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nearly all Europe. The word lias been said to imply horsemen, warriors, men of the woods, men with long hair and with tails, but whether these tails were of long hair, or such as Lord Monboddn describes belonging to his men in one of the Nicobar islands, I dare not decide. They have been derived also from Celtus, a son of Hercules and Polvphemia, and from many other inapplicable etymons. From these, and others which I shall quofe, you will, Mr. Editor, scarcely know the Celts; hut I will endeavour to point out the import of their name satisfactorily to your readers.
In doing this, you must not expect ma to begin with Gomer, nor to trace them from Noah to Wales; you will allow me to ?urvey a small' part of the globe only, to view its features and its provinces. - An antiquary or historian describes the remains of a people, a country, or place; but the import of the name by which this people, country, or place, is known, having rested in Cimmerian darkness from the earliest times, is always mistaken or omitted. I will therefore attempt to lay down a few more rules to dissipate this darkness. If, in doing this, I can arrest a mania with which Fancy has infected wise, learned, and really good men, of all ages, in tracing tbfeir descents, my labour will be folly compensated.
Settlements, districts, provinces, mid kingdoms, were in the earliest ages of the world, first named from their principal features. The Hill Border, the Head Border, or the Water Border, in
found to have given name to the whole of that kingdom. In like manner, the Headland of France gave denomination to a great part of that kingdom. But Headlands and Mills were very often described by the same words; and hence the hills on the borders of kingdoms, may also appropriately give names to their Border Lands.
These principles being understood, I will now explain the name of a country referred to by all writers, ancient and modern. They say, that from Gomer came the Galattt. I will not deny this probable conjecture; but from the principles here laid down,. I am to shew that Galat'ut took its name from the features of the country only, it is easy to conceive that the increase of mankind must have produced nations, and national names, as above described: Galatuc is such an one. Monsieur Brigande say, " that it is the universal opinion of all authors who have written on the origin of nations, that the Celtes were the children of Gomer, the eldest son of Japher. This nation, from which so many others have sprung, have preserved the name of their progenitor Irom the most early age after the deluge, down to die present days.": I will not follow this author, but refer to him: he acknowledges that it is easier to find an etymology for the name Celts, than to prove it to he a true one; but he renders it from the Hebrew word Galetha, thrust out at a distance, pushed/ forwards. The Greek and Latin languages, he says, offer no resource for this etymology. Monsieur Perron, on the
description, often reach to a great extent Celtes, mistaking the root of Cat orCaU,
within of beyond this Hill, Head; or Water. The Dobuni of our own country were the Stream-Borderers, from Dub, a Streath, and En, or An, varied Id Un, a term for Border' Land. These were also called the Huiccii, from Ic, Uic, or Wick,Border Land; and some of these people lived far from the Stream which'gave them name. The Canti inhabited lands far from their Head which gave then! name. The Belga, derived iruniBe/ Border, and Of Land, had inhabitants far' frorii'ita'ir Border; and their name was translated Ham, or Border, by the Saxons, who never dreamt of their being any mord the descendants of the Belgse of the continent,-than were the Cuti, the Regni, or other nations of this island. Land'on the coast, often Ave na'me to a great extent of land in the interior. Thus the Head of Lands in' Spain which runs into the ocfcim, will be
il head or hill, in finding the name Celts, supposes it to mean an harbour or port, which signifies, he says, the same with the Celts. He here indeed exactly hits the spelling, but mistakes the root from whence it came, and consequently the true meaning. He elsewhere however contradicts himself in this, as well as in a variety of other cases, and supposes "the word Celta, as well as Gaul, to imply powerful, valiant, or valorous." The Greeks, he says, also gave the name Galata? to the Gauls. But the Celtic, at least a part of them,this author stntes,were called Cimhrinns,' and Cimmerians. The word Cirnbri, he inapp'licably derives from the Latin Cimber, and this from Kimber or Jumper, which, in the Celtic, (he says) is a warrior. As, for Cimmerian, it is what the ahcicnt Grecians (he says) softened out of Cimbri, or Cambrian; and here he
is again mistaken. He then states that n very ancient colony, no one ever knew when, or how, I believe, "of the Celta?, gave name to the CimbricChersonesus;" but here no proof is adduced, except tint the Celtes had been accounted Cimmerians. His whole treatise is built •n the unfounded supposition, that men rave names to nations: his labour therefore to trace and fix Celtic colonies in Europe and Asia, is great; but his proofs of colonization are attended with so many absurdities, and so many old words are used without being analysed, and without being given applicable imports, that you can rely on no premises which he assumes; and yet he says so many things which arc worthy of notice, that lie has been recommended by good authors. "From the word Cat, a harbour, or Calls, the Romans, he thinks, formed Portus Iccius;" but he knew not the import of Calis, nor Iccius. Of the first of these, the ending in Is, means little, or low; and Ic is often a diminutive in names; hence Calis may imply the little Port; and Portus Iccius, the same: but Cutis has a low projecting point of land; and Cat, in this name, may mean Head, and Is imply low, which would exactly describe this territory, or head. What he Suts of Portus-Cale, or Portugal, is more reasonable than most of his derivations: but of the import of Lusitania, he is totally in the dark; as he is also ofLysbon, or Lisbon. But to return to Galutia.— This comes from Col, or Cat, an head, (which is also written Gal) as in the following examples: in Calcedon, in Galicia, in Galata, a mountain of Phocia; in Caledonia, in Galway, in Galloway, in Colophon, in Calpe, in Calabria, in Callipolis, now Gallipolis; and in an hundred other names of places beginning with these syllables, situated on the globe, at heads or ends of lands. At, in Galatia, is the same as in Galata, an headland and suburb of Constantinople; and, as in a great variety of other places, it is derived from Ad, water. la, is territory; and Galatia, whose head lies on the F.uxinc sea, will imply the Water Head, or Border Territory. The etymons "thrust out at a tiistance," and "pushed forward," given by Monsieur B. are as near the truth perhaps as any terms taken from the common words of language, which -had no direct reference to the features of nature, could have been produced; but the word head, or end, here, and more particularly in the instances wliic'i follow, are
so evidently meant by it in the names of so many headlands, and land's-ends, throughout the globe ; and its derivation from Col or Cat, a head, is so direct, certain, and plain, that I much wonder . some one had not before discovered and proved its applicability. But authors have never looked to the world, and its names, for the language of Nature; and taking for granted what wanted proof, contented themselves with supposing,. mankind gave names to places, instead of places having given them these very, names. Let us now trace this name to Iberia, Celt Iberia, Lusitania, Espana, Spain, Portugal. Spain, authors say, was early called Iberia, from a colony of Iberians from Mount Caucasus; or from the river Iberus: yet the ancients, they say, considered Iberia only that part from the Pyrennees to Calpe. Notwithstanding, they assert, that the tru« Iberia was that part called Celt Iberia, from a body of Celts settling in it, bounded by the Iberus: and tbey derive Iberia from the Hebrew Hebcr, or the Chaldee, Syriac, or Phoenicia!), Kbra or Ibra, which, in the singular, implies a passage; and in the plural, bounds or limits. It appears also, they state, that, the Phoenicians called Spain Spanija, or Sphanija, from Shapan or Span, a rabbit, as it abounded with rabbits.
Of the derivations, "passage," or "bounds," and " limits," nothing can be said; because the great features of Nature do not refer to such denominations.
For the Monthly Magazine.
THE LETTERS OF A WANDERER.
IN my last I told you it was our intention to proceed across the mountains to Haws-water; and I am now sealed to give you some account of our excursion over one of the wildest tracks in Nature; where however, there was still much to interest us from its novelty, and being almost wholly different from any thing we had seen before, afforded us considera- _ ble amusement. When we quitted Kendal, the morning was hazy, and heavy vapours occasionally floating over the distant mountains, obscured them from sight, and rendered us apprehensive we should have an uncomfortable day. As it advanced towards noon, the son emerged from behind its sable shroud, and its vivifying beams soon cleared the air, nnd left us nothing more to wish for on the score of weather. At the. distance of
fourer five miles from Kendal, we quit,
expectation we had formed. An air of romantic wildness reigned throughout tlie whole, considerably encreased by a small piece of water, on whose unfruitful banks lay rooky fragments, and immense-sized single stones, of various shapes and hues: while a small chapel at a short distance, overhung by mournful yews, completed the scene, and inspired the mind with feelings of pensive melancholy, not wholly useless in their consequences, nor, upost occasions, disagreeable in the indulgence. At length the view of the beautiful lake of Haws-water opened o'l our sight, and filled uswith rapturous admiration. Nothing can be more lovely than the prospect which is here disclosed to the admiring eye of a traveller, in the charming bosoot of the lake, with its noble accompaniments of rocks, woods, towering precipices, and simple rural scenery. On the opposite side from us, an immense ridge of craggy mountains reared their majestic fronts, separated from the water only by a narrow stripe of cultivated ground, where small enclosures of the sweetest verdure were divided by rows of hazel and thorn hedges, and a few straggling cottages peeped from amidst groups of low trees, and formed, with their whitened walls, a charming contrast to the shades in which they were enveloped, and the rugged precipices of the alpine heights that rose behind their little cultivated fields. On the southern side, a huge naked precipice, called Wallow Crag, rose boldly from its base; and near its rough unfruitful heights, there is a cataract, wc were told, of uncommon beauty; but not having explored its hidden recess, I cannot atiinn whether it exceeds or equals many of the number of beautiful cascades which are to be seen in the neighbourhood of the northern lakes.
Continuing our course along the borders of the lake, we found its charms encreasiug as we advanced. The heights of Naddle Forest, and Malkside upon the eastern shore, arose in solemn majesty, clothed with wood to the very summits, and reflected in the pincid bosom of the water; while neat whit* cottages amidst tufted trees and bushes, occasionally met the sight, and seemed, to use the language of an early and admired tourist, the abodes of" peace, rusticity, and happy poverty." These mountains on the western shrrre, exhibit a charming diversity of heathy knolls, and craggy precipices, with.here and there a tree or cluster of trees, starting from the
crevices of the rocks, and by their rich and vivid colouring, adding indescribably to the beauty of a scene replete with loveliness, variety, anil richness: a 'scene, that cannot fail to elevate the soul to the Creator of the universe, and convey the highest sensations of gialitude and delight.
About the midle of the lake, a low promontory divides the water almost into equal parts, and there the depth is said to be upwards of fitly fathoms. Though inferior in size to several of the lakes in Cumberland and Westmoreland, Hawswater is no less distinguished than its neighbours, by bold and romantic scenery. Like a number of amiable characters amongst the human race, it is hid from general notice by its retired sequestered situation, consequently known only to a few of the number, who make what is called the "Tour of the Lakes," and visited but by those who are capable of appreciating^ beauties, and bestowing on tbem that praise and admiration they so justly Bterit.
In length Ilaws-water is about three miles, and at the widest part does not exceed half an one. It produces char, ptrch, truut, eels, bass, and other fish; and its banks display the most beautiful assemblage imaginable of rocks and mountains, woods and cultivated grounds: in the whole, forming oneof the finest landscapes which a painter, or an admirer of Nature's scenery, could desire to behold. You know my predilection for the simple beauties of Nature, and my dislike to whatever bears the appearance of art, in a spot where all that could be done to rendor it charming has been effected; you will therefore feel surprised at my giving the scenery around Ilaws-water • decided preference to that which is now to be seen upon the borders of some of the greater and highly-celebrated lakes in the northern counties, where all native simplicity and interesting loveliness is banished by the hand of art; which, as far as what is termed modern improvement could go, has tortured and distorted Nature's works; dressed, shaved, and trimmed, spots, which were, in their original state, beauty without a fault, but .which now exhibit only the formality of * citizen's villa, and evince the absurd and glaring impiopriety of erecting palaces and shew-houses where the surrounding objects present the boldest and most rugged features imaginable, or the sweetest simple rural scenery, replete with pastoral beauty, harmony, and natural lovelint>a.
Of this number isTJIls-water, of which I shall give you an account in my next. At present, I shall hasten to conduct yon to Penrith, which we reached after a pleasant ride of about twelve miles, as the shades of evening had cast a sombre mantle over the surrounding objects ; when, being somewhat fatigued with ourjoumev, and long fast, (for we had tasted nothing from the time of leaving Kendal but a little bread and milk in n cottage near Haws-water,) we enjoyed an excellent supper at the principal inn in the town, and sought repose in beds, which, for cleanliness and comfort, could not have been exceeded in a palace.
Penrith, I believe, you have visited, or at least know so much of, that I need not attempt giving you a long description of itself, or its immediate neighbourhood. Suffice it to say, the houses are of a reddish-coloured stone, in general wearing an air of peculiar neatness andcomfort;the streets are clean, and the whole place appears thriving, populous, and cheerful.' The situation of Penrith is agreeable, be-' ing in the midst of an extensive' fertile" plain, watered'by the rivers Lowther and1 Enmont, on the banks of which are several elegant seats and villas, where art' and nature have united in rendering therit' abodes of comfort, convenience, and:' beauty. On the northernside of the plain' there is a high extensive ridge, over which the road to Scotland by Carlisle passes,' and whence there is one of the finestviews in the kingdom. As my companion' had never seen this view, we rode to the; top of the hill ort the morning of the day we passed at Penrith, and enjoyed the' sight of the surrounding landscape with'much sstisfaction; for the sky being' wholly free of cloud or vapour, we easilydiscerned the plain around the ancient city of Carlisle, about twe'nty miles distant, and found the prospect only boundedby a chain of far-off Scottish mountains, losing all traces of individual grandeur as' they seemed to mingle with the sky. Of Ullswnter, dn the other side, and its majestic towering boundaries,we had a bird's-' eye peep, and anticipated much gratification by a nearer survey of their beauties' on the succeeding day. In the evening we* had a charming stroll in the environs of the town ; and on the following morning at an e«Tly hour, pursued our way to* wards tire justly-cfclebrated lake of Ullswater, passing by some ancient mansion* on the road to Pooley Bridge (where we1 purposed breakfasting), the heavy archV lecture of wlrich presents a striking con-'
the airy lightness, and unquestion- Heaven his own way, without paying toU ire elegant, style of building of by any of the privileges of his citizenship.
Infirmity is insepeiable from the slate
ably more elegant, sty
modern times. Adieu : believe me, my
friend, most truly,.yours, &c.
For lie Monthly Magazine.
ABSTRACT of a JOURNAL kfpt in MARYUSD, in the years 1805 and 1306.
THE wars, oppressions, and calamities, of Europe, have contributed amazingly within the last twenty years to the population and commercial prosperity of the United States. The popubuion is supposed to have more than doubled itself, and (he imports and exports have been centupled. The federal plicenix has risen from the ashes of the old continent, for so many years a prey to the devouring elements of tyranny and discord. She extends her wings over a vast and fertile region, watered by ma■jestic rivers, and blessed with a variety of genial climates. There the squalid peasant of Ireland, who starved and rotted in filth and misery, on Is. per day in his native country, now earns with ease his dollar and quarter, looks hale and ruddy, watts with the port and dignity of independant manhood, and, by his sparkling eyes, elevated towards Heaven, seems to pour forth with an habitual devotion bis gratitude to Providence, for having tirought him to a land flowing with mile and honey; where- the labourer is worthy of bis hire, and where he has a certain prospect, with moderate industry, of becoming in a short time the proprietor of a farm. There the German farmer may purchase the best land at a cheap rate, and free from fiscal tyranny and grinding taxation; he may speedily amass a heap of his beloved dollars, which are the objects of daily labour, and the penal o gods
of man and nations; and though philosophy may dictate, prescribe, and foresee; though wise governments may enact the best possible code of laws, yet cannot they prevent and obviate all the evil* arising from the passions and favorite pursuits of individuals and communities. That education has an important influence on the human mind and character, cannot be doubted; and that the nature and variety of worldly pursuits have an all-powerful tendency to strengthen or weaken the principles of a virtuous education, and consequently to produce either happiness or misery, in the proportion in which virtuous principles are imbibed, and to the number and nature of temptations in our passage through life, may be considered a self* evident maxim.
The experience of all ages and nation* refers to agriculture, as the primaeval and principal source of health, virtue, and happiness. In the mutual, real, and artificial, wants of individuals, societies, and. nations, originated barter and commerce. In their infancy, they were the handmaids of agriculture, by taking oil' her superfluity from the fertile regions of the globe, and exchanging it for the precious metals, minerals, and drugs, of barren and inhospitable shores. In process of time, however, they have become the mistresses of their natural mistress; and. though things must eventually recur to their original state, yet not without violent convulsions and general calamity, we have beheld the ministry of England, for the last twenty years, regulating agriculture (or rather deranging it) by its par. liamentary influence in the enacting of "aws, by its commercial arrangements.
of his nightly devotions. There may the and treaties with foreign powers, and by
persecuted philosopher and friend of liberty, find a peaceful asylum, and prosecute his studies in the laboratory of Mature, either in the crowded city, or sheltered by Arcadian groves on the beautiful borders of the meandering and rapid Susquehannah, unapprehensive of danger to himself, or to his apparatus, from the infernal uuto-de-fes of furious bigotry and sanguinary despotism. Tli.ere may the mercantile adventurer carve out his fortune with a rapidity truly astonishing, and live surrounded by all the r-oiiveniencies, comforts, and elegancies, of It. There may the man of G«d go to
its orders of Council; and though the holy zealot, and alarmed and selfish friend of his country's liberty, to the exclusion of other parts of the world, from a similar enjoyment, may have given the ministry credit fur its chivalrous attempt to defend the religion and law of Europe against the infidelity and anarchy of France, yet the political aritlimejician detects the latent, hut real cause, in its unextinguisf). able hatred of France—the consequence of her inlerfpreqce in the American >var, and in the opportunity which her revolution seemed lo afford Eugland of annihilating her industry and commerce, and