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"Gale MSS." See Mr. Gough's Camden, vol. 4, page 107. It is also stated by a late author, " that the Caledonians Were merely the inhabitants of the CeydtUm, the Coverts, or the Woodlands. The Picti, Pithi, or Peithwi, &c. (for »o it is •aid the name denotes,) were the people of the open country.? Now the old names of places describe the chief feature* of the lands; but CUiledon, rendered •woods, distinguishes not the chief features of the country i and therefore the Woodlands cannot be a translation. Id like manner Pight, rendered the open country, marks no chief feature of such country, and is therefore no interpretation. A great part of the globe is allowed to have been formerly covered with woods ;tbey were the clothing of the hills, valleys, and plains; but they were neither the hills, valleys, nor plains; and, being the attendants on these parts of nature, which were subject in all ages to removal, they were wisely omitted by those who originally gnve names. I will say nothing of the open country; in our times, to avoid research, every chiming word has been adopted. On the derivation in Camden, from hard, or hards, and cold, or colds, I will be silent.
■ A. B.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
WANT of access to books and literary persons, occasions me to trouble vou with the following inquiries. For an answer to them, I should be much obliged to any one of your correspondents who has the ability and inclination to give me the desired information. With a just sense of the liberal and impartial spirit which distinguishes your Magazine. *"•
March 4th, 1811.
In Beausobre's History of the Reformation, reference is frequently made to some remarka which it was evidently in the author's contemplation to affix lo that work. £>u. Were they ever printed, and, if they were, have they found their way into this coentry?
Dr. Currie (Works of R. Burns, vol. n. 176, «d edition) speaks of «' the beautiful Story of the Paria," as being translated in the J?« of Dr. Anderson. Qu. In what volume of the Bee It this translation printed?
Dr. S Johnson, in his Life of Hope, (Murphy'i edition of Johnson'* works vol. xi.
term therefore implies the hills: the T in Chile, ii used fo •»»">» to tlw ma* «f the word.
132,) says, that the "Memoirs of SaiUerus," contain "particular imitations of the History of Mr. Ouffle." £"• What is the nature, and who was the writer, of "the History of Mr. Ouffle;" and are copres of >tt» be purchased?
Tb the Editor qf the Monthly Magazine.
9IR> ,• r
AMONGST the Proceedings of Learned Societies in your Number for the month of February, 1809> vou have very correctly stated a communication of mine to the Royal Society,
T'*- ■ r
"In every plane triangle the sorn of the three natural tangents of the three angles, multiplied by the square of the radius, is equal to the continued product of the three tangents.
But in the succeeding Number, for the month o( March, a correspondent, who Signs himself Mathematicus, says, "The discovery of this property does not belong to Mr. Garrard, for you will find it in page 38 of the mathematical part of the Ladies' Diary for the year 1797, in an answer to a trifling question.
Now, Sir, I would wish you to insert thi» for the information of your correspondent, as well as for my own vindication.
The property of tangents, which I have communicated to the Royal Society, is « general property of an unlimited radius, whilst that which n inferred by the correspondent to the Ladies* Diary, is confined to the question proposed, where the given radius is unity. Also I have farther to observe, that the property there used is a postulate, drawn from my original proposition in the second Number of the Scientific Receptacle, in the year 1792, which Mathematicus may see if he apply to G-nle and Curtis, in Paternoster-row, and then I trust he will ndmit that the disco
very of the properly does belong to me.
Royal Naval Asyhtm.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
THE Smithfield Club, of whose prizes for the best cattle you have annually given an account in your Magazine,* at present consists of 277 members, of whom there are twenty peers, seven baronets and knights, and.tbirwen members of the House of Commons; the remainder
* See a similar account last year, vul.SJtU. p. 106.
MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
■Some Accocmef" the Life, Character, •mfopiMOKs, of the late Aucustus
'HENRI FITZROY, DUKE of GRAFTON,
*N"*utR of Vfldttlcbury-foresl, his
Aj-ijesty's GAME-KEEPER at NeiCOiar. ket, High-steward of Dartmouth, n Governor of the Charter-house,
a MEMBER of the PRIVY COUNCIL, ANIGHT of the GARTER, CHANCELLOR
vf the University of Cambridge, Recorder of Thttford and Coventry, Covernor of the Forts in Cornwall and Devonshire, Receiver-general of the Profits of the Seals of the Kino's Bench and Common Pleas, also vj the PRISAGE of WINES, &c.
"Vni ctuippe vacat, studiis odiltque careati, •• Humanum lugere geniis." LucJb.
THE dukes of Grafton, like those of Richmond and St. Albans, are descended from the royal family of Stunrt; and like these have attained the highest honours in the state. The female ancestor of'the Fitzroys was fSarbara, daughter and heir of William Vifliers, Viscount Grandison. This lady had bee* married a little before the Restoration, to Mr. Roger Palmer, then a student in the Temple, who, desisting from his legal pursuits, and being of a very compliant disposition, was raised to the honours of the Irish peerage, having keen created earl of Castlemaine, in the 13th of Charles II. Having put herself under the protection of this gay, dissipated, and luxurious, monarch, the countess of Castlemaine, in 1670, was created Baroness of Nonsuch, in Survey, countess of Southampton, in the county of Hants, and duchess of Cleveland, during her own natural life.* By this lady tie had a son, Charles, born September 28, 1663, to whom His Majesty very aptly gave the name of Filzroy. Respecting the precise date of the subject of this memoir, there is some difference m the Modern Peerages; according to Collins, he was born in October, and, if we are to credit Edmonson, on September 28, 1736. While Mr. Fitzroy, he was placed at Hackney, under
* Soon after the demise of the earl of Castlemaine, in 1705, the duchess of Cleveland married the "handsome Fielding," against whom she was obliged to demand the protection of the laws. See the English edit, of the Memoirs of the Count de Cramaunt
the tuition of the late Dr. Newcombe, who had attained considerable eminence for his skill and attention in thi. edu. cation of youth. Alter remaining some time there, lie was entered of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, where lie did not however take a degree; having gone into the world very early in life, and engaged earnestly, and perhaps prematurely, m public affairs. In 1756, when just of age, Mr. Fitzroy was appointed a lord of the bedchamber to his present ma* jesty while prince of Wales; and, in the course of the same year, he was elected a member of parliament, first for Boroughhridge, Yorkshire, in the room of the earl of Harrington, and "hen for St. Edmuudsbury, in Suffolk, in the place of the first earl of Alans* field, which latter he retained while a commoner. This was not inug be. fore his grandfathers' death, in May 1757, when he succeeded to all the family honours and estates. His Grace, after a short trip to the continent, was now destined to run through the career of public employments. On July lO, 1765, he was appointed qne of his majesty's principal secretaries of state,which office lie resigned in May, 1766, and, in August following, he was nominated first lord of the treasury, which post lie abdicated January 28, 1770. On June 12, 1771, he was chosen lord privy seal, in winch department be continued until November, 1775; and in 1782, he was restored to the seme office.
Notwithstanding their near alliance to the house of Stuart, it is not a little singular that the Fitzrnys have uniformly; been connected with, and attached to, that party denominated Whigs, the basis of whose conduct either has been, or pre* tended to be, the establishment and continuance of the ho use of Hanover, on one hand, on tlie throne of these realms, and the ascertaining, preserving, and extending, the liberties of the people, on the other. Accordingly, when Mr. Filzroy was of age to sit as a member of' the legislature, he acted with what was then termed "the country party" in one bouse: and after his Majesty's accession, joined that great, popular, and dignified, body; in the other, called at that day the Minority, which then consisted of some of the hrst and most opulent families in England. Oneof the chief objects of their association wa» to diminish the supposed
influence of the earl of Bute, usually tienominated "the Northern Thane," and the *' favourite;" another to support the constitution in ail its integrity. On the dismission, or rather the voluntary retreat, of the nobleman just alluded to, his Grace accepted of the seals, underthe patronage of the duke of Cumberland. On this occasion lie hoped for the support or the carl of Chatham; but finding that this great patriot was averse to the measures of the court, and ml accustomed to observe enigmatically "that there was something behind the throne, greater than the throne itself," be soon after resigned. The arrangements for the next administration were all made by that eloquent nobleman; and it is no small proof of the high opinion in which he held the duke of Grafton, that to the latter was ■.-signed the post of first commissioner of the treasury, which, in consequence of the increasing infirmities of tlie earl, became, in fact, that of prime minister.
During tilts period, Mr. Wilkes began to make a noise, and was the first private individual who, by securing popularity with the nation, was enabled to cope, first with the ministers, MO, finally, in some measure, with the throne itself. Thinking himself slighted by the duke of Gratton, with whom he had formerly lived in some degree of intimacy, he boldly attacked both him and the noble earl his colleague, as " tools of lord Bute." This circumstance, ridiculous as it may appear, proved unfavourable to this administration, and hurt their influence not a little; for the author of the North Briton was now in the zenith of his popularity, and succeeded in all the objects of his ambition, becoming, in turn, knight of the shire for the county of Middlesex, sheritl.alderman, and lordmayor, of the city of London; and, finally, he obtained the lucrative office of chamberlain.
But a writer of still greater talents and reputation now appeared, and directed his keen, powerful, and envenomed,shafts against the minister. This was the still celebrated, although still unknown, author of the Letters of " Junius," who commenced his labours in the Public Advertiser, January 21, 1769, by a pointed Bttnck on the ministers of that day. "Without much political sagacity, or any extraordinary depth of observation," says he, " we need only mark how the principal departments of the state are bestowed, and look no further for the true cause of every mischief that hcfals us. Xhe finances of a nation, linking under
its debts and expenses, are committed to a young nobleman, already ruined by play. Introduced to act under tlio auspices of lord Chatham, and left at the head of affairs by that nobleman's retreat, he became minister by accident; but, deserting the principles and profess sions which gave him a moment's popularity, we see him, from every honourable engagement to the public, ait apostate by design. As for business, the world yet knows nothing of his talent* or resolution; unless a wayward wavering inconsistency be a mark of genius, and caprice a demonstration of spirit."
After Junius had tried the temper of his maiden sword on sir William Draper, and found it proof, lie addressed himself directly to the duke of Grafton, relative to the * pardon granted bv His Majesty, March 11, 1769, to M'Quirk, for the murder of George Clarke, at Brentford. In letter 11 he reproaches His Grace, during the time of mobs and tumults, for indulging himself, " while prime minister of Great Britain, in rural retirement, and iu the arms of faded beauty, losing all memory of his sovereign, bis country, and himself." In letter 12 he bitterly remarks as follows: "You have better proofs of your descent, my lord, than the register of a marriage, or any troublesome inheritance of reputation. There are some hereditary strokes of character, by which a family may be as clearly distinguished as by the blackest features of the human face. Charles the First lived and died a hypocrite. Charles the Second was a hypocrite of another sort, and should have died upon the same scaffold. At the distance of a century, we see their different characters happily revived and blended in Your Grace. Sullen and severe without religion, profligate without gaiety, you live like Charles the Second, without being ah amiable companion; and, for aught I know, may die as his father did, with* out the reputation of a martyr.
"You had already taken your degrees with credit, in those schools in which the English nobility Are formed to virtue, when you were introduced to lord Chatham's protection. From Newmarket, White's, and the Opposition, he gave you to the world with an air of popularity which young men usually set oat with, and seldom preserve; grave and plausible enough to be thought fit for
* The earl of Rochford wa« secretary of state for the home department, and wat therefore the responsible oihcer.
businett; business; too young for treachery, and, in short, a patriot of no unpromising expectations. Lord Chatham was the •arhest object of your political wonder •lid attachment; yet you deserted him, upon the first hopes that offered, of an equal share of power with lord Rockingham. When the late duke of Cumberland's first uegociation failed, and when the favourite was pushed to the last extremity, you saved him by joining with en administration in which lord Chatbam refused to engage. Still, however, he was your friend: and you are yet to explain to the world, why you consented to act without him; or why, after uniting with lord Rockingham, you deserted and betrayed him. You complained that no measures were taken to satisfy your patron; and that your friend, Mr.Wilkes, who had suffered so much for the party, had been abandoned to his fate. They have since contributed not a little to your present plenitude of power: yet, I think, lord Chatham has less reason than ever to be satisfied: and, as for Mr. Wilkes, it is, perhaps, the greatest misfortune of liis life, that you should have so many compensations to make in the closet for your former friendship with him. Your gracious master understands your character, and makes you a persecutor, because you have been a friend."
The whole of this passage consists of bold invective, and elogant declamation. When this celebrated writer condescended to state facts, he was completely foiled, particularly when he attacked the duke of Grafton for misconduct, As hereditary ranger of Whittlebury-forest. An author, who many years after that period held some communication with the late Mr. John Pitt, at that time surveyorgeneral of the king's woods, writes thus:
"The timber in Wrhittlebury-forest is undoubtedly vested in the crown, and the right of felling it has repeatedly been exercised. The right to the underwood is as clearly vested in the duke of Grafton, as that of the herbage at the proper .periods in the vicinage. In the attempt, alluded to by Junius, to cut down the timber, the deputy-surveyor was stopped by an order from the treasury; because the felling of the timber at that time, would have destroyed all tlte underwood, which would of course have been a great injury to private property; and would likewise have deprived the neighbourhood of the right of commonage for nine or ten years. The timber was no longer withheld from the public service than
was absolutely necessary. It had been preserved for that purpose, with an attention and an integrity perhaps not equalled in any of the other royal forest*. At the proper period (about nine or ten years nfter), the timber was felled, as each coppice came in the course of cutting, according to the rule of the practice all over England. The surveyor-general's report made in the year 1776, of the state of the inclosures in His Majesty's forests, is a confirmation of the care taken by the duke of the timber for the public service."*
It must be frankly allowed, however, that the administration of the duke of Grafton, if not unfortunate, was assuredly unpopular; and, without popularity, no minister in a limited monarchy is capable of filling his office in such a way as either to give satisfaction to the country, or be enabled to serve it with due effect. It has been said, that His Grace was fairly vritttn down by the joint efforts of Wilkes and Junius; but this is not correct. In the first place, he was no longer supported by the earl of Chatham, who even in his declining age exhibited gigantic powers; and, after he had censed to wield the thunder of the state, smote all around him by the flashes of his eloquence. On the retreat of tbst nobleman, lord Camden, whose talents and integrity had secured the esteem of •the nation, happened to differ in marry essential points with the premier, ami was therefore suffered to withdraw also. A new chancellor was therefore to be found, and Mr. Yorke, who had acted with high reputation as attorney-general, died suddenly, in the month of January 1770. On this the duke of Grafton, finding himself bereft of all aid, immediately resigned, and appeared to withdraw for ever from the bustle of politics to the comforts of domestic privacy.
This, however, was not long the case; for, in about eighteen months after, (June 1771,) on the removal of lord Suffolk to the office of secretary of state, His Grace succeeded him as lord privy seal. In this office be remained until the month of November 1775. His resignation, or perhaps more properly speak, ing, his dismission, reflects high honour on the subject of the present memoir, as it proceeded from an unequivocal avowal of those generous sentiments which must ~— . ■
* Biographical, literary, and political, Anecdotes of several of the most eminent Persons ef the present Age. 1797,