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life-boat, and getting her off in safety, important discoveries in chemistry were deserves no less praise than the inventor made in the vain attempt to gain the of the life.boat himself.

secret of transmutation of metals; and This has been done by Captain Man- yet society has, by almost universal conby, by laying out two anchors, with a sent, honoured and recompensed the *stout rope between them, at a distance authors, as if the inventions had been from the shore beyond the surf; when, effected through a catenation of circumby a barbed shot, (as before described, stances, regularly following deep and debeing projected over the stout rope, a liberate research. It is perhaps a secret power is acquired to haul the boat over motive of piety chat induces us to caress the shallows, with the head to the wind the chosen and favoured instrument of and waves; and the danger of upsetting, so much benefit to mankind. But the by turning its side to them, entirely rewards and honours, which are the inguarded against till it reaches water deep ventor's due, are often intercepted by enough to adonit the action of the oars; envy, always eager to depreciate the and then, and not till then, the life-boat usefuluess, or deny the merit of ori begins to act with effect. I remeinber, ginality, tu his production; or his claiin that when Mr. Greathead's invention is not allowed by the majority of the of the life-boat was given to the public, judges, in these cases, whose percepand a notion made in the House of Com. Biors, for want of the mediurn of a pure mons, that a sum should be granted him taste, find usefulness and elegance in noin remuneration, it was opposed by some thing but what is complicated or gaudy; of the house, on the ground that there and despise those qualities which are in had yet been no actual rescue of the reality the essence of things. All these crew of a ship by it, which could not reinarks either are immediately illus. have been saved but by such a means. trated or connected by the following anecBut the motion was carried against this fote: Columbus, after his discovery objection; indeed there was no occasion of America, was persecuted by the envy for any such proof. Its use in event of of the Spanish courtiers, for the honours the accident was as plainly to be appre which were heaped on him by the sove beneled, as we know that the most ta reign : and unce, at table, when all miliar effect must succeed the cause: decorum was banished in the heat and but, eren if this opinion had been al ingenuousness of wine, they murmured lowed to stand good in Mr. Greathead's loudly at the caresses he received, for case, it is obviated in the instance of having, (as they said) with mere animal Captain Manhy's intention; he having resolution, pushed his voyage a few already, with his apparatus, effected com- leagues beyond what any one had yet munications with vessels, when it could chanced to have done. Columbus heard not be gained hy any other means, and them with great patience; and, taking had actually saved by it ninety of his an egg from the dish, proposed that fellow-creatures.

they should exercise their ingenuity The simplicity of the invention, (what- by making it stand on end. It ever may be the light in which it may went all round, but no one succeeded. cause it to be regarded by some,) is in. Give it me, gentlemen (said Columbus); deed its highest merit, and greatest re. who then took it, and breaking it in at commendation, Those inventions in one of the ends, it stood at once. "They mechanics, which have been of greatest all cried out involuntarily, Why I could service to mankind, have been, like most have done that! Yes, if the thought had important moral truths, simple and de. struck you, (replied Columbus); and if the monstrable to the plainest understanding, thought had struck you, you might have It is the distinguishing feature of such discovered America. * Superior qualiti, things,

cations and desert in society, have always Th'invention all admir'd, and each, how he been attended by envy and malignity; To be the inventor miss'd ; so easy it seem'd, and they have been often compared to Once found, which yet unfound, most would the sun, that, by its attractive quality, have thought impossibie. Milon's Paradise Lost.

draws up vapours, which, thougla they Inventions, for the most part, hare been the eff.ct of chance, rather than of * I am aware that this story is told of an niepth of research; the result of a happy Italian architect, as well as of Columbus; impulse, or inet with in the pursuit of but this diffetence does not at all affect the some other object. Many of the most application.

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obscure it for a while, are, to those who and must beg the patience of the reader: can discourse of causes and effects, at the matter is not susceptible of much once a conviction of its splendor and ornament, nor is this paper written under utility. And Captain Manby, too, if he relations very favorable to composition; wanted any additional evidence of the but I trust to the importance of the sube merit of his invention, might bring for. ject to gain me attention. An official ward the indifference with which it was employment for some time past has fixer treated by a distioguished body, and the Captain Manhy's residence at Yarmouth clamours that have been raised against it in Norfolk, where, from witnessing nu. hy the invidious. Some have opposed merous scenes of distress by shipwreck Iris right to the merit of originality, in every winter, he determined, it possifavour of a man who made an experiment ble, to lessen those' melancholy events ; many years since at Woolwich, which and, by perseverance and repeated expe. bore some reseinblance to his, and which riments, he produced a system which bas the man relinquished, without any intene had the decided approbation of every one tion of renewing his endeavours. The whose opinion and judgment can be sup. interest with which the conviction of the posed of weight. In the violent storm importance of this apparatus impressed that happened in February 1807, I saw ine, induced me to enquire minutely into two vessels (having about thirty men on the truth of tbis counter-claim; and, as I board them,) driven on shore at Win. suspected, I found it impossible to be tertun, The fishermen of this village applied in a storm, and without the are celebrated for their daring and indeslightest shadow of usefulness. Others fatigable exertions to rescue lives from have said, (deceived, I imagine, by the shipwreck; but, in this instance, the ves. simplicity of the design, which leads them sels were driven so near the shore, that to think, that it must have occurred he. it was covered with water sufficiently fore, and which makes the quotation from deep to float a boat only as the waves the poet so applicable,) that they rerolled in, and the moment they were remember to bave read or heard of it years sorbed, the boat was left dry, and dashed ago. I doubt this assertion altogether; to pieces by the violence with which it but, for mere argument's sake, let us sup- was precipitated against the beach. pose it were invented a hundred years. After many bold and ineffectual attempts, back. Who has ever heard of its appli- even at the hazard of their own lives, cation? It will not at all detract from they were forced to endure the attiction Captain Manby's merit or claiin on the of being idle spectators of the catas. public. The reviver of a good custom trophe : and, with the horror of their sie that has fallen into disuse, has always tuation aggravated by the sight of the been allowed the next honors to the in.. shore and safety so near them, the sailors stitutor. I have neither leisure nor room dropped benumbed from the rigging, one for such references, but those who have, after the other, till they had all perished, and may choose to make them, will find, I shall never forget that night. The that the custom bas taken its name from despair of the crews! the corresponding the reviver, rather than the inventor, and, agony of the beholders! but no language as far as the tacit consent of society ex; can do justice to such a scene; and, like tends, without injustice. When this is the historical painter, I must drop the the case, surely when one man has relin- veil, and leave to the imagination the quished a plan in embryo, or laid it aside, distress that it is impossible to describe, because in his hands it proved abortive, These fisherinen hare since been present if another take it up after him, and, from at repeated trials of the apparatus, and the imperfect bints and irregular outlines have proved its effectiveness, by having afforded by the suggestor, by a bappier saved a crew with it. “Cuilibet in arte impulse and livelier conception, produces sua credendum est." They have dea perfect piece, he deserves the second clared that if they had possessed it when place at least; and, as it was said by a these vessels (with many others,) were great man of Virgil as a poet in compa- wrecked, they might bave saved, without rison of Homer, certainly the second, difficulty, their crews; which, as it was, and rather the first, than the third : and, all perished close to the shore. Let any though a division of the honor should be one now take into consideration the disa contended for, it seems to me, that he position of a large extent of coast of these has an exclusive title to that honor and, islands, and the immense amount of ship. the rewards that are due. I am led to a ping employed in our trade, to which the steater length than I at first intended, number of accidents must necessarily be

in proportion. Let him search where tance of Captain Manby, with his apparatus, such records are kept, and calculate how and by whose efforts, and by the same means many vessels have been wrecked, in as those employed yesterday, the whole crew situations where no assistance could pos- were, in my presence, rescued from their must sibly be rendered by any boat, with all

perilous situation, one of them, however, is their crews, which might have been saved

since dead from liis sufferings, in consequence

of the severity of the weather. by these ineans. Can the life-boat be

I take the

liberty of making this statement to their brought to act in certain situations with

Jordships, conceiving it my duty, in common out the assistance of Captain Manhy's justice to Captain Mar

personal apparatus? Is not the life-boat cumber- exertions are always prompt in the cause of some, and not locomotive without much humanity, and in the present instances have labour? Has not the expence of a gene. been so happily efficient. ral adoption of the life-buat been shrunk Job Wilson Croker, esq. R. Curry, from by the nation, and has not the same reason prevented its adoption by private To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. subscription? It is not my intention to SIR, detract from the merit of Mr. Greathead's THE principle of mental deterioration invention, as great praise is due to him; 1 in close corporations, and close but these are facts, a denial of which committees and clubs, is a necessary cannot be supported. On the other consequence of the love of power and hand, the apparatus produced by Cap. domination natural to man. He who is tain Manby, is attended with inconsis invested with power will always exert derable expence; can be applied with himself to retain it, and will seldom certainty and success by any one who abandon or relinquish it, if he possess will attend to the directions given; may the means of retaining ic by cunning or easily be transported from place to place; contrivance, Hence, no member of a and, if stationed at intervals of a few close corporation or committee will ever miles on the redoubtable parts of the admit any one to become a member, coast, would be ready at every emer- who, he thinks, is likely to dispute his gency on either side. Let these facts be own ascendency, or contest his opinions taken into consideration, and it will rea- or influence. In such bodies, 'theredily be thought with me, that Captain fore, errors and prejudices are embodied Manby is entitled to the sole merit, and and perpetuated; and philosophy labours well deserves to be rewarded as the in. in vain in making discoveries in science ventor and perfecter, of an apparatus so and morals, while such bodies have in, unambiguously equal to the important oc- Auence on the destinies of mankind. casion for which it may daily be expected The first step then towards the rato be called into use; and which we trust dical regeneration, amelioration, and his majesty's government will, without improveinent, of society in all countries, further delay, carry into full and general is to lay open all close corporations, as effect.

HUMANITAS. the corrupt and convenient tools of Norwich.

power, as the willing instruments of I shall confirma part of my statement

mental vassalage, and the bigotted ene.

1 mies of all discovery and improvement. by the following letter: Roebuck, Yarmouth-roads,

This evil ought to be one of the first January 6th, 1811.

so objects for the correction of a patriotic I beg leave to state for the information of parliament, and the principle ought to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty,

be steadily resisted in every ramification that, during my attendance on the beach yes of society from the board of government. terday morning, in assisting for the preser. through the committees of companies, vation of H. M. gun-brig, Attack, a mer. down to the directors of benefit-clubs. chant brig was driven ashore at the same Nothing like a close committee, emolace, and her crew, seven in number, were powered to fill up its own vacancies, or in my presence, rescued from the rigging of elected by limited ballot, should be

elected by limited the vessel, and apparent certain destruction, tolerated

tolerated ; no house-lists should be coun

house in a most admirable magner, by means of a

tenanced; those in power should bave no boat drawn from the shore by a line, that,

concem in re-elections; and all vacancies affixed to a shot, was thrown over the vessel

should be filled by popular election, and, from a mortar, under the personal superin.

if possible, by the mode of GENERAL tendence of Captain Manby. And this morning a galiot, baving also come on shore on BALLOT, deciding by a simple majority. the beach, her crew, consisting of four Eng. without limitations. lishmen and five foreigners, must inevita.' Merit and genius are antidotes to bly have perished, but for the prompt assis. close corporation. I was lately at one

SIR.

of

of our universities, and heard of a young The history of the Royal Academy is man of great promise in literature. Ah, a history of feuds and follies, occasioned said I, he will soon be promoted I sup- by the same false principle of its conpose; he may calculate on being soon at stitution; and the famous Whig Club bas the head of a college, and perhaps arrive sunk into conteinpt and utter insigniearly in life at the highest scholastic ficance, from the operation of the same honours. You never were so deceived, cause. replied an old M. A., he is already hated The Bank of England, the India Comby several of the members of Golgotha; pany, and some other great bodies, are and, if he be not very circumspect in his under the pernicious dominion of houseconduct, they will contrive some means lists; bence, are very imbecile, and lose of dishonouring, instead of honouring, much of their energy and respecta. him. In short, he is the last man in the bility. university to get on here, and he must Even in the truly popular elections, iu be content with the slowest gradation of the wards of the city of London, the our honours, or exert his talents in some existing members of the common-council other sphere of action.

bave the temerity to join their interests On another occasion I knew a learned in opposing any new candidate; and Parson, who desired to become a mem- they modestly distribute, at the place of ber of a learned society, in London, (re. election, printed lists, to be filled up by lative to whose pursuits he had written the electors, in which they take care to so much, and too well not to be viewed omit the names of any new candidates. with jealousy by some of the members,) of the wretched close bodies, called and, orer a bottle of wine, he proposed to country corporations, no figure of speech a fox-hunting squire, one of his parishi- sinks low enough to express the conse. oners, that they should both offer them. quences of this false principle of their selves as candidates, on the ground that constitution; and, for the honour of the one post-chaise would carry them to its law and the government, for their own meetings. The squire consented, though glory, and the good of the people, their he scarcely knew the object of the so- elections ought to be rendered open and ciety; but, as the rector told him, there popular; and, for the sake of their inwas a good dinner annually, and some dependence and good order, should be pleasant quarterly meetings, he con- made by ballot, and decided by a ma. sented; and accordingly their names were jority. posted with others for the next ballot. Next to a parliamentary reform, and The society was, like many others, founded perhaps prior to it, this change in the on a principle of exclusion, and three constitution of corporations and pube black balls in ten disqualified; a mis- lic bodies, ought to be effected by an taken principle, as a majority scarcely intelligent people. The evil is, in some ought not to disqualify, and, of the two degree, the foundation of all others in plans, I should prefer three in ten to elect, the social arrangements of the United rather than to disqualify, if I wished a. Kingdom; and all other necessary resociety to be great, perpetual, and use- forms would be a consequence of reful. As nobody, therefore, knew the invigorating these organs of law and Squire, no one thought of opposing him; power, at present so many foci of corbut two rival authors gloried in the op- ruption and bigotry. portunity of mortifying the Rector, and March 6, 1811. COMMON SENSE. made a party to oppose him. In conse, quence,' on the day of election, twelve To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. black balls were found of thirty-six who srr, Foted in the ballot for the erudite Rector, "THE probability that a life of any and not one for the Squire, who found 1 given age will continue in being himself dubbed an F:s, and his worthy to the end of any given term, being a. neighbour rejected! The Squire, of fraction whose denominator is the nume course, had sense enough to despise a ber of persons living at the given age in society possessed of a constitution which any table of observations; and whose led it to make so ridiculous a decision; numerator is the number of persons living and, refusing to pay the fees, has ever at an age older by the given term, than' since quizzed the Rector about it, and the given age; and in the case of joint told the story of his transcendant and lives, it being the prodact of the prosuperior qualifications for an F*S to babilities that each of the single lives some hundreds besides myself,

shall coutinue in being to the end of the

given

0.0

given term," is a doctrine that was suge

14.1552 gested by Dr. Halley, adopted by Mr. instead of son years, as per fracDe Moivre, adhered to by Mr. Simpson, confided in by Mr. Dodson, espoused by tion

310

. Dr. Price, embraced by Mr. Morgan, on 657

Thus every step, in true

tous every step, in true and assented to by a recent writer, Mr. knowledge, affording a glimpse of what Bally. The purport of this letter lies next beyond it, in the scale of nais, to represent the fallacy of such a ture, the same unerring law evinces, the doctrine. The definition of a fraction I probability that both those persons shall take to be this: the numerator denotes live to the end of 30 years, is equal to the number or quantity, and the deno. 24.6580

. 10.1034 minator the distinguishing name of what 30.0000

on years, instead of
years

30.0000 is numbered. The subject of the present investigation being that of time, that is, years,

581X310 me charis pears. seper fractices

as per fractions its component and fractional parts, it

814X657 follows, that the measure of the proba.

180110

– bility of the duration of buman life must

534798 be expressed by a fraction, whose deno. It appears to me, that the most es minator is a period of time, composed of sential point of consideration attached to a specific number of years, and whose this subject has been wholly overlooked numerator is a portion of such period, by every author whose name I have composed of a less number of years, and mentioned ; namely: to keep within the a fractional part of a year.

verge of probability. Had ihis been atIn the first example of Mr. Bally's tended to, that anomalous mode of pro. first practical question, chapter xii. cedure of multiplying causes without he asserts : “the probability that a per- necessity, as evidenced in Dr. Halley's son, whose age is 20, shall attain to sixth and seventh uses of his Breslau the age of 50, or live 30 years, is,

or live 30 vears. is. Table, could never have been introduced According the observations of M. De into the science; nor the fallacy of supParcieux, as given in table 3, equal to posing that a year (instead of being com, 581

posed of certain portions of time) was *. And the probability that a person, made up of a continually fluctuating whose age is 40, shall attain to the age

number of buman beings, as taught by

the same author, in the second use of of 70, or live 30 years, is, according to the same observations, equal

the same table, and relied on, as well as

amplified, by every celebrated author og to But the probability that both the subject since.

In his second example, page 356, Mr. those persons shall live to the end of Baily affirms:“The probability that a man,

aged 40, shall attain to the age of 56, or live 30 years, is equal to 11 multiplied by

10 years, is, according to the observati. 180110,

ons made in Sweden, as given in tamiz: that is, equal to "“ 534798

ble 14th, equal to 2020. And the proBy consulting Nature, in preference to

- 3991 my own imagination, or to any received. bability that a woman, aged 40, shall doctrine, I tind the probability that a, attain to the age of 50, or live 10 years, person, whose age is 20, shall attain to the is, according to the same observations, age of 50, or live 30 years, is, according to the observations of M. Dé Parcieux. equal to 06 But the probability as given in Mr. Baily's third table, that both those persons shall live 10 25.6689

3096 equal to 50 0000 years, instead of years, is equal to 2001 multiplied by 21.3882 000 years, as per fraction 1

2733: that is, equal to 2407392.»

18889403 And the probability that a person, whose Now the probability that a man, nged age is 40, shall attain to the age of 70, 46, shall attain to the age of 56, or lire or live 30 years, is, according to the same 10 years, (as in the aforesaid example

89219 ons, equal to 30.0000 years, I find equal to

10.000€

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4733

581 4027

90.0

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23.4056

10.0000 years, instead of

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