eye he is secluded."
information; and, as a parliamentary Part II. is entitled, “On Religious Orator, he possessed a most solemn and Instruction," and it is there maintained, inpressive tone, voice, and gesticulation, that the best way of securing the opening In point of dress he was remarkable. mind froin false impressions, "is to pre- His coat was of the colour and cur occupy it with just views and virtuous of those usually appropriated to the habits.” He condemns almost all yo. Quakers; and he was accustunce to vernments, for baving hilberto interfered wear a cocked hat, which yare an air of with the sacred right of education; and ancient and obsolete gentility to his parents are supposed to be most proper, whole person. Oilale years, he addicted and host filled to instil précepts of 10). himself greatly to agriculture, and that rality into the youthful minds of their too on an extensive scale; and, if He are own offspring. After remarking that, to tu give credit to Mr. Arthur Young, was the " tyranny of priests we are indebied a most excellent farmer. This is no for the slow progress of truth in religion, small praise; but be posses: ed a vitle to in philosophy, and in civil government, something far superior--that of being an we find a fine eulogium on the invention honest man. of printing, which is considered the no- His Grace, who died March 11, 1811, blest of the mechanic arts;" and, from its is succeeded in his honours and entailed extension, much yood, both in a religious estates, by George Henry Fitzroy, earl of and moral point of view, is predicted, Luston, and now duke of Grafion, &c.
In Part Ill. The anhor treats of Xc. This nobleman was born in 1760, a christianity as a supernatural comina- and educated at Trinity-college, Cainnication," and seeins to think, that it is bridge, where he obtained the degrce not the miracles which are most wonder. of M.A. His lordship afterwards repre. ful, but that the perfection of the doc- sented the university in parliament, trine is "the graod miracle of all," having been returned with Mr. Pitt, for • We confess it is with some pleasure his colleague, in 1781. In the course we have beheld a descendant of the house of the same year, he married Charlotte of Stuart, who might be addressed with. Maria, the daughter of the late earl of out flattery, as
Walriegrave, by her royal highness the “Mzcenas atavis edite regibus;" laie duchess of Gloucester, by whom he and a man who also united in his own has a numerous issue.
SCARCE TRACTS, WITH EXTRACTS AND ANALYSES OF
It is proposed in future to decote a few Pages of the Monthly Magazine to the
Insertion of such Scarce Tracts as are of an interesting Nature, with the Use of which we may be favoured by our Correspondents; and under the same Head to introduce also the Analyses of Scurce and Curious Books. .
k Ahab, the Son of Amri, did coil in the gland for the French Protestant princes,
sight of the Lord above all that were how that “the Bible had sent more * before him." 1 Kings xvi. 30.
men to hell than any other book ever THIS extract is ihe political part of did;" by which means the aforesaid Pro
1 an old sermon without date, au. testant divine, Monsieur de Boisloire, thor, or title-page, called Ahab's Curse. turned Roman-catholic, after he had
“ It hath been a custom among us for fifty years professed the Protestant remany years, arising from I know not ligion. whence, upon mention of deceased “At another time at Theobald's, when princes, to use the expression of blessed all the godly divines (then called Puri. memory;' I shall therefore reflect back tans) had presented their petition to upon the lives of some of our kings, that king James for the change of church we may see how many of them deserved government, he then, kneeling on the the memory of “blessed.' Aud first, for ground, and lifting up his hands towards
“King James I. He came to the crown heaven, desired God to curse bim and of Great Britain in the year 1602, whose all his bearns, if he did not do it, I father we find it difficult to give you any shall make mention but of one more, account of. What I have read of him which is that dreadful curse used by bim was this, that Mary queen of Scotland, in his charge to his judges, upon the being a lusty young widow, marries the examination of the murder of sir Thomas lord Daruly, at which time she had for a Overbury, as followeth: reserve, in great favour, an Italian fiddler, “ My lords, I charge you, as you will and Botliwell, a Scoich lord. After answer it at that great and terrible day marriage, the queen proves with child; of judginent, that you examine it strictly the king, her husband, that was lord without favour, affection, or partiality, Darnly, (enraged by some information) and if you shall spare any guilty of this comes into the room when the queen crime, God's curse light upon you and his wife was 'at supper, and very big, your posterity; and if I shall spare any dragsthe Italian fiddler into another rooin, 'that are found guilty, God's curse light and murdered him. The queen was 'on me and iny posterity for ever.' Ac. shortly after delivered of a son, which cordingly, seven persons were by the 'was our king James. The solemnity judges condemned to die for that murder. being ended, she and Bothwell murdered Four of the least account were executed; the king, her husband; the queen mar. and, notwithstanding the curse, the three ries Bothwell, and all in a moment of great ones the king pardoned, and to time, but they were both lain to fly, Somerset himself he was profusely libethe queen into England, where she lost ral all bis days. Now how far this curse her head, Bothwell into Deumark, and was eniajled, the reader may judge by there he dies in prison; and as for his the sequel: however, this absolute prince, supposed father, he was strangled in his after he had rid and gauled the necks of bed by the consent of his inother, and his people for about twenty-two years, flung out into a garden.
was, by the help of a plaister and powder “ However he was king, let who will be from the duke of Buckingham, as it was his father or mother, and although this thought, laid into a deep sleep. Things king was naturally fearful (which kept thus considered, it must be said that him from blood and slaughter), yet was James, as well as Ahab, did evil in the bis government tyrannical and arbitrary, sight of the Lord. and a great hater of parliaments. Story ." After him, in the year 1625, succeedtells us that he was a great blasphemer, ed his son, Charles I. That most stubborn and would swear faster than speak. Res prince. History gives us a large account markable was the blasphemous expres of his reign and government, which saith, sion of his to sir George Keare, one of His parliaments he dissolved for their his gentleman ushers, in the hearing of reasonable motions, and rather than he Alunsieur de Boisloire, then residing in En- would be beholden to them, he pawns his crown and jewels in the Low Coun- the liberties of the kingdom were buried tries, which, with the revenues of the together with the interment of all parcrown, was soon consumed by the prodi. liaments; in which time the king raises gality of the court; and being resolved money without the leave of his subjects, for an arbitrary government, he consults and against the known laws of the kinga new ministry, sir James Lay, newly. dom, with that rigour, as if an act bad made earl of Marlborough, Weston, lord passed for the same purpose; the mere treasurer, and Cottington (all new men of chants were oppressed, and great impo. very small beginnings), fic persons to be sitions were laid upon thread; vast suing employed in his arbitrary designs, which of money were raised upon the law of was, to raise money without the consent knighthood, with projects of all kinds, of parliament. The farmers of the cus- many ridiculous, many scandalous, and toms he compels to answer his demands; all very grievous: and yet such was his the city of Salisbury is pressed with a indigency, that he borrowed of all the Joun of 10001. the city of Bristol with principal gentlement wherever he came. 30001, which, by some aldermen of the But, though he borrowed, yet he paid it city was denied, for which they were not again. Delinquents were proiected laid by the heels until the king had the and encouraged; and, though Dr. Mau. money. Several of St. Clement's Danes, waring's books were suppressed by prothe Sayoy, the Duchy, and other parts clamation, and himself disabled by rewithin the Liberty of Westminster, for sistance, yet was he pardoned and prerefusing to subscribe the loan, were im- ferred to a good living. Archbishop Abo pressed to serve in the king's ships; bot was sequestered from his office, for many of great rank were committed to refusing to silcoce Dr. Sibthorp's serprison, and the meaner sort were enlisted mon, and his soldiers committed great for soldiers. Sir. P. Hayman, for re- outrages, without redress. fusing the loan, was sent into the king's And now was the state of the Protes. service; yet all this served not to defray tant religion reduced to the worst step his court expences, and therefore another of the conformity of Rome; for masses parliament was thought fit to be sum- and mass priests were not only permitted moned in the year 1626, which was no in the face of the court, but throughout sooner done, but the house of commons the kingdom; not only in a tacit concharge the duke of Buckingham with the nivance, but in an open way of toleradeath of king James, his father; but the tion. It was also this pious and blessed king, as it is thought, being too sensible martyr, that published a declaration for of that matter, to make all sure, sends to prophaning the Lord's Day, by spoils and prison sir Dudley Diggs, and sir John pastimes. You may then judge what a Elliott, the chief managers thereof, Protestant be was, not only by this, but when proofs and examinations were all his cabinet letters at Nasehy; his heartiready, and then in a great rage dissolves ness to the Protestants of Rochel, and the parliament, saying with a stern com that massacre in Ireland, in the year portment, as he was disrobing himself, 1640, in which two hundred thousand * that it should be the last time that ever souls were cut off : why should he be so he would put them on." See the natu- pitiful and solicitous to have those Irish ral obstinacy of this most unhappy prince, rebels spared, if he were not conscious who, in despight of the justice of the that no man was more guilty than him, parliament, would not suffer so much as self. his own father's death to be called to an The king having thus far waded in account; yet did the Lord, in his own the depth of his arbitrary strains, squeez. zime, bring to judgment that crying sining his subjects as long as there was any of blood; for that justice that the king thing to come, is at length, by bis own denied, God sent by the hand of John extremity, and the importunities of the Felton, who stabbed this duke at Ports- people, prevailed upon, after ten or twelve mouth with a ten-penny knife, that he years, to call another parliament; and instantly gave up the ghost with these this his last parliament was suinmoned words, Gods wounds! I am slain, from York, November 3, 1640, and sat
"And so absolute was this prince, that down at Westminster; but the king, perhe published a proclamation prohibiting ceiving them to fly high at bis chief mig the people, so much as to talk of another nisters and work-masters of his former parliument, the which was punctually ob- arbitrary projects, for high misdemeaBerved for ten years together; insomuch, nours, (to cross the parliament) defends that all wise men then conjectured, chat and protects them, and witbal takes an occasion against five of the members of roads, the streets, and houses, ringing the house, Mr. Pym, Mr. Hampden, with damines, and strange new-invented Mr. Hallis, Mr. Stroud, and sir Arthur blaspheinies; obscene discourses every Haslerige. Those he sends his warrant where abounding, which could not other. for, but upon secret nouce they got out wise be expected, when we had so great of the bouse. The next day, being the a person for our pattern; for, like prince, 41h of January, the king coines atier a like people, regis ad exemplum, &c. pe Om hoolile manner and enters the house, ple dress themselves by the lovking-glass attended with his guards and three hune of their prince. dred arined cavaliers, most of them of New were their plots of all kinds, liy desperate forlorn fortunes, to the great which iany a brave man was cut oti; surprise of the parliament; but, finding and bloc:ly designs against llolland, hiinself disappointed in his expectations, though all die while in league with them; alter sume sercie threats, departs, and all plans, civil, military, and ecclesias. within a few days leaves his court and tical, were filled up with men of proparliament; and, notwithstanding the phane lives. He was an hypocrite, a many entreaties for his return, he cone covenant-breaker, and a bloody pertinued his residence at York, where he secutor. Historians say, tbat, upon thie set up. his standard against his parlia- restoration of this king, certain dissenting ment, arraying the poor people against ministers were sent over to Ilolland, themselves, to the slaughter of many among which was the Rev, Mr. Case, hundreds of thousands of poor innocent who, coming to the king's lodging, and souls, merely to satisfy the lust and plea- desirwg to be admitted into his presence, sure of a wilful stubborn king, a strange were led into a chamber next his closet, passion in this prince, when no power and told withal, that the king was busy will contenų him but that of absoluteness at his devotions, and they must stay unul to be master over the lives and fortunes he had done; and, being thus lelt alone, of bis subjects, but this at last proved his and hearing a sound of groaning piety, own overtbrow. For after eight years' Mr. Case steps to the closet-door, wliere wars with his parliament, in the year he hears the king pray thus: “Lord, 1048, he was iaken, arraigned, come since thou art pleased to restore me to demned, and beheaded at his own door; the throne of my ancestors, grani nie a the same place where the first blood was heart constant in the exercise and prospilt by luis own servants, the cavaliers; tection of thy true Proltstant religion, and those ivo tools, the earl of Stafford Never may I seek ihe oppression of those, and the archbishop of Canterbury, were who out of tenderness of conscience are loth dooined 10 the block, as being trai. not free to contorm to outward and infyrs to their country. , I have only this different ceremonies;" with a great deal to say, if I may believe history, that this more to the same purpose ; at which Mr. king was a man more beloved, honoured, Case was exceedingly trausported, and and obeyed, than any of our kings before with eyes and hands lifted up, tells the him; and yet a prince that raised and rest of his brethren, that they had gotten wasted more treasures, wilfully spilt an angel of a king. All this was done more innocent blood, divested more the in hypocrisy, as appeared by his carriage lands and babitations of his subjects, afterwards; for, notwithstauding that ruined more families, and more em, covenant that he made with them, be broiled this gallant nation, than any since turned out two thousand godly ministers the coming in of the Norunan race; and of their churches, on the day commonly yet he lived a saint, and dyed a martyr; called “Black Bartholomew;" alter aud, (if you please) of blessed memory, which, what severe and cruel laws were
The next to this was Charles II, or there executed against them, breaking the Royal C- y, who began his reign open their doors, rilling their bouses, in the year 16 18. And now comes in seizing iheir estates, casting the into the devil and all his works; for here's a filthy prisons, where, by close confineman given to luxury and uncleanness, as meni, multitudes of them perished: inaug unany living witnesses can testify. With were convicted without hearing, or jury, this prince entered a flood of debauchery, and some were put w death for their Diheism, and all manner of prophane. conscience sake; the meeting. Houses puss; the land with oveitlown in all parts were shut up, while the b y los wird quarreling, fignung, swearing, cur were open, sing, drunkenness, and w boredoiui tlię Sud, and dissenuing ministers were