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7. Do not wear other spectacles than ries into the origin of thes cappellations your own, to which your eyes have ac. had exercised the pens of authors of all commodated themselves.

ages; and it will hereafter be scarcely SPECTACLES ARE NECESSARY, - credited, that men had at length sup1. When we are obliged to remove posed these names to be impenetrable small objects to an increased distance mysteries. In my last, I hinted that from the eye, to see them distinctly; Scotland, like all other parts of Great

2. When we find it necessary to have Britain, was a name given from situamore light than formerly; as, for instance, tion. I will now trace this name, and when we find ourselves placing the can. the word Pict, from their source. dle between the eye and the object;

The name Scotland is unknown in im3. Wben, on looking at and attentively port, and it has been stated that Amconsidering a near object, it becomes mianus Marcellinus, who wrote in the confused, and appears to have a kind of. 4th century, is the first historian who pist before it;

mentions the Scots." “ But St. Jerony, 4. When the letters of a book' run into in his epistle against Ctesiphon the Pelaone another, and become double and gian, has given a much more ancient treble;

passage, which he translated out of Pore 5. When the eyes are so fatigued by a phyry, who wrote an age before Ammialittle exercise, that we are obliged to shut nus, to wit,“ Neither. Britain, a province them from time to time, and to relieve fertile in tyrants, nor the Scottish nations, them by looking at different objects. ; nor the barbarous nations round abous

Then ic will be prudent and necessary to the very ocean, did ever acknowledge to set aside all prudery; honestly con- Moses and the Prophets." fess that age is creeping upon us; that . The word Spain is in Spanish Espana; our eyes are an unerring warning; and I have sbewed its derivation. The syl without coquetry, or apology, ask the Table Es being pronounced like the letter óptician for a pair of spectacles. - S, the E is dropped in our spelling of

For those who live at a distance from Spain. Scodra, a city of Albania, is now large cities, the following modes of calcu- called by the Turks Escodar, and by the lating the focus of glasses will prove useful. Italians Scutari. Scutari, also oppo

Rule for calculating the Focus of Con- site Constantinople, is called by the nex Glasses.--Multiply the distance at Turks Iscodar. The import of each of which a person sees distinctly, by the these names may be traced from Is wadistance at which he wishes to see, and ter, Cot, or Cod, an hill, and Ar border. divide the product by the difference be. The same may be said of the letter Sin tween the said distances; the quotient is Scotland, which is written with an E the desired focus.

before it by foreigners. The Es then ir Rule for Concuve Glasses to read and Escotia, being the same as the Es in Es. write, for a near-sighted Person.Multi pana, &c. will imply water; Cot, or Cote, ply the greatest distance at which the is a French word for a coast, rising short-sighted sees distinctly with his ground, or hill, From the name Cot, or naked eye, by the distance at which it is Cote, hill, in Cumberland, this name required, he should see distinctly by a must early have obtained in Englands soncave glass, and divide che product by Escotia, or Scotland, will therefore imply the difference between the said distances. the Water, Hill, or High Land. Should If it is to see remote objects, the focus it, however, be supposed that the letter should be the saine as that required for S, in this word, is used as Dr. Harris on the distance of distinct vision. in Isaiah supposes, and which I have men

The preceding observations are va tioned in a former letter, then Scotland durable just in proportion in the value of will only imply the Hillor High Land; and sight, and to the pleasure of seeing diso this exactly agrees with the old term tinctly and without pain.

• Caledonia, and shews that new names Feb. 19, 1811. COMMON SENSE. are translations of older ones. The word

Scuite has been supposed the etymon To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. from whence Scot was derived; but, as all The SIR,

countries are named from their features

and lands were all settled by wanderers, IN your two last Magazines, I have nothing but ignorance of the subject will I given derivations of the naines Celli, account for authors adopting this ehiming Cymbri, and of some countries which gave and inapplicable etymon for Scotland in denominations to these people. Ewqui particular.

. . Tlie

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• The Picti, or Pictæ, have been said to head or point land. The Picts were
come originally from Scythia, and to therefore the Point-landers, or dwellers
have received this name from painting on the borders and projecting corners of
their bodies with different colours, to ap- Scotland.
pear inore terrible to their enemies. But leaving assertions on the power of
colony of these is reported by Servius, letters, let ine give a inore probable
the commentator on Virgil, to have emi. account of their meanings. The word
grated to Scotland, where they still pre- Aighe, is hill; it is often changed to
serve their name and savage manners. eighe, or ey, and to ee in pronunciation:
That the Picts painted their bodies, I will with the prefix B, there is in Devon a
Hot dispute, although I will shew that sharp hill named Bee-tor. The letter B
they took not their name from this cir- [Bee] being then in pronunciation a
cumstance, nor from being emigrants name for hill, becomes, with a root for
from Scythia; but, that like all other pro- land, often a name for hill land, as in
vinces or portions of this island, their Binn, an hill; in which the root In, or
name is derived from tbe features of Inn, means land only. And, as Band P
their lands which they inhabited. were used for each other, P also was the
• The Isle of Wight, of which so much pronunciation of a word for bill; and
bas been unskilfully said on its derivation, therefore Pinn, Pin, or Pen, meant the
was called Ictis, Mictis, and Victis, in same as Binn, or Bin. In like manner
which the ending in is, is likely to be a the letter D (or Dee,) with En, land,
diminutive, although it may unply water, varied to Un, becomes a name for hill
The root of the first syllable of these land, in Dee-un, which is written Dune.
names, as well as that of Fich, Bick, So also C, (or Cee,) which is called Col in
Crick, and Toick, is Ic; and these all the Gaelic, with en, varied to un, land,
mean border-land, or land: Victis, Mic. becomes Cee-an, or Ceann, a Head Land.
tis, and Ictis, will therefore imply the lite If we suppose an to imply water, then
the land. The syllables Ic, Vic, and Ceann will be the Water Flead. But
Mie, took a T to strengthen their sound, enough for the present on the meanings
in the same manner as the Gaelic word of prefixes.
Direach, straight, takes a T in the Eng. There is no doubt that many letters
lish word Direct, Wight comes from are prefixed to words without giving any
Vicht, or Wicht. For, as G and C are variation or addition to their ineanings:
convertible, Wickl and Wight are the thus Ann is called Nan. Sometiines
Saine. . .

also the same letter, prefixed to the same
• In like manner, the word Pict is writ. word, conveys a different meaning. I
ten Pight in Pight-land, otherwise named will here instance the word Dun, which
Pent-lund, the northernmost corner of may mean land only, but which is often
Scotland: the H being dropped, which used for hill land: I think, however, in
is disused in many other words, becomes this case it should always he written
Pigt, and this, by the change of G to C, Dune, to make a proper distinction.-But
was written Pict: and hence Pighit-land to return.
was also called Pict-land.

* A few plains, of no great extent, are I most here observe, that P is called said to be found on the coast of Scotland, convexity and prominence by writers from- whence the ground rises to great on the power of letters, as in Pic, Peac, heights, or heads, in the middle of the or Peake; and hence P prefixed to En, kingdom. Col, or Cal, then the head land, will become Pen, Head or Point or hill, Don, land, and Ia, territory, Land. In like manner, Pight, Pigt, or were appropriate terms for this Heud, Pict, having for its root Ic, may be writ- Hill, or High-land Territory. The Cale: ten Pie, Peac, or Peake, a Head, or donii were therefore the High.landers, as Point Land. Pic also, to strengthen the I have already shewn. On the contrary, syllable, takes a T in Pict, as direach did however, it is asserted in Camden that, in direct. The word Peu also becomes from the plural of Cald, hard, or CalcPent in Perk-land, which implies Point- don, this paige is derived. And in a land. Pic and Pen, or Pict and Pent, * note“ Kalt, or Kelt," is defined “Cold." then will imply the same, and each mean And the word Chiltern*" fullows froin

« Gale

. . A more formal proof might be given, if required. See Lloyd's Archæologia on the head of D and T following N,

• Children is often pronounced Childern. Ern is therefore a plural ending : from my last letters Cel and Cil, or Cbil, is hill. Crib.

" Gale MSS." See Mr. Gough's Cam- 132,) says, that the “ Memoirs of Scrible. den, vol. 4, page 107. It is also stated rus," contain " particular imitations of the by a late author, " that the Caledonians History of Mr. Ouffle." Qu. What is the were merely the inhabitants of the Ceyd- nature, and who was the writer, of “ the don, the Coverts, or the Woodlands. The

* History of Mr. Ouffle;" and are copies of it to Picti, Pithi, or Peithwi, &c. (for so it is be purchasco

is be purchased ? said the name denotes,) were the people in

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of the open country. Now the old

SIR, names of places describe the chief features

AMONGST the Proceedings of of the lands; but Caledon, rendered


Learned Societies in your Numwoods, distinguishes not the chief fea

ber for the month of February, 1809, tures of the country; and therefore the

you have very correctly stated a commu: Woodlands cannot be a translation. In like manner Pight, rendered the open.

nication of mine to the Royal Society,

viz. country, marks no chief feature of such

“ In every plane triangle the sum of country, and is therefore no interprei

Pre the three natural tangents of the three tation. A great part of the globe is allowed to have been formerly covered

angles, multiplied by the square of the

radius, is equal to the continued product with woods; they were the clothing of the

of the three tangents. bills, valleys, and plains; but they were

But in the succeeding Number, for neither the hills, valleys, bor plains; and, the month of March, a correspondent, being the attendants on these parts of

who signs himself Mathematicus, says, nature, which were subject in all ages to *T

all ages to * The Discovery of this property does removal, they were wisely omitted by

not belong to Mr. Garrard, for you will those who originally gave names. I will

find it in page 38 of the mathematical say nothing of the open country; in our

part of the Ladies' Diary for the year times, to avoid research, every chiming

1797, in an answer to a trifling question. word has been adopted. On the deri

Now, Sir, I would wish you to insert this vation in Camden, from hard, or hards,

naras, for the inforination of your correspondand cold, or colds, I will be silent..

ent, as well as for my owo vindication. 4. D. A. B.

• The property of tangents, which I .

have communicated to the Royal Som 'To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine: ciety, is a general property of an' un. SIR,

limited radius, whilst that which is in

ferred by the correspondent to the Ladies U TANT of access to books and lite

Diary, is confined to the question prorary persons, occasions me to

posed, where the given radius is unity. trouble you with the following inquiries.

Also I have farther to observe, that the For an answer to them, I should be much

property there used is a postulate, drawn obliged to any one of your correspon.

from my original proposition in the se. dents who has the ability and inclination

cond Number of the Scientific Recep to give me the desired information,

tacle, in the year 1792, which MatheWith a jost sense of the liberal and innpartial spirit which distinguishes your and Curtis, in Paternoster-row, and

maticus may see if he apply to Gale Magazine,


. then I trust he will admit that the discoMarch 4th, 1811. In Beausobre's History of the Reformation, very of the property does belong to me.

W. GARRARD. reference is frequently made to some remarks which it was evidently in the author's con- Royal Natal Asylum. templation to affix to that work. Qu. Were they ever printed, and, if they were, have to the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. they found their way into this country?

SIR, Dr. Currie (Works of R. Burns, vol. ii. THE Smithfield Club, of whose prizes 176, 2d edition) speaks of “the beautiful T for the best cattle you have an. story of the Paria," as being translated in the mually given an account in your MayaBee of Dr. Anderson. Qu. In what volume zine, at present consists of 277 mernof the Bee is this translation printed ? bers, of whom there are twenty peers, Dr. S Johnson, in his Life of Pope, (Mur.

seven baroners and knights, and thirteen phy's edition of Johnson's works, vol. xi,

members of the House of Commons; the cern therefore implies the hills: the T in

remainder Chilt, is used for adding to the souad of che * See a similar account Last year, vul. xxix. word.

P. 106.

remainder being eminent or experienced Kent; who, after a careful examination agrioulturists, agents, surveyors, breed of the animals exhibited, and the certiers, graziers, salesinen, butchers, &c. ficates of their ages, breeds, feeding, &c.

The judges appointed for awarding adjudged the prizes as in the following the premiums at their last shew were, list, and particulars of the dead-weights, Mr. Morris Birkbeck, of Wanborough since received from the butchers, which in Surry, Mr. George Watkinson, of I transmit you for insertion. Woodhouse in Leicestershire, and Mr. Westminster,

Jotin FAREY, George Gunning, of Friendsbury in February 7, 1811. Secretary

Loose Hide & Beef. | Fat. Horns. Head Feet. Blood. lbs. lbs. lbs. 1 lbs. lbs. lbs.


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old Susse

Mr. John Westcar's 6 years and 8 months old

Herefordshire ox, worked 34 years, fed on 1838 190 119

hay, turnips, and oil-cakes. .
Mr. John Jenner's 6-year old Sussex ox, fed 21
I on grass and hay only . , , .
Mr. John Westcar's 4 years and 10 montbs

old Herefordshire ox, not worked, fed on 1488
| grass, hay, and turnips : : : J
Mr. John Price's 4 years and 7 months old

dark-red Herefordshire ox, not worked, 10801 1151 95 fed on hay and Swedish turnips. . Ji Mr. James' King's 6-year old Devon ox, ?

worked 3 years, fed on hay and oil cakes 3 Mr. John Warmington's 3-year old Durham

ox, not worked, fed on hay, linseed cakes,

and pocatoes . . . . . Mr. Ralph Oldacre's 3-year old Devon steer, 1

not worked, fed on grass and hay only . His Grace the Duke of Bedford's 11-year old

Hereford cow, which has borne 7 calves, | 1031 1 108 84 | fed on grass, hay, and oil-cakes .

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NOK Mr. Francis Guy's 21-months old three ) 1 159 | new Leicester wethers, fed on grass, 2

hay, and turnips , .. . ) 3 133 Mr. Robert Master's 32-months old three ji 1383

new Leicester wethers, fed on grass > 2 ] 131 | only .

J3 1261 His Grace the Duke of Bedford's 21-months 1 114"

old three South-down wethers, fed on 21 914

grass, hay, and turnips . . . 3 103 Mr. John Boy's 33-months old three 71 1241

South-down wethers, fed on grass, nay, 2 1164 and turrips . . . . . . )


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Some ACCOUNT of the LIFE, CHARACTER, the tuition of the late Dr. Newcombe,

and OPINIONS, of the late AUGUSTUS. who had attained considerable eminence • BENRY FITZROY, DUKE of GRAFTON, for his skill and attention in the edu.

HANUIR of Whittiebury-forest, his cation of youth. Aller remaining some Az EşTY'S GAME-KEEPER at Newmar. time there, he was entered of St. Peter's ket, HIGJI-STEWARD of Dartmouth, College, Cambridge, where he did not & GOVERNOR of the Charter-house, however take a degree; having gone into A MEMBER of the PRIVY COUNCIL, the world very early in tife, and engaged KNIGHT of the GARTER, CHANCELLOR earnestly, and perhaps prematurely, ia of the UNIVERSITY of Cambridge, public affairs. In 1756, when just of RECORDER of Thetford and Coventry, age, Mr. Fitzroy was appointed a lord GOVERNUR of the FORTS in Cornwall of the bedchamber to bis present ma. and Devonshire, RECEIVER-GENERAL jesty while prince of Wales; and, in of the Profils of the SEAL$ of the the course of the same year, he was KING'S BENCH and COMMON PLEAS, elected a member of parliament, first

also of the PRISAGE "of WINES, &c. for Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, in the “ Uni quippe vacat, studiis odiisque carenti, room of the earl of Harrington, and ** Humanum lugere genus." Lucun.

hen for St. Edmundsbury, in Suffolk, THE dukes of Grafton, like those of

in the place of the first earl of Mans 1 Richmond and St. Alhans, are des.

field, which latter he retained while a 'cended from the royal fainily of Stuart;

commoner. This was not long beand like these have attained the highest

fore bis, grandfathers' death, in May honours in the state. The female

1757, when he succeeded to all the

family honours and estates. His Grace, ancestor of the Fitzroys was Barbara, daughter and heir of William Villiers. after a short trip to the continent, was Viscount Grandison. This lady had

now destined to run through the career been married a little before the Restora

of public employments. On July 10, tjon, .co Mr. Roger Paliner, then a stu.

1765, he was appointed one of his madent in the Temple, who, desisting from

jesty's principal secretaries of state, which his legal pursuits, and being of a very

office he resigned in May, 1766, and,

in August following, he was nominated Comptant disposition, was raised to the honours of the Irish peerage, having

first lord of the treasury, which post he

abdicated January 28, 1770. On June been created earl of Castlemaine, in tbe 13th of Charles II. Having put

12, 1771, he was chosen lord privy berself under the protection of this gay,

seal, in wirich department he continued

until Noveinber, 1775; and in 1782, le dissipated, and luxurious, monarchi, the countess of Castlemaine, in 1670, was

ce was restored to the seine ofhce. ". created Baroness of Nonsuch, in Sur.

Notwithstanding their near alliance to

the house of Stuart, it is not a little sin. rey, countess of Southampton, in the

gular that the Firzroys hare usiformly county of llants, and duchess of Cleve. land, during her own natural life. By

been connected with, and attached to ibis lady he had a son, Charles, born

that party denominated Whigs, the basis

of whose conduct either has been, or preSeptember 28, 1663, to whom His Ma.

tended to be, the establishment and conjesty very aptly gave the name of Fitzroy.

tinuance of the house of Hanover, on Respecting the precise date of the subject of this memoir, there is some

one hand, on the throne of these realms, difference in the Modern Peerages; ac

and the ascertaining, preserving, and ex

tending, the liberties of the people, on cording to Collins, he was born in October, and, if we are to credit Edmonson, on

the other. Accordingly, when Mr. Fitz. September 28, 1736. While Mr. Fitz

roy was of age to sit as a inember of the

legislature, he acted with what was then roy, be was placed at Hackney, under

termed "the country party" in one house; • Soon after the demise of the earl of

and after his Majesty's accession, joined Castlemaine, in 1705, ibe duchess of Cleve

that great, popular, and dignified, body land married the chandsome Fielding,"

Fieldin* in the other, called at that day the against whom she was obliged to demand Minority, which then consisted of somo the protection of the laws. See the English of the first and most opulent families in edit, of the Memoirs of the Count de Gram. Eogland. One of the chief objects of their want

association was to diminish the supposed


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