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were generously applied towards the the concerns of the state, or in sober rereduction of the public expences, or in flection on the miscries that await thein: rewarding the merits and services of emnic and fourthly, though not lastly, by any nent characters. But to return to the means, from the terror that almost every question: it is to gratily all the above honest individual feels of the conseclasses, with the last exception; it is to quences to his interest, from any rasist. humour and adininister io the spleen ance to the principles of those on whoin and malice of clumsy, baffled, and dis. they may have dependance. appointed, ministers, against a successful Liverpool, Nov. 8, 1810.

Z. loe, who has by their means alone been elevated to his present height of glory To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, and pre-eminence; it is to satisfy their SIR, unquenchable thirst after power and IN the Life of Mr. Beddoes, lately patronage, that we are still pursuing a I published by me, an accidental error jopeless and indetinite contest, and that has been detected, which I should be we are bleeding at every pore.

happy to avail myself of the mediuni of 2. What have been the motives and your Magazine to correct. objects of those persons who are the pro. From the account given at page 389, moters and abettors of this war?

it would appear as if Dr. Craufuird bad Their motives and objects are to enrich expressed a wish that further advice themselves and their adherents at the should be called in, when the alarming public expence; to accumulate all the change had already taken place, which Wealth, and consequently the power, of so shortly preceded Dr. Beddoes's dis the country into their own hands; and solution. The fact however is, as I have by the continuance of a war of unex. since been informed, that this wish was ainoled expenditure, and which has cre- expressed not by Dr. Craufuird, but by ated taxes to an amount unknown in any some members of the family, and, though other time or country, to extinguish the complied with on his part, was accommiddle classes of society, and to depress panied by a remark that it must necesó that spirit of independance which, by sarily be useless.

J. E. STOCK. constitutional exertions, could alone de Bristol, Dec. 19, 1810. feat their purposes. 3. How are we to account for the ap

For the Monthly Magazine. parent apathy and indifference of the On CONTINENTAL SUBSTITUTES to regreat mass of the people to the destruc- medy thè SCARCITY of suGAR. tive, impoveristring, and truly calamitous,

By a German. effects of this long-protracted war? The THE still-repeated attempts of the answer is variously-as 1. From the gross I people of the Continent to find out and general corruption of the times, some tolerable substitute for West India 2. From the selfishness of the commer- sugar, evidently proves that those cial part of the community, which, whilst already discovered, are not fully satisit maintains by means of war carried on factory, and that all the improvements at the expence of others, a proud pre- and refinements of art and science have eminence in wealth, feels not for the not been able w supply the obvious dedistresses of those who are ruined by the ficiency of this almost indispensable ar. war, and its unjust and unequal pressure, ticle to the comfort of life, to which

3. From the monopoly of wealth in the greatest part of Europe is condeinnthe hands of a few persons, and the con- ed, by the stubbornness of a tyrannic sequent interest which those persons usurper. The endeavours of Dr. Achard have, and the unfortunate power they to procure it from turnips, &o. are too possess, of governing and deluding others. old and too well-known to need to be

4. From the interest which the nume mentioned. 'Two other experiments rous classes of individuals adverted to in seem about to sbare the same fate. the answer to question 1, have in the I. M. Parmentier's Syrup of Grapes, prosecution and continuance of the war. This syrup was at first so much ap.

5. From the great mass of the people proved of in the south of France, that in themselves being driven from necessity the autumn of 1808 nearly 200,000 cwt. to set money by every means in their were made, each valued at 100 franks, power, whether honest or otherwise; and it was called Sirop de Parmentier, from the consequent destruction of thé to declare the common sentiments of moral principle, as well as of the means, gratitude entertained towards its inand even tine, lo occupy themselves in ventor. In the mouth of December,

1807, M. Foaques, Chimiste Manufac. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. turier, as he styles himself, published the SIR, result of his enquiries into the nature of IN the Monthly Magazine of last this kind of syrup obtained from grapes 1 month, I observe a claim to the in. growing near Paris, and in the beginning vention of the means of relieving ships in of the last year, the following remarks: distress by firing a shut fastened to a

1. That 4 hundred weight of the must rope, made by Mr.Carey. I think it but of these grapes evaporated at the heat of justice to others to mention, that near SO degrees of M. Reaumur's thermo- twenty years ago, I remember the same meter, produces 125 pounds of syrup, mode was suggested by Mr. Edward without any art or extraneous addition, Brun, a brazier, of Portsea; and the congealing into crystals of a spherical experiment was actually tried, as I unshape; and these being dried on linen derstand, in the presence of two naval cloths, through which all the more fluid officers of the first eminence. A similar moisture passes, a quantity weighing experiment was tried here about fifteen about 75 pounds is left.

years ago, by a serjeant Bell, of the Arlil. 2. That there remains, after the crys. lery. How far Mr. Carey, or Captain tals are pressed out with proper force, Manby, is entitled to the merit of the disa 60 pounds.

covery, may therefore be very fairly ques. 3. That after having been purified and tioned.

W. N. refined, it yields 40 pounds of beautiful Portsea, Jan. 14, 1811. cassonade sugar.

4. That, should this be again refined and clarified, so as to possess a wbiteness

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. equal to French Orleans sugar, it may be

SIR, formed into loaves like the West India

TN reply to Whistensis, on the game of sugar, but at a reduction of the quantity .

1 Whist, I should conceive when A.A. to 10 pounds.

win two double games, and B.B. one 5. That it is in this shape so compact

single, A. A. have gained four points : for and firm in all its parts, as to be able to

this reason, viz. A. A.'s two double games bear exportation.

constitute a rubber, or five points; but 6. That a single pound evaporated to

B.B. having won a single game, deduct sugar lumps, leaves only 10 or 11 ounces,

Wounces it from A.A.'s score, which leaves four Il. The Reverend Mr. Schregel's Sugar

points.

If A.A. win two doubles, and B.B. from the Stalks of Turkey Wheat.-Se. veral years ago, Mr. Schregel, Pastor of on

Pastor of one double, three points are in favor of Schwedt, tried to extract a syrup from

rom A.A.: likewise, when A.A. win one dou. the stalks of Turkey wheat, and the ex

ble and one single, and B.B. one single, periments made on a small quantity were

ė A.A. gain three points: when A.A. wia very successful. He sowed a wbole acre,

* one double and one single, and B.B. one Magdeburgb measure, (about 14 acre

double, A.A. gain two: when A.A. English) with five metzen, (somewhat

win two singles, and B.B. another sinmore than of a bushel) of this grain,

gle, A.A. gain two: when A.A. get which produced about one wispel, (or

two doubles, and B.B. none, A.A. must 57% London bushels,) in grain, and about gain

i gain a bumper, which consists of five 250 pounds of leaves, at the same tine po

è points; when A. A. get two singles, and that four horse-waggon loads of tur.

B.B. none, A. A. gain three: and, in the nips grew in the intermediate spaces.

instance of A. A. winning two singles, The heads, after the grain is taken off,

* and B.B. one double, A.A, consequently are a very profitable fuel, and vieid gain only one point thereby. ashes, of which one-fourth part is pot.

A.A, and B.B. ash. Mr. Schregel made a report on this subject to the king of Prussia, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. offering to publish instructions relative to the best mode of cultivation, and to V OUR Yorkshire correspondent of esplain the means by which the whole I last month, "A Constant Reader,' might be turned to the greatest advan, desires I would give him information on tage. His majesty commanded his privy the folloiring points: The species of counsellor, Mr. Thaer, to exainine the grapes formerly raised in the vineyards facts more closely, and to report ac- of this country; and whether there be any cuidingly.

treatise extant in our language, which

describes

SIR,

describes the method of training the vine, to make the wine, after we have provided adopted in the wine countries;" by which the grapes: that is to say, real wine, and expression (wine) I appreliend his ques not that wretched sugared and babytion to extend to the process of making slipslop, which passes muster under the the wine, that precious liquor beng denomination of home made wine; and naturally the object of the vine culture. wiricii, were it capable of making an

As to the species of grapes formerly in Anacreon drunk, it would be rather with ase, I know of no means by which such cructation than inspiration, Colonel wstormation can be obtained, since, not Thornton's late Tour in France, and the wichstanding our press is overladen with Ilistories of the Cape of Good Ilope, I tracts on the subject of almost every are think, give soine account both of training vicle of culture, it is remarkably short on the vine,. in those parts, and the process, that of the grupe. Perhaps some light of wine-making. The chief ditierence, might be obtained from the compilations as I understand, between their wine. of Barnaby Goge, Gervase Markham, manufacture and ours, and one reason and others of their time; and since, froin of their high superiority, is the total abe Bradley and Laurence, and froin the sence of water in their process, their county' histories of those districts more wine being the pure fermented juice of peculiarly adapted by soil and climate to the grape, with little or no additionat the vine culture. Speechley's Culture of ingredient but brandy; and in the rest the Vine, is the only treatise of the pre- wines of Portugal, a certain root, both sent tine, which has reached my know. for strength and colour sake. lerlec, and with his book I have yet pro- The pure grape-juice of this country, cceded no farther than the lille-page, so however, it is said on experience, will cannot ascertain w.ether it will furnish make nothing but vinegar, it turning the desired information. With respect sour in a very short time; in course, that to iny own opinion, formed on proba- our wine-makers are compelled to the biliey and some enquiry, the sorts of common process of boiling, and using graves used in our vineyards of old in water and sugar. This arises, we may Gloucestershire, Kent, Surry, Essex, and suppose, from the inferior quality of our other counties, were the white and black, grapes, which should yet be a motive to now found ainong the middling and lower us not to lower that quality still farther housekeeper's of those parts; the same by the addition of water; and I have varieties, in all probability, which are this year inade the experiment, pro. also found in Yorkshire.

viding, as far as my small skill will adThe method of training the vine in mit, to counteract that acidity which I the wine countries, I apprehend, is of really found to result, as I had been prelittle consequence to us, whose climate viously informed. Any farther inforwill not admit its adoption. In conse- mation on this, or other subjects, in my quence, we may always find the necessity power to communicate, shall always be of adhering to our established plan, of most heartily at the service of the confining the out-door culture to our Monthly Magazine.. buildings. unless indeed it might be exeM iddlesex, Dec. 16. , L. tended by the mode of sheltered espaliers, of which I purpose to make experiment. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, Mr. Gibbs, seedsinan to the Buard of Agriculture, I observed, several years MAIGHT not debtors, and those who since, had some vines at Brompton, WI are put in prison, but not to be trajvéd to stakes; but as I have not seen huny, as in America, be made to work them of late, I conclude, although I ain to support themselves? Might not much not certain, that they did not succeed. useful labour, in this way, be perforined However, granting the shelter of a wall in the Fleet, the King's Bench, and other is absolutely necessary to the vine in this prisons in England, as well as Scotland country, there are very many inhabitants and Ireland. Besides helping to support of both town and country, so well pro- themselves, and forming a fund, on their vided in that respect, as to be able to release froin prison, would not this keep raise yrapes enough to furnish their own many of them from idle pernicious table with wine. In the metropolis evell, habits, often the chief cause of their where, in some parts grapes boil black becoming prisoners at all. The making and white, succeed well, what an immen. a prisoner work, and live soberly, would sity might be grown! But the object is naturally tend to reforin him from lux.

SIR,

urious habits; for, where sobriety and Ye waters murmer not; ye groves your utility end, luxury begins.

shade Halthamstow,

- JAMES HALL. Withhold; and let the summer sun's hot ray Dec. 15, 1810.

Scorch him in punishment for such foul

wrong. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I cannot conclude upon this subject withe SIR,

out observing, that to neglect a plan of U AVING, during an excursion last such acknowledged beauty as the LeaIl suinmer through some of the sowes, is, in my opinion, no light offence. north-western counties, paid a visit to Such situations become in some sort a Hagley and the Leasowes, and having national concern, and the character of visited Hagley first, I was much struck Englishmen is involved in the disgrace. with the vast difference between the ap. What, shall it be said, that, at the coin. pearance of that and the Leasowes. Of mencement of the mineteenth century, Hagley, my opinion can be conveyed in our taste for the elegant and the beautiful, few words; it is elegance itself; and the is gone; that what has been nursed with very great neatness in which it is kept, so mach care, is neither regretted nor dnes great credit to Lord Lyttelton. As disapproved, in being suffered to go to for the Leasowes, it is in complete ruin, ruin! Forbid it genius! Forbid it men of as far as neglect can make it so. But taste! Forbid it inhabitant of the LeaI must say, that there exists yet a certain sowes! whoever thou art; and let not the ronantic air, not dependant upon order next suminer pass without some attempt or neatness, which struck me very forçi- to renew the former beauty and elegance bly indeed, and sufficient to make it now of the domains of the admired Shenwell worth the attention of all lovers of stone. picturesque beauty. The ascent by Whilst upon the subject of poetry and Miss Dolman's Uro is beautiful, and, in poetic ground, I may be permitted to fill Idy opinion, equals any description by up the corner of the sheet by a close poets or painters. Had there been an translation of those beautiful lines of Album in the house, I am not sure that I Catullus, quoted a few Magazines past, might not have offended hospitality by in your Lycæum of Ancient Literature, the following lines:

beginning “ Ul flos in septis secretus," &c. Rude truth, ingenuous, must the minstrel

Some copies, I observe, have “Nullo con. sing,

vulsus aratro;" your's is, “Nullo contusus Who midst these wilds hath wandered with aratro," in the next line. Perhaps the regret;

difference is not very material; however, Behold! o'er ruins wave our Shenstone's I prefer convulsus. groves,

As springs the flower in gardens fenc'd And the long grass round many a poet's urn,

around, Rackles and rots; where erst the classic seat Unknown to beasts, no plough disturbs the Which Lyttelton or Thomson deignid to

ground; grace,

Soft airs inprove it; sun and showers conLies down the gross-fed ox, or roving sheep

spire, Herd aad intrude; no welcome visitants,

Of youths and maidens many the desire; Sare to the wight whom Fate hath o'er these The same when cropp'd, its beauties all deshades

', cay_d, Upseemly plac'd; the waters roll reproof,

No more's desir'd by any youth or maid; And many a spring a gurgling ceasure So, while the virgin yet untouch'd remains, • heaves.

She's dear to friends, belov'd of all the Spirit of Shenstone, ne'er forgive the wrong,

Swains; The foul offence against the laws of Taste! But when dehower'd, her charms no more And ye, O sylvan shades! who even now,

appear, Amid the ruin rudely scattered round,

Or sweet to youth, or to the maidens dear. Inspire the song of other days, and wake

Jan. 2, 1811. SOMERSETIENSIS. Such better feeling, which even Shenstone's

self Might cavy the possession; mark the steps To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Of that unseemly wight, whose fuul neglect

SIR, Your very roots shall tell; O let him hear Nor linnet, nor the thrush, nor nightingale, I HAVE but just seen the reinark of Amongst your quivering leaves; but in their 1 Londinensis, p. 414. He calls no • stead

names, and I will reply with the respect Let the owl's daily and nocturnal hoot which he seems to merit. I beg him to For ever sound bis dwelling still be heard; recollect the Marine Society, the deci. MONTALY Mag, No. 209,

s1012

sion of Mr. Malthus on the question of of whom learned men had been as much War, and of the Bishop of Landaft, in mistaken, as they now are concerning reply to Payne. I apprehend that ibere the Celtæ and the Cimbri. is less vice in a line-of-battle ship than a “ The best author on the subject of manufactory; and if 150,000 persons are the Celtes,” says General Vallancey, "is at once thrown out of employ, burglaries, Monsieur Brigande, who, in 1762, pub&c. may be expected: I have seen num- lished a small pamphlet, addressed to bers of invalided soldiers, improved cha. the learned academies of Europe, uncier racters. As to Britanicus, who, in his the title of Dissertation sur les Céltes heavy, dry, obtuse basting, has railed at Brigantes; printed at Breghente dans le me, and contradicted all the great wri- Tirol.” terson law and political economy, The following letter is also on the Cel. though I put my name, and wrote with tes, which I address to those who will temper and good intention, he will of carefully examine the subject. course sing out,

It is granted by historians, that fathers, Rule Britania, Britania rule the waves,

and heads of families, were the first For Brions never shall be slaves.

sovereigns, and that the patriarchal was

the most ancient form of government. (I presume he will leave out a t, because

Hence mankind must have originally he has left out an n,) which I shall apo

I shall apo migrated in families; and tiine and neplaud greatly with Shakespeare's owl, cessity only, from the great number of echoing

these, formed nations. The first inha• Tu-whit, tu-whoo, a merry note ; bitants coming in families, brought no a degree of spirits, at which this hard- national name; nor were any denomiworking writer will be surprised.

nations first given to places, but such as T. D. FOSBROOKE.

their naturai situations implied. In time, however, tribes became numerous,

and more general communication with To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, each other became necessary; and now SIR,

denominations of villages and districts THERE present you with a subject were regulated, and more distinct appel

1 of some importance to all Europe, lations were given them. and to the bistory of the world. I send In Britain there were sew inland proit without coinparing its contents with vinces, and the maritime districts cook the properties of things relating to it. I synonymous names, expressive of their inust acknowledge, that in my first at- situations on the sea, in the same mantempting the following investigation, I ner as towns on streams, from the water had some apprehensions of failure, from which fowed by them. But provinces the consideration of the unsuccessful in kingdoms took also names from their labours of the learned of every age, on hills, from streams, and other features; the same subject. But when I reflected, and, as lands were to be portioned and that, of the inport of old names, scarcely distinguished by names, for knowing one one in five hundred had been righely part from another, so also would the rendered; and that among the attempts different districts of kingdoms be disa of the learned, the names which have tinguished, in which these portions were been explained in your Magazine had situated. Hence then were kingdoms been as much mistiken as lo import, very early divided into portions, and as the names Cella and Cymbri: when, soon after into provinces. But kingin tine, I have abundantly shewn, that doms were not only divided thus, but the ineaning of old names is no mys- continents must also have been thus ditery; that they were contrived in a vided into nations and kingdoms: and, as very early age of the world, and formed to the people of provinces would be given with great art, whilst mankind used the a provincial nanie, so also to the inhabi. same terms for the same fcatures' of tants of kingdoins would be given a Nature; and that at this day these terms, national name, corresponding with their or their roots, are to be found in the natural boundaries and situations. Celtic language : I say, when I consi- These principles, Mr. Editor, cannot dered these things, I saw no more reason reasonably be controverted. The word for relinquisling my enquiries on the Celtes has been supposed to be a naine words Ceila and Cymbri,than I had during given in the earliest ages to the descende iny investigation of the word Caledonii, ants of Gomer; and it hath always been who were ihe ancient Highlanders; but understood that his progeny peopled

nearly

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